Feed-Block for Arid and Semi-arid Livetock

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“BAKED MULTI-NUTRIENT FEED BLOCK” “Multi-nutrient mixture” And “SUPPLEMENT & COMPLETE FODDER BLOCKS” Ingredients, Production Process and Benefits of Block Supplementation in Desert Livestock Formulated, Produced and Evaluated at Feed Technology Unit Animal Nutrition Laboratory Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342 003 2010

Urea-Molasses Wheat-bran Compact Feed Block : 

Urea-Molasses Wheat-bran Compact Feed Block

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Various Types of CompactFeed Blocks Ground P. juliflora pod-molasses Block Wheat bran-molasses Block C. ciliaris-molasses Block

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Chaffed-Lucerne block, Dried in: in open- and Covered-glass Solar-dryer

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Tharparkar Heifers and a Milch Cow - H.C. Bohra -Vijendra Kumar Licking Feed Block

Tharparker Cow Licking Wheat bran-molasses Block : 

Tharparker Cow Licking Wheat bran-molasses Block

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Tharparker Heifer Licking the Block

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Tharparkar Bull Feeding upon Compact Feed Block -Vijendra Kumar

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Buffalo Feeding on Wheat-Bran Molasses Multi-nutrient Feed Block - H.C. Bohra - A. K. Patel Block Feeding in Buffalo 1. Increased Feed intake and Water intake, 2. Corrected pica, 3. Corrected rumination 4. Daily milk yield increased by 23% (7.2-8.8 lit). 5. 1, 2-kg block in a buffalo last for 5-days.

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Black-faced Marwari Sheep Licking the Block

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- H.C. Bohra Horse Licking Urea-free Equid Feed-block

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A Kachchhi Horse Licking Urea-free Equid Block

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I. Energy Sources II. Nitrogen Sources: II.1. Non-Protein Nitrogenous Source II.2. Vegetable or True Protein III. Mineral Sources: III.1. Common Salt III.2. Mineral Mixture III.3. Dolomite IV. Structural Components V. Binder INGREDIENTS

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TYPES OF INGREDIENTS I. Energy Sources II. Nitrogen Sources: II.1. Non-Protein Nitrogenous Source II.2. Vegetable or True Protein III. Mineral Sources: III.1. Common Salt III.2. Mineral Mixture III.3. Dolomite IV. Structural Components V. Binder I. II.1. II.2. III.1. III.2. III.3. IV. V.

I. ENERGY SOURCES : 

I. ENERGY SOURCES Molasses: Sugarcane or Sugar beet, which ever is available, can be used for feed block production but cane molasses is better than the beet molasses. In place of molasses, cattle feed grade jaggery can also be used. Even Maize extractives or Maize strip liquor (maize starch industry by-product) can be used for production of multi-nutrient feed block.

II. NITROGEN SOURCES : 

II. NITROGEN SOURCES Non-protein nitrogenous source: Fertilizer grade, granular urea can be used. Vegetable or true protein: Any de-oiled seed cake or meal can be used. De-oiled Soybean seed meal is the best choice but instead of that, whole-ground cotton seed, til cake, guar meal (korma or Churi), Maize gluten meal can also be used.

III. MINERAL SOURCES : 

III. MINERAL SOURCES 1. Common salt: Any type of powdered, non-iodized (as iodine will be supplied through the vitamin-mineral mixture) common salt can be used. 2. Mineral mixture: Vitamin-mineral mixture, containing vitamin A, D3, E, and lysine and methionine amino acids, is the best for block production. Alternatively, mineral mixture containing calcium and phosphorus, and fortified with vitamin A can also be used. Plain mineral mixture (devoid of vitamins and amino-acids) or even Dicalcium phosphate can be used in place of mineral mixture. 3. Dolomite: It is complex carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Alternatively, calcite can be used instead of dolomite.

IV. STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS : 

IV. STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS Wheat bran is best, as it not only provides structural stability to the block but also a rich source of structural and soluble carbohydrates, and B-complex vitamins. Wheat bran can be replaced by any of the following feed ingredients: (1) De-oiled rice bran and/or (2) Rice polishings (3) Malt sprouts (4) Bruised (pearl) barley by-products, which is a mixture of barley bran and husk (5) mixture of Rice polishings and bajra husk; dried powdered leaves of (6) Neem (Azadirachta indica) (7) Ardu (Ailanthus excelsa) (8) Prosopis juliflora/Acacia tortilis chaffing (9) Ground dhaman grass (10) Maize gluten feed etc.

