Talk for Writing July 2010

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Talking for Learning and Life - developing Talk for Writing to fulfil potential across the curriculum : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Talking for Learning and Life - developing Talk for Writing to fulfil potential across the curriculum Presented by Pie Corbett supported by Judy Clark & Julia Strong

Talk for Writing - the story so far.. : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Talk for Writing - the story so far..

Slide 3: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Talk for Learning and life Imitation Innovation Independent application Application across the curriculum

Talking for Learning and Life - developing Talk for Writing to fulfil potential across the curriculum : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Talking for Learning and Life - developing Talk for Writing to fulfil potential across the curriculum The essence of non fiction... ‘ We write best about what we know and what matters….’ The best writing is written to engage the reader Audience + Purpose = style + organisation. Shifting register…….

Just before we begin....... : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Just before we begin....... An introduction to key transferable non fiction techniques that will be referenced throughout the day. Generics of non fiction: colour coding topic sentences structure - boxing up

Add burger / topic sentencs.. : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Add burger / topic sentencs.. Make Playstations Available in School! Playstations should be available in all primary schools. There are a number of reasons why this should happen. The first reason for this is to help children enjoy their education more. Many school lessons are not very interesting and there are lots of children who find learning the school subjects dull. What about that terrible topic about traffic! However, most children enjoy computer games and if there were playstations in all schools then more children would look forward to coming to school because there would be at least one time in the day they would enjoy !

Use colour coding to support under-standing of typical text features : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Use colour coding to support under-standing of typical text features Topic sentences – underlined Structural features – e.g. headings – brown Sentence signposts/ connectives – shocking pink Generalisation – orange Detail to illustrate points - green Technical language - blue Handout 1

Impact of colour-coded exemplar text : 

Impact of colour-coded exemplar text The effect of this was instantly amazing and therefore I used a similar method with my Y7 who were writing a report on the uses of ICT in society. The results with all the classes astonished me. I had expected improvements, but not on the scale seen.

Key features the 6 non-fiction text types have in common : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Key features the 6 non-fiction text types have in common

Session One: Recount : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Session One: Recount Warm-up activity Anecdotes - Memory boxes - unusual people, places or events.

Little Red Riding Hood : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Little Red Riding Hood Start with the story - retell in pairs or threes. Brainstorm possibilities for non-fiction, e.g. ‘How to trap a wolf’.

Tuning into the topic : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Tuning into the topic Drama….role play, first lines, role on the wall, conscience alley, masks, etc…. Environment… clues left in the room, woodland display, role play area, artwork.. Read, read ,read…. how many versions do you know? Multi media… Newsround website, First News, Teen Kids News, local radio station…..etc

Tuning into the topic…. : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Tuning into the topic…. Work in pairs as woodcutter and local news hound. As a class list possible questions - when, who, where, what, why + comments. Teacher models interview with wolf (Julia + Pie). Role play interview in pairs with woodcutter.

Imitation : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Imitation Learn orally the newspaper report, using a washing line. Box the report into a grid and name the paragraph headings Highlight any words or phrases that might be useful for writing an interview with grandma.

Yesterday JS 32 : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Yesterday JS 32 palace medal

Local Wood Cutter Wins Medal : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Local Wood Cutter Wins Medal Yesterday, local lumber-jack hero Jim Stevenson, 32 years old, was awarded a medal at a special ceremony in the palace for his bravery in rescuing Little Red Riding Hood from the jaws of a terrifying Wolf. In December last year, sharp-witted Jim put his lumber-jack skills to great use by tracking a vicious wolf he saw following a little girl in a red hood. He arrived at her grandmother’s cottage just in time to save the little girl and her granny. Jim heroically fought off the wolf with his axe. Jim told ‘The Informer’ that he was feeling very chipper about being awarded a medal. ‘I never expected that. I only did what any ordinary person would have done. It was the proudest moment of my life,’ he said.

