In-Depth Introduction to Internet Advertising : www.gregstuart.com 1 In-Depth Introduction to Internet Advertising By Greg Stuart
Co-author of What Sticks & former CEO of Interactive Advertising Bureau (see full bio on last slide) Goal of This Document : www.gregstuart.com 2 Goal of This Document Topline the major elements of Online Media and Online Advertising:
Use as a guide for areas to potentially dig into deeper where required/interested
Provide a glossary of key definitions, issues, etc. Agenda : www.gregstuart.com 3 Agenda Digital Media in Context
What is the Internet? What are the Online Media types?
Online Advertising Overview
What are the Channels? Targeting Technologies?
Does Online Advertising Work?
The Research all shows it really works
Online Research and Measurement
Measurement is a tangled mess and there are many issues
Positioning Online Advertising
It is additive to other media, Frequency, Audience, Engagement
Various Internet Advertising Trends Digital Media in Context : www.gregstuart.com 4 Digital Media in Context What is the Net, where is Digital going, and what does Media mean? Digital Evolution of Media : www.gregstuart.com 5 Digital Evolution of Media The future is a number of Digital and Networked media What is the Internet? : www.gregstuart.com 6 What is the Internet? The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP).
It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW).
Source: Wikipedia Online Media Categories : www.gregstuart.com 7 Online Media Categories Portals
Yahoo, AOL, MSN
NY Times.com, CNN.com, Forbes.com, CBS.com
Google, Yahoo Search, Dogpile
Social Media (Or User Generated Content – UCG)
YouTube, Veoh Blogs
Email & Newsletters
RSS (real simple syndication); aka Feeds
Feedburner, Google Reader
Tacoda (AOL), Blue Lithium (Yahoo), Tremor Media, Advertising.com Generally accepted types of Online Media: The Vision for the role of Digital Media : www.gregstuart.com 8 The Vision for the role of Digital Media Monologue
No interaction among customers
Hard to identify customers
Hard to manage customers BEFORE AFTER Dialogue
Rich customer interaction
Rich customer data Customer Customers Supplier Supplier Internet If you had to live on a deserted island and couldonly take one of the following with you, whichwould you take? : www.gregstuart.com 9 If you had to live on a deserted island and couldonly take one of the following with you, whichwould you take? Types of Online Advertising : www.gregstuart.com 10 Types of Online Advertising It’s just not one media. It’s the Network and there are many options Recent Major News About Online Advertising : www.gregstuart.com 11 Recent Major News About Online Advertising “Online is getting to the point where it may be more important than the 30-second TV spot.” Joel Ewanick
Hyundai Motor America 11 “The country’s third-largest advertiser (General Motors) is getting ready to shift fully half of its $3 billion budget into digital and one-to-one marketing within the next 3 years.” Advertising Age March 17, 2008 Even ad-spending giant P&G is considering cutting its overall ad budget by as much as 10% this year and aggressively moving ad dollars to the Web.
WSJ May 12, 2008 Types of Online Advertising : www.gregstuart.com 12 Types of Online Advertising Types
SEM Search Engine Marketing *
SEO Search Engine Optimization *
Viral Marketing (Word of Mouth) *
Affiliate Marketing *
Desktop or Software
Pop Ups or Pop Unders
* Not really sold by Publishers Technologies
IP or Geo Targeting
Rich Internet Applications (AJAX)
Keyword Targeting / Adwords
Social Media Targeting / Influencers Est. Spending By Category More Types of Online Media : www.gregstuart.com 13 More Types of Online Media Online Ad Pricing Dynamics : www.gregstuart.com 14 Online Ad Pricing Dynamics CPM – Cost per (M) Impressions
CPC – Cost per Click
CPA – Cost per Acquisition (action)
CPL – Cost per Lead
Online advertising overall is reportedly around 45% CPM and 45% Performance prices (CPC or CPA/CPL) and the rest is hybrid or combination of above. Key is the UAP (aka Universal Ad Package) : www.gregstuart.com 15 728x90 180x150 300x250 160x600 Key is the UAP (aka Universal Ad Package) Adoption of the UAP Units : www.gregstuart.com 16 Four UAP Units now represent 37% of total inventory, down 10% from Q4 ’05. IAB Recommended IMU “Button 1” (120x90) up 15.2% from Q4 ’05. “Button 1” = 19.6% “Button 1” = 4.4% Adoption of the UAP Units Internet Advertising Revenue By Type: Classifieds; Search Remains a Strong Leader : www.gregstuart.com 17 Internet Advertising Revenue By Type: Classifieds; Search Remains a Strong Leader % of ‘05 First Six-Month Revenues Total $5.8 Billion Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP/IAB Internet Advertising Report
Note: Lead Gen is a new category in ’05, revised vs Referral. Changes vs YAG are recommended % of ‘06 First Six-Month Revenues Total $7.9 Billion Should be Updated Does Online Advertising Work? : www.gregstuart.com 18 Does Online Advertising Work? Really, does it? And how well?
