Slide 1: “BAKED MULTI-NUTRIENT FEED BLOCK”
And “SUPPLEMENT & COMPLETE FODDER BLOCKS”
Ingredients, Production Process and
Benefits of Block Supplementation in Desert Livestock
Formulated, Produced and Evaluated at
Feed Technology Unit
Animal Nutrition Laboratory
Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342 003
2010 Urea-Molasses Wheat-bran Compact Feed Block : Urea-Molasses Wheat-bran Compact Feed Block Slide 3: Various Types of CompactFeed Blocks Ground P. juliflora pod-molasses Block Wheat bran-molasses Block C. ciliaris-molasses Block Slide 4: Chaffed-Lucerne block, Dried in: in open- and Covered-glass Solar-dryer Slide 5: Tharparkar Heifers
a Milch Cow - H.C. Bohra -Vijendra Kumar Licking Feed Block Tharparker Cow Licking Wheat bran-molasses Block : Tharparker Cow Licking Wheat bran-molasses Block Slide 9: Tharparker Heifer Licking the Block Slide 10: Tharparkar Bull Feeding upon Compact Feed Block -Vijendra Kumar Slide 12: Buffalo Feeding on
Multi-nutrient Feed Block - H.C. Bohra - A. K. Patel Block Feeding in Buffalo
1. Increased Feed intake and Water intake, 2. Corrected pica, 3. Corrected rumination
4. Daily milk yield increased by 23% (7.2-8.8 lit).
5. 1, 2-kg block in a buffalo last for 5-days. Slide 13: Black-faced Marwari Sheep Licking the Block Slide 14: - H.C. Bohra Horse Licking Urea-free Equid Feed-block Slide 15: A Kachchhi Horse Licking Urea-free Equid Block Slide 16: I. Energy Sources
II. Nitrogen Sources:
II.1. Non-Protein Nitrogenous Source
II.2. Vegetable or True Protein
III. Mineral Sources:
III.1. Common Salt
III.2. Mineral Mixture
IV. Structural Components
V. Binder INGREDIENTS Slide 17: TYPES OF INGREDIENTS
I. Energy Sources II. Nitrogen Sources: II.1. Non-Protein Nitrogenous Source II.2. Vegetable or True Protein III. Mineral Sources: III.1. Common Salt III.2. Mineral Mixture III.3. Dolomite IV. Structural Components V. Binder I. II.1. II.2. III.1. III.2. III.3. IV. V. I. ENERGY SOURCES : I. ENERGY SOURCES Molasses: Sugarcane or Sugar beet, which ever is available, can be used for feed block production but cane molasses is better than the beet molasses. In place of molasses, cattle feed grade jaggery can also be used. Even Maize extractives or Maize strip liquor (maize starch industry by-product) can be used for production of multi-nutrient feed block. II. NITROGEN SOURCES : II. NITROGEN SOURCES Non-protein nitrogenous source: Fertilizer grade, granular urea can be used.
Vegetable or true protein: Any de-oiled seed cake or meal can be used. De-oiled Soybean seed meal is the best choice but instead of that, whole-ground cotton seed, til cake, guar meal (korma or Churi), Maize gluten meal can also be used. III. MINERAL SOURCES : III. MINERAL SOURCES 1. Common salt: Any type of powdered, non-iodized (as iodine will be supplied through the vitamin-mineral mixture) common salt can be used.
2. Mineral mixture: Vitamin-mineral mixture, containing vitamin A, D3, E, and lysine and methionine amino acids, is the best for block production. Alternatively, mineral mixture containing calcium and phosphorus, and fortified with vitamin A can also be used. Plain mineral mixture (devoid of vitamins and amino-acids) or even Dicalcium phosphate can be used in place of mineral mixture.