Innovation : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Innovation Brainstorm good headline for granny article. Interview Granny – battle axe or sweet old lady?! Think through how you would write the opening paragraph – remember you need a hook and to include Who? What? Where? Why? When? (Invent relevant facts based on Little Red Riding Hood) Draw your paragraph to help. Now, in turns, tell your opening paragraph to your partner and discuss how each version could be improved

Innovation : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Innovation Add information to the grid - embellish if need be. Shared writing of each paragraph followed by independent writing. Delegates write own paragraphs and then work in pairs as response partners. Handout 2

Innovation feedback : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Innovation feedback Polishing and editing are key…. Write own models for editing Move from writing own texts for teaching editing on to using children’s writing - use of a visualizer Teach editing as a class then in pairs. Use marking to identify strengths and places where writing might be improved.

Boxing up news articles : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Boxing up news articles

Independent application : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Independent application Whole Class writing of another news article such as an interview with ‘Jack’ about the Beanstalk - or a character from a novel - or a real person in the school community about something of interest. Children write own interviews up following the same process, focusing on a person/ event of their choosing. The process - interview, map information onto grid, talk the article through before shared and independent writing.

KS1 Recount : moving on from a recount of a trip/event…. : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong KS1 Recount : moving on from a recount of a trip/event….

Overall plan... : 

Overall plan... Imitation: GINGERBREAD MAN DISAPPEARS! Oral version - little old man / lady interviewed. Children rewrote own reports of his tragic disappearance. Innovation: The next day’s news: Fox arrested! Following extensive enquiries, key suspect interviewed and arrested. Shared writing class and group versions. Independent application: Unusual find at Waterside Primary: BLUE BALLOON BRINGS TREASURE!! Independent writing Application across the curriculum: KING TUT FINALLY FOUND ! EXCLUSIVE Interview with Howard Carter

Current NS text type coverage : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Current NS text type coverage

Application across the curriculum : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Application across the curriculum Identify where the language patterns of recount text can be embedded across the curriculum.. Interview with ‘Magic Grandad’ as he goes back in time to Pudding Lane…. Front page article on the day of Anne Boleyn’s execution - eyewitness accounts! Handout 5

A few key reminders : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong A few key reminders Imitation : > tune into the topic and text type - have some fun! > read and talk the text type Innovation: > box up > magpie and play with the language Apply independently & across the curriculum Shared/guided writing – driven by assessment is key. Children write, edit & polish.

Session 2: Persuasion : 

Session 2: Persuasion

Spirit of the age? : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Spirit of the age? Children are being recruited by marketing agencies to promote fizzy drinks and computer games to their friends. The “brand ambassadors”, some as young as seven, can earn up to £25 a week in vouchers for “chatting” about certain products – online or off – or hosting parties where the items are distributed. “Don’t start up a chat about the project,” advises marketing agency Dubit Insider. “It’s best to look for natural opportunities to drop it into the conversation.” The Week, February 2010

Tuning into the text : 

Tuning into the text Reading the text type Talking the text type Through: warm up games, drama, booktalk, cloze procedure etc.

Persuasion : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Persuasion Warm UP Games: In pairs swap roles, taking one minute to persuade (monologue): > a snowman to come into the kitchen from outside; > a dragon to stop eating maidens.

Cloze Procedure : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Cloze Procedure For sale – a …….. opportunity to buy a ……, ………. school building, …… for conversion. This ….. of a building would make a ….. setting for 6 flats. …….. placed for the shopping centre and railway, the ……… grounds and …….. car parking is a ……. bonus. Complete with a ………… that money just cannot buy. The ……… school bell adds that …….. flavour.

Slide 32: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong 4 progressive stages Imitation - immerse in and learn simple leaflet. Innovation - create leaflet for school. Independent application - create leaflet to advertise local or invented attraction. Application across the curriculum, e.g leaflets about conservation in science.

