Midterm PP by Griselle D. Garcia

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Similarities and differences between assistive technology, universal design, and instructional technology : 

Griselle D. Garcia Capella SPED 500, Dr. Poel Midterm Similarities and differences between assistive technology, universal design, and instructional technology

Assistive technology : 

Assistive technology Equipment (devices) or services to help compensate for an individual’s disabilities (Smith & Tyler, 2010). The high-tech assistive technology (AT) that has emerged over the last two decades has made a particularly dramatic impact on education, and has also captured the imagination of the public (Behrmann & Schaff, 2001; Edyburn, 2002 as cited in Rose et al., 2003).

Assistive technology (cont.) : 

Assistive technology (cont.) The enormous power of such computer-based technologies to assist individuals with disabilities in overcoming barriers to educational access, participation, and progress is evident in the research base (Crealock &Sitko, 1990; Hebert & Murdock, 1994;MacArthur & Haynes, 1995; MacArthur, Haynes, Malouf, Harris, & Owings, 1990;Raskind Higgins, 1999; van Daal & Reitsma,1993; von Tetzchner, Rogne, & Lilleeng, 1997;Xin & Rieth, 2001 as cited in Rose et al., 2003).

Universal design : 

Universal design This approach creates products and/or environments that are designed, from the outset, to accommodate individuals with a wider range of abilities and disabilities than can be accommodated by traditional applications (Rose et al., 2003). Rather than retrofitting ramps to existing buildings, the universal design movement in architecture educated architects in how to design buildings that are inherently accessible (Story, Mueller, & Mace, 1998).

Universal design for learning : 

Universal design for learning Seeks to educate curriculum developers, teachers, and administrators in how to design curricula and learning environments that from the outset make learning accessible to the widest range of students (Rose & Meyer, 2002). The focus of UDL is the learning environment rather than any particular student (Rose et al., 2003).

Instructional technology : 

Instructional technology “Educational or instructional technology is the application of research, learning theory, emergent technologies, and child and adult psychology to solving instructional and performance problems (University of North Carolina Media Services 1997).” The Presidential Commission on Instructional Technology highlighted four areas in which educational technologists perform: 1) design of instruction, 2) production of instructional products and services, 3) management of instruction, and 4) evaluation of instruction.

Instructional technology (cont.) : 

Instructional technology (cont.) Instructional technology describes all tools that are used for teaching and learning such as: cameras, CD players, PDA's, GPS devices, computer-based probes, calculators and electronic tools we have yet to discover ().

Main differences : 

Main differences AT, modern technology is employed at the level of the individual student to help him or her overcome barriers in the curriculum and living environments (Rose et al., 2003). UDL, modern technology targets the curriculum itself; that is, technology is used to create curriculum and environments that, by design, lack traditional barriers to teach (Rose et al., 2003).

Differences (cont.) : 

Differences (cont.) With instructional technology the teacher can use a variety of teaching tools to improve student learning (). Advances in technology have improved the life of those with and without disabilities (Smith & Tyler, 2010).

Differences (cont.) : 

Differences (cont.) Also, because the increase in the number of devices and software, the increasingly low costs, and the fact that their use is commonly accepted, distinctions between instructional and assistive technologies is becoming blurred ( Van Kuren, 2003 as cited in Smith & Tyler, 2010).

Interaction between them : 

Interaction between them Assistive technology is technology that increases, improves, or maintains the functional capabilities of students with disabilities (Rose et al., 2003). Usually it is specifically designed to assist individuals with disabilities in overcoming barriers in their environment and in increasing their opportunities for independence (Rose et al., 2003).

Interaction (cont.) : 

Interaction (cont.) Universal design is a process for designing general (i.e., used by everyone) products or structures in such a way as to reduce barriers for any individual (either with or without disabilities) and to increase opportunities for the widest possible range of users (Rose et al., 2003).

Interaction (cont.) : 

Interaction (cont.) The UDL framework is based in the neuroscience of learning, and its principles emphasize three key aspects of pedagogy: the means of representing information, the means for the expression of knowledge, and the means of engagement in learning (Rose & Meyer, 2002). On the other hand the instructional technology are used as a complement of the assistive technology.

Example of these interactions : 

Example of these interactions Situation: a student with a reading disability of mastering a history concept. AT perspective – the problem can be considered an individual problem—it is clearly the individual student's reading disability that interferes with his or her ability to master the history content and demonstrate knowledge. IT perspective – application of technology (e.g.: like E-texts, word processing software).

Example of the interaction (cont.) : 

Example of the interaction (cont.) UDL perspective- sees the problem as an environmental problem— the history curriculum's overreliance on printed text raises barriers to engagement and mastery for many students. These UDL solutions have the advantage of enhancing learning for many different kinds of students (Rose & Meyer, 2002). In reality, both kinds of solutions are needed (Hitchcock & Stahl, 2003).

Examples of instructional methods that employ principles of universal design : 

Examples of instructional methods that employ principles of universal design Class Climate. Adopt practices that reflect high values with respect to both diversity and inclusiveness. Physical Access, Usability, and Safety. Assure that activities, materials, and equipment are physically accessible to and usable by all students and that all potential student characteristics are addressed in safety considerations.

Examples (cont.) : 

Examples (cont.) 3) Delivery Methods. Use multiple accessible instructional methods. 4) Information Resources and Technology. Ensure that course materials, notes, and other information resources are flexible and accessible to all students. 5) Interaction. Encourage effective interactions between students and between students and the instructor and assure that communication methods are accessible to all participants.

Examples of AT : 

Examples of AT For example computerized language translators provide translations of written text from one language to another (Smith & Tyler, 2010). MotivAider is an electronic device that can be used by teachers as part of a functional assessment-based plan to remind them to look up and provide one or more students who are engaged with behavior-specific praise (Smith & Tyler, 2010). It can be used by students as part of self-monitoring plan.

Examples of AT (cont.) : 

Examples of AT (cont.) 3) For students with ADHD, personal organizers provide the structure necessary to reduce the number of incomplete homework assignments or skipped meetings with a tutor (Smith & Tyler, 2010). 4) For students with learning disabilities graphic organizing software and E-texts with hyperlinks, word processing software with track tools, outline features, spellcheckers, voice-to-input, calculators, spreadsheets, PDAs, E-calendars, internet databases, internet search engines and reference organizers (Smith & Tyler, 2010).

Instructional technology video : 

Instructional technology video

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