3. Dolomite: It is complex carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Alternatively, calcite can be used instead of dolomite. IV. STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS : IV. STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS Wheat bran is best, as it not only provides structural stability to the block but also a rich source of structural and soluble carbohydrates, and B-complex vitamins. Wheat bran can be replaced by any of the following feed ingredients: (1) De-oiled rice bran and/or (2) Rice polishings (3) Malt sprouts (4) Bruised (pearl) barley by-products, which is a mixture of barley bran and husk (5) mixture of Rice polishings and bajra husk; dried powdered leaves of (6) Neem (Azadirachta indica) (7) Ardu (Ailanthus excelsa) (8) Prosopis juliflora/Acacia tortilis chaffing (9) Ground dhaman grass (10) Maize gluten feed etc. V. BINDER : V. BINDER Several INORGANIC BINDER like Cement, Gypsum, Bentonite/Sodium bentonate, Oxides of Calcium and Magnesium are in use as compact feed block binder. But we, in our formulations, using ORGANIC BINDER i.e., Guar-gum-dust, a by-product of guar-gum industry. Ground Fenugreek seeds can also be used as binder. Slide 23: 1 3+4+7 6 8 7 6 2.1 5 4 3 2.2 1. Molasses 2.1. Urea granules 2.2. Urea solution 3. Dolomite 4. Vitamin-mineral mixture 5. Guar gum dust 6. Guar churi 7. Common salt 8. Wheat bran, and 3+4+7, Mixture of salts. INGREDIENTS (No. 8): Slide 24: (i) Storage bins, (ii) Balance or weighing scale, (iii) Heating device: LPG gas/fuel-wood/coal stove or electric heater, (iv) Wooden or iron moulds, (v) Feed-block press machine: Hand operated screw type/foot press/Electric operated hydraulic block press (vi) Dryer: Hybrid type solar-cum-electric/Solar dryer fitted with exhaust hood/hot air draft type electric oven/Industrial oven/Hot air blast type, diesel furnace-oven. GADGETS AND EQUIPMENTS Collapsible Iron Mould & Screw-type Block Press Machine : Collapsible Iron Mould & Screw-type Block Press Machine Slide 26: Institute’s Feed-block press machine Farmer’s Feed-block press machine Slide 27: Collapsible Wooden-Mould for Feed-block Production Slide 28: Low Cost Solar Feed-block Dryer Slide 30: 1. Mixing
Ingredients : 1. Weight 1.0 kg granular, fertilizer grade urea in glass or steel container and heat it with 500 ml (half litre) water, till it dissolves. Avoid over heating. While hot
2. Pour this solution (I) into a plastic tub containing 10.400 kg molasses, and mix with steel spoon. Slide 32: 3. Prepare mixture of 1.0 kg common salt, 1.0 kg vitamin-mineral mixture, and 1.0 kg dolomitic lime or calcite. Slide 33: 4. Pour all-mineral mixture into urea-molasses solution and go on mixing till homogenous suspension of urea-molasses-mineral is obtained. Slide 34: 5. Take 7.400 kg wheat bran in a large sized plastic tub and add to it 0.500 kg de-oiled soybean meal or any oil-seed cake. Mix well. Slide 35: 6. To this mixture, pour suspension of urea-molasses mineral ingredients (III), and mix all these contents till there is coating of (III), over the wheat bran-soya meal mixture. Slide 36: 7.At last, slowly, sprinkle 240 grams of guar gum dust over the above mixture (IV) and mix thoroughly all the ingredients. Slide 37: 2. Pressing of
Ingredient Mixture Slide 38: Weigh 2.350 kg of above mixture. Slide 39: Transfer weighed mixture into the iron mould, and press the material with screw type hand press machine Slide 40: Allow to keep the pressed material in the mould for 24 hours. Slide 41: Alternatively mixture can be pressed in wooden mould. Slide 42: 3. Drying of Pressed Material Slide 43: or non-draught or draught type industrial electric oven
at 60-65C, till it dries completely. The dried block
should not contain more than 15% moisture. Dry the pressed material (VI) in:
Solar drier/Hybrid electric-cum-solar drier Slide 44: Proto-type Solar Dryer
Hybrid-type solar dryer
(Loaded with feed-block and mixture) Low-cost Feed-block Dryer
