pilot Chemical Sampling and Analytical Methods

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Slide 1: 

AIR SAMPLING AT WORKPLACES: SAMPLING STRATEGY, EQUIPMENT AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF SAMPLES MAYIS 2010 ANKARA

PRESENTATION PLAN : 

PRESENTATION PLAN CHAPTER 1: WHY TO SAMPLE THE AIR? CHAPTER 2: HOW TO SAMPLE THE AIR? SAMPLING STRATEGY BASIC STEPS OF SAMPLING STRATEGY REMARKS CHAPTER 3: HOW LONG TO SAMPLE? CHAPTER 4: SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE SAMPLE QUALITY

WHY TO SAMPLE THE AIR? : 

WHY TO SAMPLE THE AIR? TO KNOW: WHICH SUBSTANCE IS THE WORKER EXPOSED? HOW MUCH SUBSTANCE IS THE WORKER EXPOSED? WHEN DOES THE EXPOSURE HAPPEN? FORMS THE BASIS FOR PREVENTION MEASURES

HOW TO SMAPLE? : 

HOW TO SMAPLE? SAMPLING STRATEGY WHAT TO SAMPLE? WHEN TO SAMPLE? HOW OFTEN TO SAMPLE?

HOW TO SAMPLE? : 

HOW TO SAMPLE? BASIC STEPS OF SAMPLING STRATEGY DETERMINATION OF FACTORS AT THE WORK PLACE ESTIMATION OF LEVELS OF EXPOSURE How much a substance used or formed? How frequent the subsatance is used or formed? How long the workers use it or make it form?

HOW TO SAMPLE? : 

HOW TO SAMPLE? BASIC STEPS OF SAMPLING STRATEGY MAKE A LIST OF POSSİBLE EXPOSURES PUT THE MOST POSSIBLLE AND/OR MOST DANGEROUS EXPOSURES FIRST IN THE LIST

HOW TO SAMPLE? : 

HOW TO SAMPLE? BASIC STEPS OF SAMPLING STRATEGY MORE POINTS TO CONSIDER WHILE FORMING THE LIST (PROPOSED BY EN689) THE DUTIES IN THE WORK WORK FORMAT AND TECHNIQUES PRODUCTION PROCESSES PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF THE WORK PLACE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND OPERATIONS

HOW TO SAMPLE? : 

HOW TO SAMPLE? BASIC STEPS OF SAMPLING STRATEGY MORE POINTS TO CONSIDER WHILE FORMING THE LIST (PROPOSED BY EN689) AIR CONDITIONING AND OTHER ENGINEERING CONTROLS EMISSION SOURCES EXPOSURE DURATIONS WORKLOAD

HOW TO SAMPLE? : 

HOW TO SAMPLE? REMARK 1 PERSONAL SAMPLING: NUMBER OF SAMPLES DETERMINE GROUPS ACCORDING TO EXPOSURE TYPES.(EX.: WELDERS, PAINTERS, TRANSPORT VEHILCE DRIVERS ETC.) CONSIDER THE HOMOGENITY OF GROUPS WITHIN THEIRSELVES IF HOMOGEN GROUPS: 1 SAMPLE FROM EVERY 10 WORKERS IF NON-HOMOGEN: INCREASE THE NUMBER OF SAMPLES

HOW TO SAMPLE? : 

HOW TO SAMPLE? REMARK 2 STATIONARY SAMPLING: USE IT IF A WORKING ROOM IS VISITED OCCASIONALY (BATTERY CHARGE ROOM) A LOT OF WORKERS ENTER OR LEAVE THE WORKING ROOM IN WHICH A HIGH RANKED SUBSTANCE IN YOUR LIST EXSITS IN THE AIR (MANUAL LOADING OR DISLOADING OF A TRUCK)

HOW TO SAMPLE? : 

HOW TO SAMPLE? REMARK 3 DO THE SAMPLING AS MUCH AS TECHNICAL MEANS COST TIME ALLOWS STARTING FROM THE BEGINING OF YOUR LIST

HOW LONG TO SAMPLE? : 

HOW LONG TO SAMPLE? THE TECHNICAL MEANS DICTAES THE DURATION OF A SINGLE AIR SAMPLE SUCH AS: CAPACITY OF FILTERS OR SORBENT TUBES CAPACITY OF PUMPS THE LIMITATIONS GIVEN IN THE STANDARD METHODS USED BUT!!!!