Slide 33: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Reading the text type Investigate leaflets for ‘hooks’ Join the race........ Find 5 different examples of persuasive techniques / common language patterns... eg. Question used to engage ...Are bored children driving you crazy? or Use of imperatives - those bossy sentences ... Don’t forget Lemurland!

Key language patterns : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Key language patterns Questions – Are bored children driving you crazy? Alliteration – Dino Dig & the Wacky Workshop Rhyme – Dora the explorer Repetition – Find us to find the fun Imperatives (bossy sentences) – Don’t forget Lemurland! Personal appeal – You can get close up and personal Boastful language – The World’s oldest tourist attraction Patterns of 3 – Visit. Shop it. Love it. Short sentences – Discover Wildwood. Language aimed at audience, e.g. Txt Testimonials/quotes - “Join us for a great day out”

RURY x HRFP wwC W X There isOnly 5m CU! : 

55 RURY x HRFP wwC W X There isOnly 5m CU!

Slide 36: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Imitation - Hawk’s Ridge Farm Park Are you ever bored at the weekend? Are the kids driving you crazy? Why not head straight to Hawk’s Ridge Farm Park and enter a world of wonder? See eagles fly. Wonder at the bats’ cave. Don’t miss Butterfly world. There is ample parking, a cool café and a great shop. Only 5 minutes from junction 25 of the motorway! See you there!

Slide 37: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Innovation. All create school leaflet selling school as a local weekend attraction. Box Up main categories. Add possible details - ‘selling’ points/ amenities. Orally rehearse, magpie language features from leaflets and oral model - draw own map using symbols to help support you. Shared / independent writing.

Slide 38: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Independent Application: Create your own leaflet promoting your local area Use words, phrases and selling ideas from your list and the leaflets. List attractions in your area. Create a leaflet, advertising your local area. Be prepared to present orally.

Application across the curriculum : 

60 © Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Application across the curriculum Create a leaflet to persuade other schools to visit their local museum after own class trip. History/ Science / Art etc Leaflet to advertise the school summer fayre PHSE / Citizenship Promote the term’s school production Music /Drama Advertise a new product designed in DT How many more.........?? 47

More complex persuasionA persuasive argument at a higher level. : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong More complex persuasionA persuasive argument at a higher level. 3 stage process? Appropriate level of model

Imitation : 

43 Imitation Communal version? Tips for writing a model 59

Slide 44: 

Paradise Island in Perilous Plight. It’s hard to imagine a world without the island of Odin. Sadly the island is under immediate threat and without your help, the consequences could be catastrophic! Will you do your duty and rise to the challenge? The famous Flower of Odin has been pushed to the brink of extinction by illegal harvesting. As a result, the Odinian people are losing their staple diet and worryingly a sacred part of their culture is at risk. In addition, the paradise island is under threat of pollution. Habitats are being trampled and rivers poisoned. No one but a fool would allow this situation to continue unchallenged. I would urge you to join our fight to save this unique island. Take immediate steps and call our campaign line or visit our website - see details below. Remember, you can make a difference!

Innovation : 

45 Innovation Box up, shared writing Tips for organisation ‘Clumping!’ 45

‘Clumping’ : 

‘Clumping’ Step One: Which of the statements are least relevant to the aim? Discard for now Step Two: Clump the remaining pieces of information Step Three: Give each clump a heading.

Slide 49: 

Step Four: Decide on the best order of your clumps Step Five: Turn each of your headings into a topic sentence. Step Six: Decide on the best order for the information within your clump.

Slide 51: 

Join our school council campaign to improve lunchtime activities….. PSHE / Citizenship Save our school pond campaign…Habitats / Science Eco School campaign to compost all school waste… Environment / Geog/ Science Local conservation group to protect wildlife area..Habitats / Science / Citizenship Campaign for endangered species…. Environment / Geog/ Science Join up for a national campaign – comic relief / sport relief / Send my Friend to School campaign….PSHE/Citizenship ………….possibilities are endless! Further reinforcement across the curriculum

Session 3: Discussion : 

Session 3: Discussion

Slide 53: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Discussion Why is being able to discuss a useful skill to teach in schools? Why/where is it needed in everyday life?