V. BINDER : 

V. BINDER Several INORGANIC BINDER like Cement, Gypsum, Bentonite/Sodium bentonate, Oxides of Calcium and Magnesium are in use as compact feed block binder. But we, in our formulations, using ORGANIC BINDER i.e., Guar-gum-dust, a by-product of guar-gum industry. Ground Fenugreek seeds can also be used as binder.

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1 3+4+7 6 8 7 6 2.1 5 4 3 2.2 1. Molasses 2.1. Urea granules 2.2. Urea solution 3. Dolomite 4. Vitamin-mineral mixture 5. Guar gum dust 6. Guar churi 7. Common salt 8. Wheat bran, and 3+4+7, Mixture of salts. INGREDIENTS (No. 8):

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(i) Storage bins, (ii) Balance or weighing scale, (iii) Heating device: LPG gas/fuel-wood/coal stove or electric heater, (iv) Wooden or iron moulds, (v) Feed-block press machine: Hand operated screw type/foot press/Electric operated hydraulic block press (vi) Dryer: Hybrid type solar-cum-electric/Solar dryer fitted with exhaust hood/hot air draft type electric oven/Industrial oven/Hot air blast type, diesel furnace-oven. GADGETS AND EQUIPMENTS

Collapsible Iron Mould & Screw-type Block Press Machine : 

Collapsible Iron Mould & Screw-type Block Press Machine

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Institute’s Feed-block press machine Farmer’s Feed-block press machine

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Collapsible Wooden-Mould for Feed-block Production

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Low Cost Solar Feed-block Dryer

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1. Mixing of Ingredients

1. Weight 1.0 kg granular, fertilizer grade urea in glass or steel container and heat it with 500 ml (half litre) water, till it dissolves. Avoid over heating. While hot 2. Pour this solution (I) into a plastic tub containing 10.400 kg molasses, and mix with steel spoon.

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3. Prepare mixture of 1.0 kg common salt, 1.0 kg vitamin-mineral mixture, and 1.0 kg dolomitic lime or calcite.

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4. Pour all-mineral mixture into urea-molasses solution and go on mixing till homogenous suspension of urea-molasses-mineral is obtained.

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5. Take 7.400 kg wheat bran in a large sized plastic tub and add to it 0.500 kg de-oiled soybean meal or any oil-seed cake. Mix well.

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6. To this mixture, pour suspension of urea-molasses mineral ingredients (III), and mix all these contents till there is coating of (III), over the wheat bran-soya meal mixture.

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7.At last, slowly, sprinkle 240 grams of guar gum dust over the above mixture (IV) and mix thoroughly all the ingredients.

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2. Pressing of Ingredient Mixture

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Weigh 2.350 kg of above mixture.

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Transfer weighed mixture into the iron mould, and press the material with screw type hand press machine

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Allow to keep the pressed material in the mould for 24 hours.

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Alternatively mixture can be pressed in wooden mould.

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3. Drying of Pressed Material

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or non-draught or draught type industrial electric oven at 60-65C, till it dries completely. The dried block should not contain more than 15% moisture. Dry the pressed material (VI) in: Solar drier/Hybrid electric-cum-solar drier

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Proto-type Solar Dryer Hybrid-type solar dryer (Loaded with feed-block and mixture) Low-cost Feed-block Dryer (Loaded with chopped Lucerne)

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4. Packaging

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Dried feed block can be packed in a printed-paper/polythene wrapper. Finally 10 blocks can be packed in a printed jute bag or a paper cartoon.

