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Sociology I

Professor Nanette Espina Calaor : 

Professor Nanette Espina Calaor Members : Mark Frederick Leoncio Jemil Sodsod Beverly Reyes Niza Alipo – on Janine Irene Dacquel Jamella Tulagan Calvin Fernan Singson

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“ Education purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one. “

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Education * Is a preparation for effective participation in social relations. * The consciously controlled process whereby changes in behavior are produced in the person and through the person in a group. Formal and Non-formal Education Formal Education – is learning through interaction with others in the group. Non – formal Education - sets of definite earning goals and objectives, generally making use of a more flexible curriculum less rigid admission procedures, and more participative teaching methods.

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Education in Society - In simple societies, the family provides education , assisted by elder members of the community who are called specialists, like the magicians, witchdoctors, Shamans or priests. - The emergence of a “ specialized agency” became inevitable and the school developed as the epitome of formal education. - Mid-1st century were printing press were invented. The printing press became an instrument in the mass production of reading materials.

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The Function of Education 1. To transmit the cultural heritage. The transmission of the cultural heritage remains the traditional function of education 2. To help individuals select social roles and to train them for the roles they have chosen Education is also aimed at developing new social patterns that will bring about different specializations. 3. To integrate into the cultural mainstream the various subcultures and identity. The function of education to socially integrate different groups. 4. To serve as source of social and cultural inovation. School activities should be geared towards the development of curiosity and initiative with the students.

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Education in the philippines ~ Philippine education has been influenced by the spanish and american colonizers. ~ The school established during the spanish colonial period were the Royal College of San Jose, founded in 1605. And the College of Sto. Tomas, established around 1610 and converted into a university In 1645. In 1991, the report of the Joint Congressional Commission To study and review Philippine Education, or EDCOM, concluded that the equality of education was declining and traced the Problem to 2 main resons: first- the government was not Investing enough to our education system. Second- the educatin department was poorly managed.

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Computers and the Internet *The internet, which links computers throughout the world, has made its impact on information technology *In 1995, the internet covered only more than 2% of the world’s population and grew over short periods. *Communication technologies is still developing rapidly and converging into sets of information technology.

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“Any child born into the hugely consumptionist way of life so common in the industrial world will have an impact that is, on average, many times more destructive than that of a child born in the developing world. ”

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Population and development -- the issues on the relation between population and development have been raised several times. The consequences of overpopulation are: Climatological changes Coastal flooding Desertification Water shortage Alteration of the patterns of disease Consequential poverty at the lowering of standard of quality life. -- the differences in views regarding the relation between Population and development of life.

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Study of Population The study of population is the concern of sociologist and social scientists *Population refers to the number of persons occupying a certain Geographic area. *Demography is the study of size, distribution, compostion and change in population.

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Population Growth of the World -- Human population grew slowly. It took more than a million years to reach more than one billion people at the beginnig of the 19th century. By the 1990’s there were more than five billion worldwide, and at the end of the 20th century the population was six billion. Malthusian Theory * two centuries ago, english economist Thomas Malthus argued that population grows geometrically, which add more people every year *Malthus believes that the increase in population outgrows increases In the food supply.

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Population and economic development *The consequence of population growth are the following: high fertility societies are not able to provide good health, education, and welfare programs; The process of industrialization is slowed down; technology is costly and uncertain. The reason for slow economic growth are global competitions, shortage of capital, competing economic and social goals.

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Reducing the rate of Childbearing in england birthrates were reduced through a volunteer mode. Improvement in the medical field and public sanitation brought down the death rates. *China represents the involuntary model of fertility reduction. China was a poor agricultural country with a huge population.

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Process in Population change *Fertility – refers to the actual number of children born to a women *Mortality– refers to the number of deaths per 1000 of the mid-year population it is measured by the crude death rate. *Life Expectancy– refers to the average no. of years a person is expected to live from time of birth.

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migration The movement of people for permanent residency Population change affected. -- people migrate for seven reasons: Economic purposes Political Social Psychological Religions Educational medical MIGRATION IS INTERNAL OR INTERNATIONAL Internal migration- spatial movement of people within the country. International migration- is the movement from one country to another.

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Age Structure refers to the proportion of people at the different age levels. *affected by the rates of fertility and mortality. Young population needs Food Education Health facilities Old population needs *Pension plan *Senior citizen privileges *Retirement communities *Institution and recreational programs for the aged.

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Sex Composition *Affects the social and economic conditions of society. Sex ratio Computed by counting the numbers of males per 100 females. When the sex ratio is 100, this means that the number of males and female is balanced. In the country… there are more male babies born than female babies, however females outnumber males in later years because men are more exposed to danger.

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The Philippine Population Population Density-- increased from 160 per square kilometer in 1980 to 220 in 1990. Population Growth– decreased from 2.3% in 1990 to 2.2 in 2000. this considered high. This rapid population growth has contributed to the slow social and economic development.

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