Slide 54: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Key reading activities for any text type Good quality examples of the text available Warm ups - tuning into the text. Annotate - what is the effect? How did the writer achieve this? List - writing techniques, language patterns, box up. Sequencing - embedding text organisation. Cloze procedure - focusing on vocabulary. Drama games - reusing patterns. Draw and retell - communal or independent telling to internalise. Compare - building criteria. Improve - building criteria. Living sentences - internalising key patterns. Booktalk

Slide 55: 

93 © Pie Corbett & Julia Strong 69 Warming up and playing with language and ideas

Warm up activities: Discussion Writing : 

56 Warm up activities: Discussion Writing spelling games creative games sentence games In pairs discuss: 5 reasons to become a teacher 5 reasons NOT to become a teacher 88

Slide 57: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Cloze Procedure : Discussion Writing Many people ……. that Rooney is one of our best players and should ……….. be a central feature of any team. ……………….., they point out that his presence on the pitch gives confidence to other players. ……………….., his long experience playing internationally means ……. he is less likely to be unnerved at big matches. …………., they ………. that he should be included in the team ……….. he knows how to keep other teams under pressure.

Slide 58: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Living Sentences: Discussion Writing Connective of the week - ‘whether or not’. Connectives tennis I believe that…….. because ------

Slide 59: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Drama: discussion/any text type Interviews Hot seating Miming Making presentations Just one minute News broadcasts Advertise or cat walk information Phone calls Panels of experts TV adverts/shows/Facebook/YouTube

Slide 60: 

98 © Pie Corbett & Julia Strong 74 Exploring and playing with organisation of text

Slide 61: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Sequencing : Discussion Writing

Slide 62: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Sequencing : Discussion Writing

Slide 63: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Discussion Writing - Sequencing a ‘reasons against’ paragraph They also believe that the crop circles are manmade and that sightings of spaceships are caused by atmospheric pressure changes. Moreover, they dismiss reports of alien abduction as being impossible. These people believe that it is hard enough to encourage visitors from local towns to visit and shop, let alone anyone from a million light years away! On the other hand, there is a hardcore section of the community who think that the idea of aliens visiting Warminster is ridiculous.

Slide 64: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Discussion Writing - Sequencing a ‘reasons against’ paragraph On the other hand, there is a hardcore section of the community who think that the idea of aliens visiting Warminster is ridiculous. These people believe that it is hard enough to encourage visitors from local towns to visit and shop, let alone anyone from a million light years away! They also believe that the crop circles are manmade and that sightings of spaceships are caused by atmospheric pressure changes. Moreover, they dismiss reports of alien abduction as being impossible.

Slide 65: 

103 © Pie Corbett & Julia Strong 77 Talking the Text Type - discussion

Slide 66: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Discussion Writing - Draw and Retell Word for word - like communal storytelling - using a washing line to show paragraphs; to - Independent retelling - draw basic ideas and then retell in own words but drawing on bank of words and phrases.

Slide 67: 

105 © Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Should Jack be imprisoned for theft? Many people think that Jack should be sent to jail because he stole the giant’s magical hen that lays golden eggs. Additionally, he returned to the giant’s castle and took a never-ending purse plus the giant’s talking harp. Furthermore, he was responsible for killing the giant. On the other hand, some people argue that Jack was on the edge of starvation and was forced to steal in order to save his dying mother. Moreover, it could be argued that the giant was a danger to the local area and had been responsible for stealing sheep and cattle to feed himself and his wife. Indeed, some people believe that Jack should be further rewarded for ridding the locality of this terrible creature. Having considered all the arguments, I believe that whilst stealing should normally be punished, on this occasion Jack acted in the best interests of his family and the local area.