Comparison of NDDB’s Uro-mol and CAZRI’s Multi-Nutrient Block : 

Comparison of NDDB’s Uro-mol and CAZRI’s Multi-Nutrient Block

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Products of CAZRI-MNB Unit Nutrient –granules (nutri-nules) Vitamin -mineral salt lick Maize-starch industry by-products block Molasses- wheat bran block

Formulations : 

Formulations

Urea-Molasses Wheat-bran Compact Feed Block : 

Urea-Molasses Wheat-bran Compact Feed Block

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MULTI – NUTRIENT FEED BLOCK - H.C. Bohra

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Various Types of CompactFeed Blocks Ground P. juliflora pod-molasses Block Wheat bran-molasses Block C. ciliaris-molasses Block

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Wheat bran- molasses Block Pearl Barley by- product molasses Block Ground P. juliflora pod-molasses Block

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Chaffed-Lucerne block, Dried in: in open- and Covered-glass Solar-dryer

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- H.C. Bohra INGREDIENTS Chaffed Cenchrus ciliaris Straw, Molasses, Urea, Common salt, Dolomite, Vitamin-mineral mixture, Bentonite INGREDIENTS Chaffed Cenchrus ciliaris Straw, Molasses, Urea, Common salt, Dolomite, Vitamin-mineral mixture, Guar-gum dust

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Feed Scarcity to Feed Security Traditional Wisdom and Fodder Processing Technologies

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- H.C. Bohra Farmers in Action: Construction of Fodder Storage

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- H.C. Bohra Bajra Stover Stack

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- H.C. Bohra Fodder Store

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- H.C. Bohra

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- H.C. Bohra Pachaya: Long Term Storage of Stovers

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I. Chaffed grass based Complete Fodder Blocks II. Chaffed Lucerne Blocks Composition: For supplement-block (Roughage: Concentrate, 50:50; Complete block (70:30). Concentrate: 20% pearl millet seeds, ground; 15% Wheat bran; 21% Tumba seed cake; 15% Raida seed cake; 15% guar meal; 1% common salt; 1% mineral mixture; 10% molasses and 2% Urea. Freshly harvested Lucerne (15% DM), chaffed, dried, preferably in shade/sun screen net, and compressed to made block.

Mobile Animal Feed Block Formation Machine (I) : 

Mobile Animal Feed Block Formation Machine (I) Weight: Approximately, 2.0 t Mounted on 4-pneumatic wheeled, 10ftx6ft tractor trolly Operate through 6.5 bhp, air cooled “Field Marshal” brand diesel engine Capacity of diesel engine tank: 10 lit Rate of diesel consumption: 1.25 lit/hr Purchase cost: Rs. 4.20 lakh (March, 2005) Compressing cylinder operates on ENKLON 68/ equivalent grade hydralic oil Capacity of hydralic oil tank: 200 lit Working pressure of hydraulic press: 3000 psi Man power requirements: 2 persons, 1-to treat the fodder and feed into hopper, and 2nd to operate the machine Capacity to produce fodder blocks: 30-45 blocks/hr Weight & measurements of blocks: Approximately, 1.25-2.0 kg of 6inchx6inch x variable, thickness Bulk density: 0.4 gm cm3 (minimum) Storage: 1-kg, 28 fodder blocks can be stored in one empty fertilizer bag Bulk storage: 10mx5m asbestos cement shade, constructed on 10mx10m cement concrete platform, 2-feet elevated from the ground, can be used for open stacking of fodder blocks. These may be covered with black polythene sheet. Preferably store in rat and insect proof shade. (Continue)

Mobile Animal Feed Block Formation Machine (II) : 

Mobile Animal Feed Block Formation Machine (II) Crop residues which can be used in fodder block production: Chopped stovers of Bajra, Sorghum, Mustard, Clusterbean, Pulses Chopped straws of Wheat, Barley, Rice, Chopped grasses, Green fodder, Sugarcane tops and leaves, Tree leaves, Rangeland weeds etc. Advantages of Conversion of crop residues into fodder blocks: Compressed fodder requires less space. Volume reduces to 1/6. Thus 6 times more fodder can be transported in the truck. More fodder can be handled with ease. Since material is more compact, losses on transportation as well as during feeding are reduced considerably. In most of the cases crop residues are enriched with essential nutrients, then compressed. Such blocks have high nutritive value than untreated crop residues. IARI formulation: 60% straw, 10% molasses and 30% concentrates. CAZRI’s Formulation/block: 100 gm Molasses, 900 gm Wheat straw, 12 gm common salt, 7.5 gm mineral mixture, 1875 μg (6244 IU) Retinol. 4 such blocks can be given to a cattle to meet out daily requirements of the essential nutrients.