(Loaded with chopped Lucerne) Slide 45: 4. Packaging Slide 46: Dried feed block can be packed in a printed-paper/polythene wrapper. Finally 10 blocks can be packed in a printed jute bag or a paper cartoon. Comparison of NDDB’s Uro-mol and CAZRI’s Multi-Nutrient Block : Comparison of NDDB’s Uro-mol and CAZRI’s Multi-Nutrient Block Slide 48: Products of CAZRI-MNB Unit Nutrient –granules (nutri-nules) Vitamin -mineral salt lick Maize-starch industry by-products block Molasses- wheat bran block Formulations : Formulations Urea-Molasses Wheat-bran Compact Feed Block : Urea-Molasses Wheat-bran Compact Feed Block Slide 51: MULTI – NUTRIENT FEED
BLOCK - H.C. Bohra Slide 52: Various Types of CompactFeed Blocks Ground P. juliflora pod-molasses Block Wheat bran-molasses Block C. ciliaris-molasses Block Slide 53: Wheat bran- molasses Block Pearl Barley by- product molasses Block Ground P. juliflora pod-molasses Block Slide 56: Chaffed-Lucerne block, Dried in: in open- and Covered-glass Solar-dryer Slide 57: - H.C. Bohra INGREDIENTS
Chaffed Cenchrus ciliaris Straw, Molasses, Urea, Common salt, Dolomite, Vitamin-mineral mixture, Bentonite INGREDIENTS
Chaffed Cenchrus ciliaris Straw, Molasses, Urea, Common salt, Dolomite, Vitamin-mineral mixture, Guar-gum dust Slide 58: Feed Scarcity
Fodder Processing Technologies Slide 59: - H.C. Bohra Farmers in Action: Construction of Fodder Storage Slide 60: - H.C. Bohra Bajra Stover Stack Slide 61: - H.C. Bohra Fodder Store Slide 62: - H.C. Bohra Slide 63: - H.C. Bohra Pachaya: Long Term Storage of Stovers Slide 65: I. Chaffed grass based Complete Fodder Blocks II. Chaffed Lucerne Blocks Composition: For supplement-block (Roughage: Concentrate, 50:50; Complete block (70:30). Concentrate: 20% pearl millet seeds, ground; 15% Wheat bran; 21% Tumba seed cake; 15% Raida seed cake; 15% guar meal; 1% common salt; 1% mineral mixture; 10% molasses and 2% Urea.
Freshly harvested Lucerne (15% DM), chaffed, dried, preferably in shade/sun screen net, and compressed to made block. Mobile Animal Feed Block Formation Machine (I) : Mobile Animal Feed Block Formation Machine (I) Weight: Approximately, 2.0 t
Mounted on 4-pneumatic wheeled, 10ftx6ft tractor trolly
Operate through 6.5 bhp, air cooled “Field Marshal” brand diesel engine
Capacity of diesel engine tank: 10 lit
Rate of diesel consumption: 1.25 lit/hr
Purchase cost: Rs. 4.20 lakh (March, 2005)
Compressing cylinder operates on ENKLON 68/ equivalent grade hydralic oil
Capacity of hydralic oil tank: 200 lit
Working pressure of hydraulic press: 3000 psi
Man power requirements: 2 persons, 1-to treat the fodder and feed into hopper, and 2nd to operate the machine
Capacity to produce fodder blocks: 30-45 blocks/hr
Weight & measurements of blocks: Approximately, 1.25-2.0 kg of 6inchx6inch x variable, thickness
Bulk density: 0.4 gm cm3 (minimum)
Storage: 1-kg, 28 fodder blocks can be stored in one empty fertilizer bag
Bulk storage: 10mx5m asbestos cement shade, constructed on 10mx10m cement concrete platform, 2-feet elevated from the ground, can be used for open stacking of fodder blocks. These may be covered with black polythene sheet. Preferably store in rat and insect proof shade.
(Continue) Mobile Animal Feed Block Formation Machine (II) : Mobile Animal Feed Block Formation Machine (II) Crop residues which can be used in fodder block production:
Chopped stovers of Bajra, Sorghum, Mustard, Clusterbean, Pulses
Chopped straws of Wheat, Barley, Rice, Chopped grasses, Green fodder, Sugarcane tops and leaves, Tree leaves, Rangeland weeds etc.
Advantages of Conversion of crop residues into fodder blocks:
Compressed fodder requires less space.
Volume reduces to 1/6. Thus 6 times more fodder can be transported in the truck.
More fodder can be handled with ease.
Since material is more compact, losses on transportation as well as during feeding are reduced considerably.
In most of the cases crop residues are enriched with essential nutrients, then compressed. Such blocks have high nutritive value than untreated crop residues.
IARI formulation: 60% straw, 10% molasses and 30% concentrates.
CAZRI’s Formulation/block: 100 gm Molasses, 900 gm Wheat straw, 12 gm common salt, 7.5 gm mineral mixture, 1875 μg (6244 IU) Retinol.