Slide 68: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Discussion writing - in 4s Do dragons exist? One presents an opening to draw the listeners in. One gives 3 reasons for/ one 3 against. One concludes. - Drawings only – no words.

Slide 69: 

108 © Pie Corbett & Julia Strong 82 Editing, assessing, polishing & publishing

Slide 70: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Discussion Writing - Improve Are computers good for you? In our group we have been discussing whether or not computers are good for you. Some people argue that you can learn from using the computer and they have programmes to help them read and improve their maths and that they use the computer to find out information and that the computer is going to be used in the future in many jobs and we should get used to using them.

Slide 71: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Discussion Writing - Compare - which is best and why? Currently, there is a heated debate in our class because one of us can be nominated by the intergalactic council for hero status. Would becoming a superhero would be a good idea or not? Would you make a good superhero? Do you believe that a life rescuing those in disasters and becoming a freedom fighter against the tyranny of street crime would be for you? Here’s some things you might want to think about before committing yourself to taking up the cape! In our class we have been debating whether or not it would be advisable to become a superhero.

Discussion across the year groups : 

111 © Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Discussion across the year groups Where across the year groups do you use discussion? 86

Slide 73: 

112 © Pie Corbett & Julia Strong 85 Pushing on to a higher level ...... progression is key

Signalling certainty or uncertainty : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Signalling certainty or uncertainty Bill Bryson “A Really Short History of Nearly Everything”

Underline the phrases signalling uncertainty : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Underline the phrases signalling uncertainty Nobody knows even approximately how many asteroids there are tumbling through space but the number is thought to be probably not less than a billion. They are presumed to be planets that never quite made it, owing to the unsettling gravitational pull of Jupiter, which keeps them from joining up… Altogether it’s thought that some 2,000 asteroids big enough to put us in peril regularly cross our orbit. But even a small asteroid – the size of a house, say – could destroy a city. The number of these relative tiddlers in Earth-crossing orbits is almost certainly in the region of hundreds of thousands, and possibly in the millions – and they are nearly impossible to track. Bill Bryson “A Really Short History of Nearly Everything”

Highlight the phrases signalling uncertainty : 

© Julia Strong & Pie Corbett Highlight the phrases signalling uncertainty Nobody knows even approximately how many asteroids there are tumbling through space but the number is thought to be probably not less than a billion. They are presumed to be planets that never quite made it, owing to the unsettling gravitational pull of Jupiter, which keeps them from joining up… Altogether it’s thought that some 2,000 asteroids big enough to put us in peril regularly cross our orbit. But even a small asteroid – the size of a house, say – could destroy a city. The number of these relative tiddlers in Earth-crossing orbits is almost certainly in the region of hundreds of thousands, and possibly in the millions – and they are nearly impossible to track. Bill Bryson “A Really Short History of Nearly Everything”

Do dragons exist ? : 

115 © Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Do dragons exist ? revisit dragons discussion shared writing at the higher level return to your own dragon discussion and develop one paragraph to L5 standard 89

Application across the curriculum : 

116 © Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Application across the curriculum “non-fiction texts are wide ranging and occur in many forms in everyday life...many non-fiction texts in real life blur the boundaries between text types and their features. The most common language features are listed for each text type, but variants of all text types occur, especially when they are used in combination. The features listed are often but not always present .” DCFS 2006 text type document. depth of coverage blurred and hybrid text types generic features across non-fiction

Key features the 6 non-fiction text types have in common : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Key features the 6 non-fiction text types have in common

Using the approach to support science investigations : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Using the approach to support science investigations Text type = a mix of key non-fiction text types including recount, information, explanation and discussion So begin with imitation to get the appropriate patterns of language in the head