HOW LONG TO SAMPLE? : 

HOW LONG TO SAMPLE? EN 689 STATES THAT: Sampling Time Number of Min. Samples For Each Shift 10 seconds 30 1 minute 20 5 minutes 12 15 minutes 4 30 minutes 3 1 hour 2 ≥ 2 hours 1 IN ORDER TO REPRESENT AN 8 HOUR SHIFT

HOW LONG TO SAMPLE? : 

HOW LONG TO SAMPLE? ci: Occupational exposure concentartion (mg/m3 or ppm or etc.) ti: :Exposure time fo i’th job (hours) ∑ti:Sfift duration (Generally 8 hours) IF THE WORKER DOES SEVERAL JOBS OR HAS LARGE INTERVALS BECAUSE OF ABSENCE OF TASK THEN: CALCULATE:

Slide 15: 

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF SAMPLES A AFTER QUESTIONS TIME

Slide 16: 

VOLATILE ORGANIC GASES SAMPLING TECHNIQUES: ACTIVE CARBON SORBENT TUBES AND LOW FLOW SAMPLING PUMPS

Slide 17: 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF VOC SAMPLES SELECTION OF LOCATION OR PERSON: GAS CONCENTRATION VARIATIONS ARE ESTIMATED USING TWO NUMBERS Reynolds Number Archimedes number

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF VOC SAMPLES : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF VOC SAMPLES As the Reynold's number incraese More homogenious distribution Lower exposure at the source As the Archimede's number increase, Movements towards the hot walls Lower average concentartions

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF VOC SAMPLES : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF VOC SAMPLES Temperature: Affects the adsorbtion desorbtion equilibrium in the sorbent tube This equilibrium can be formulazized with Langmuir isotherm

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF VOC SAMPLES : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF VOC SAMPLES As the temperature incraeses: Equilibrium shifts towards desorbtion side b(T) value decreases So the capacity of the sorbent tube decraeses Beware of High Temperatures (See your method)

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF VOC SAMPLES : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF VOC SAMPLES The pressure of the air passing through the sorbent tube drops. WHY?: ERGÜN Equation

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF VOC SAMPLES : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF VOC SAMPLES Az the pressure drops: Adsorbtion gets difficult High flow rates cause higher pressure drops Beware of high flow rates (Use low flow rates allowed in your method)

Formaldehyde Samples : 

Formaldehyde Samples Passive sampler filled with DNFH is used

Formaldehit Numunelerinin Kalitesini Etkileyen Faktörler : 

Formaldehit Numunelerinin Kalitesini Etkileyen Faktörler Same factors with VOCS in terms of distribution and adsorbtion BUT! More sensitive to Reynold's and Archimede's numbers WHY?:DIFFUSION EQUATION

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF FORMALDEHYDE SAMPLES : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF FORMALDEHYDE SAMPLES BUT!: More sensitive to temperature WHY?: Its adsorbtion is more exothermic.

DUSTS : 

DUSTS THERE ARE TWO MAJOR TYPES WHE SAMPLING IS CONSIDERED Cyrstaline structure dusts Fibrous dusts

Cyristalline Structure Dusts : 

Cyristalline Structure Dusts High flow rate pumps are used for sampling these dusts Sidekick Deluxe

INHALABLE AND RESPIRABLE DUSTS : 

INHALABLE AND RESPIRABLE DUSTS Cyclone head for respirable dusts IOM head for inhalable dusts. Cyclone head IOM head

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF CYRSTALLINE DUST SAMPLES : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF CYRSTALLINE DUST SAMPLES Reynold's number (more or less sensitive depending on the type of dust) Less sensitive to Archimede's number. WHY: Larger particles than gases which are hardly affected by bıuancy forces of air.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF CYRSTALLINE DUST SAMPLES : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF CYRSTALLINE DUST SAMPLES Filling of filter pores during samples: The velocity of air passing through the filter falls down WHY→Pressure drop equation on filters CHECK THE FLOW RATE AFTER SAMPLING (AVERAGE VALUE IS USED IN SOME METHODS)

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF CYRSTALLINE DUST SAMPLES : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF CYRSTALLINE DUST SAMPLES CONDITIONING:Some methods propose conditioning in order to control the humidity effects. IF YOUR MEHTOD PROPOSES: The preconditioning and post-conditioning must be done at the same conditions

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF CYRSTALLINE DUST SAMPLES : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF CYRSTALLINE DUST SAMPLES Post-conditioning should be done with the casette: the air circulation in the laboratory oven

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF FIBROUS DUST SAMPLES : 

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF FIBROUS DUST SAMPLES Same factors with cyrstalline dusts Special Sampling heads are used Special preperation of filters before sampling Fibrous dust head