4 such blocks can be given to a cattle to meet out daily requirements of the essential nutrients. CAZRI Feed Technology Unit : CAZRI Feed Technology Unit MNM dried in the open sun Slide 69: Multi-nutrient Feed Block Prod. Technology Slide 70: Mash Feed Production Machineries Slide 71: Transfer weighed mixture into the iron mould, and press the material with screw type hand press machine TMR/Suppl. Pellet-feed Prod. Machineries Slide 72: Fodder Block Production Machine Complete fodder Block: 70% dry fodder+30% Concentrate Feed Technology Machineries : Feed Technology Machineries Slide 74: M i n e r a l B l o c ks Mineral block: Ingredients and composition (5 kg block)* *Press it in Mobile fodder block making machine. 2.5 kg block can be produced using Screw type hand press. Composition of various complete- and Supplement- fodder blocks : Composition of various complete- and Supplement- fodder blocks Effect of supplementation of Feed-block in Rathi Cattle : Effect of supplementation of Feed-block in Rathi Cattle Wheat straw or (control)/and (experimental) feed-block supplementation in Rathi cattle : Wheat straw or (control)/and (experimental) feed-block supplementation in Rathi cattle *Wheat straw alone, ** Wheat straw+700 gm/d/animal feed block. Composition of Concentrate Mash Feed for Lactating Does : Composition of Concentrate Mash Feed for Lactating Does Slide 79: Black-faced Marwari Sheep Licking the Block Effect of feed-block supplementation in Sheep : Effect of feed-block supplementation in Sheep Nutri-nules supplementation in Marwari ewes : Nutri-nules supplementation in Marwari ewes Slide 82: Marwari doe Nutrient-granules supplementation in Marwari goats : Nutrient-granules supplementation in Marwari goats Kids and does, in addition to 8 hr grazing on Ziziphus scrub land, offered 75 and 150 gm/d/animal nutrient-nules, respectively, for 90 days period. Slide 84: Cost Estimation Slide 86: On- and off-farm training to farmers:
on Production of :
Multi-nutrient feed block, and
Nutrient-granules Slide 87: DST, Govt. Raj. Sponsored Training Programme on Production of Multi-nutrient Feed block Slide 88: CAZRI’s Feed-block at KVK, RRS Pali Dr. P. P. Rohilla and Mahendra Chaudary with MNB produced by the Farmer Slide 89: At Manai, IVLP Village Off-farm Farmers’ Training on Production of Multi-nutrient Feed-block & Nutrient-granules Slide 90: Off-farm Training at Farmer’s Field Slide 91: 4 Mixing and Pressing of Feed-block Ingredients Feed block press machine used by the farmers : Feed block press machine used by the farmers Slide 93: Farmers Explaining the Benefits of CAZRI’s Feed-block Production Technology Slide 94: Veterinary officer explaining the importance of mineral supplementation in livestock Slide 96: Scientists, Veterinarians and University Teachers - Viewing Farmer’s Feed-block Production Facility Slide 97: Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur
Dr. H.C. Bohra, Principal Scientist, Animal Nutrition
Dr. A.K. Patel, Senior Scientist, Livestock Production Management
Dr. B.K. Mathur, Senior Scientist, Animal Nutrition
Er. Dinesh Mishra, Principal Scientist Agriculture Engineering
Regional Research Station, CAZRI, Bikaner
Dr. B.C. Mondal, Scientist Selection Grade, Animal Nutrition
Regional Research Station, CAZRI, Pali Marwar
Dr. P.P. Rohilla, Senior Scientist, Livestock Production Management
Mr. Mahendra Choudhary, Technical Officer
Farmers Who Adopted CAZRI’s Technologies of :
Feed-block & Nutri-nules Production: 1. Shri Deda Ram Patel, Village: Ghajangarh, Tehsil: Rohit, District Pali Marwar (Rajasthan) Tel. :02932-244257.
Nutri-nules Production: 1. Shri Pema Ram Patel, Village: Aratia, Tehsil: Rohit, District Pali Marwar (Rajasthan); 2. Shri Ghesu Lal Chaudary, Village: Sonaimanghi, Tehsil & District Pali Marwar (Rajasthan), Tel. 02932-244820. Contributors Slide 99: Thanks Concept: H.C.Bohra; Animation: Mahenra Vyas (2004)