My Because To carry out compare 2For this comparedHowever, test =essential other conditions = because or ? : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong My Because To carry out compare 2For this comparedHowever, test =essential other conditions = because or ? Investigation: Does exercise affect heart rate? when

Slide 82: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong I am investigating what happens to my heart when I take exercise. My hypothesis, what I think will happen, is that exercise will make my heart beat faster because the heart has to pump blood faster to enable me to do the exercise. To carry out an investigation, you must compare two variables: two things which change or vary. For this investigation, I will compare my heart rate when I am resting and when I am taking exercise. However, it is important to make the test fair. To make this test fair, I must time my heart for exactly the same amount of time when I am resting as when I am exercising. It is essential that all the other conditions remain the same because, otherwise, I wouldn’t know if it was the exercise or something else that was making the difference.

e.g. Yrs 5/6 in science have done a 3-stage approach over 3 units to embed how to express science investigations : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong e.g. Yrs 5/6 in science have done a 3-stage approach over 3 units to embed how to express science investigations Imitation: Class “recitation” of investigation into effect of exercise on the heart Innovation: Teacher shows class how to innovate through shared writing and then each student writes up their own version of an investigation about photosynthesis Independent application: Class work independently on writing up their investigation relating to a third unit of work in science

Shared writing: 1. Demonstrate how to use the exemplar to plan your own investigation (boxing up text)2. Demonstrate how to use the exemplar to write your own investigation : 

121 Shared writing: 1. Demonstrate how to use the exemplar to plan your own investigation (boxing up text)2. Demonstrate how to use the exemplar to write your own investigation © Pie Corbett & Julia Strong

Consolidating learning:Devise living sentences to sum up key learning points : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Consolidating learning:Devise living sentences to sum up key learning points

Application across the curriculum : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Application across the curriculum Identify where the language patterns of discussion text can be embedded across the curriculum

Spreading it across the school : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Spreading it across the school Apply successfully in your classroom Get headteacher support for the approach 3. Show at school-based inset Set up peer-coaching Achieve whole-school commitment over time Handout 4 Handout 6

RUX outstanding1. Devise eeP x 3 until LL : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong RUX outstanding1. Devise eeP x 3 until LL

Slide 89: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Next Use s mm different T Show with gg Meanwhile, ww all

After that, set s s t t tFinally, acddd History, ee Science & pp PHSE : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong After that, set s s t t tFinally, acddd History, ee Science & pp PHSE

Slide 91: 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Instructions for Talk for Learning Are you kept awake at night by the need to improve literacy levels? Do not despair! Help is at hand. Just follow these simple instructions and you, too, can achieve outstanding results.   First, imitate. Devise exciting exemplar text that will help your class make eye-popping progress. Perform and perform and perform it until they really know those lovely language patterns.   Next innovate. Use stunning shared writing to miraculously model how to adapt those patterns for a different topic. Show them how to begin by boxing up text and warm up those words and phrases with great games. Meanwhile, help them magpie wizard words and phrases from all the activities they do.   After that, help them become independent. Set sizzling similar tasks so that they can show how they can talk and write terrific text type on their own.   Finally, apply what they have learnt across the curriculum demonstrating distinguished discussion in history, excellent explanation in science and perfect persuasion for PHSE.

Please hand in your- Delegate badge - NLT card- Evaluation sheet Many thanks, Pie Corbett, Judy Clark and Julia Strongjudy.clark@literacytrust.org.uk : 

© Pie Corbett & Julia Strong Please hand in your- Delegate badge - NLT card- Evaluation sheet Many thanks, Pie Corbett, Judy Clark and Julia Strongjudy.clark@literacytrust.org.uk

National Literacy Trust : 

www.literacytrust.org.uk National Literacy Trust One in six people in the UK struggle to read, write and communicate We believe that society will only be fair when everyone can communicate as well as they need We deliver projects, campaign, investigate and innovate, share knowledge and work in partnership to transform lives through literacy We are an independent charity