CAZRI Feed Technology Unit : 

CAZRI Feed Technology Unit MNM dried in the open sun

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Multi-nutrient Feed Block Prod. Technology

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Mash Feed Production Machineries

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Transfer weighed mixture into the iron mould, and press the material with screw type hand press machine TMR/Suppl. Pellet-feed Prod. Machineries

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Fodder Block Production Machine Complete fodder Block: 70% dry fodder+30% Concentrate

Feed Technology Machineries : 

Feed Technology Machineries

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M i n e r a l B l o c ks Mineral block: Ingredients and composition (5 kg block)* *Press it in Mobile fodder block making machine. 2.5 kg block can be produced using Screw type hand press.

Composition of various complete- and Supplement- fodder blocks : 

Composition of various complete- and Supplement- fodder blocks

Effect of supplementation of Feed-block in Rathi Cattle : 

Effect of supplementation of Feed-block in Rathi Cattle

Wheat straw or (control)/and (experimental) feed-block supplementation in Rathi cattle : 

Wheat straw or (control)/and (experimental) feed-block supplementation in Rathi cattle *Wheat straw alone, ** Wheat straw+700 gm/d/animal feed block.

Composition of Concentrate Mash Feed for Lactating Does : 

Composition of Concentrate Mash Feed for Lactating Does

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Black-faced Marwari Sheep Licking the Block

Effect of feed-block supplementation in Sheep : 

Effect of feed-block supplementation in Sheep

Nutri-nules supplementation in Marwari ewes : 

Nutri-nules supplementation in Marwari ewes

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Marwari doe

Nutrient-granules supplementation in Marwari goats : 

Nutrient-granules supplementation in Marwari goats Kids and does, in addition to 8 hr grazing on Ziziphus scrub land, offered 75 and 150 gm/d/animal nutrient-nules, respectively, for 90 days period.

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Cost Estimation

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On- and off-farm training to farmers: on Production of : Multi-nutrient feed block, and Nutrient-granules

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DST, Govt. Raj. Sponsored Training Programme on Production of Multi-nutrient Feed block

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CAZRI’s Feed-block at KVK, RRS Pali Dr. P. P. Rohilla and Mahendra Chaudary with MNB produced by the Farmer

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At Manai, IVLP Village Off-farm Farmers’ Training on Production of Multi-nutrient Feed-block & Nutrient-granules

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Off-farm Training at Farmer’s Field

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4 Mixing and Pressing of Feed-block Ingredients

Feed block press machine used by the farmers : 

Feed block press machine used by the farmers

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Farmers Explaining the Benefits of CAZRI’s Feed-block Production Technology

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Veterinary officer explaining the importance of mineral supplementation in livestock

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Scientists, Veterinarians and University Teachers - Viewing Farmer’s Feed-block Production Facility

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Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur Dr. H.C. Bohra, Principal Scientist, Animal Nutrition Dr. A.K. Patel, Senior Scientist, Livestock Production Management Dr. B.K. Mathur, Senior Scientist, Animal Nutrition Er. Dinesh Mishra, Principal Scientist Agriculture Engineering Regional Research Station, CAZRI, Bikaner Dr. B.C. Mondal, Scientist Selection Grade, Animal Nutrition Regional Research Station, CAZRI, Pali Marwar Dr. P.P. Rohilla, Senior Scientist, Livestock Production Management Mr. Mahendra Choudhary, Technical Officer Farmers Who Adopted CAZRI’s Technologies of : Feed-block & Nutri-nules Production: 1. Shri Deda Ram Patel, Village: Ghajangarh, Tehsil: Rohit, District Pali Marwar (Rajasthan) Tel. :02932-244257. Nutri-nules Production: 1. Shri Pema Ram Patel, Village: Aratia, Tehsil: Rohit, District Pali Marwar (Rajasthan); 2. Shri Ghesu Lal Chaudary, Village: Sonaimanghi, Tehsil & District Pali Marwar (Rajasthan), Tel. 02932-244820. Contributors

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Thanks Concept: H.C.Bohra; Animation: Mahenra Vyas (2004)

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