(Answer sometimes 10x better than TV) 16 XMOS Public Studies to DateXMOS = Cross Media Optimization Study : www.gregstuart.com 19 16 XMOS Public Studies to DateXMOS = Cross Media Optimization Study XMOS 1.0
XMOS Branding - 1st wave
Kimberly Clark Kleenex
XMOS Branding - 2nd wave
Universal Pictures Home Video
XMO$ Sales & Branding I
XMO$ Sales & Branding II
Motorola Methodology Validated by Key Industry Bodies : www.gregstuart.com 20 Methodology Validated by Key Industry Bodies “This measurement approach is the most even handed to all media and extremely accurate in measuring Online’s contribution and cost efficiency.”
Jim Spaeth, Former President, The Advertising Research Foundation Note: The methodology used to calculate the effects of online and offline media has been supported by the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF) and received the prestigious John & Mary Goodyear Award nomination for best International Research from the global research authority ESOMAR
The research has earned the endorsement of Forrester research, and led to Forrester’s request to develop a summary analysis of findings so that they can counsel their clients on the role of Online advertising Online Sells Product (Online & Offline) : www.gregstuart.com 21 Sales Lift Hi Sales Low 14% 12% 10% 8% 11% 25% 8% * Target sales lift averaged across 99 GRPs from Homepage and display ads 17% 19% Philips Motorola 2% >1% Online Sells Product (Online & Offline) Online sales lift averaged 11% Slide 22: www.gregstuart.com 22 Summary Of XMOS ResultsOnline Optimization Only * Not the actual optimized level, but considered an interim increase
** Brand ran Optimal level so there was no gain from more online spending
*** Because of differing objectives, cross media comparison was inconclusive What Do We Know about Creative : www.gregstuart.com 23 What Do We Know about Creative Better creative can make the difference between success and failure Source: XMOS Creative Makes a HUGE Difference : www.gregstuart.com 24 Creative Makes a HUGE Difference Better creative can make the difference between success and absolute failure Ad A Add a New Medium is Driven by Diminishing Returns : www.gregstuart.com 25 Add a New Medium is Driven by Diminishing Returns % of Brand ImpactAwareness, Image or Purchase Intent 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency Diminishing returns 1 2 3 4 5 Adding Online Can Have Major Impact for Even McDonalds : www.gregstuart.com 26 Adding Online Can Have Major Impact for Even McDonalds Introducing New Menu Item: Grilled Chicken Flatbread Sandwich Ad Frequency
(or Budget) % Aided Awareness 20% of Broadcast Budget Reinvested 13.6% in Online Point of DiminishedReturns 5pt Gain! Cut6.4% Performance is Partly Due to Media Mix Use by Consumers : www.gregstuart.com 27 Performance is Partly Due to Media Mix Use by Consumers TV Use Online Use Heavier Heavier Lighter Lighter Heavy Online
Heavy TV Heavy TV
Light Online Light TV
Light Online Heavy Online
Light TV 26% 38% 15% 21% Media Usage among 18-49 year old target 34.3 Million! Trying Something Brand New:Home Page Takeover Ad Ran One Day on Each Portal - Roadblock : www.gregstuart.com 28 Roadblock 43% One Day Reach Trying Something Brand New:Home Page Takeover Ad Ran One Day on Each Portal - Roadblock Cost Effectiveness of Each MediumCost to Increase Purchase Consideration : www.gregstuart.com 29 Cost Effectiveness of Each MediumCost to Increase Purchase Consideration Interpretation: If it cost Roadblock $1 (indexed at 100) to increase purchase consideration, then it cost $1.35 for Online, $4.56 for magazine and $11.04 to TV to achieve the same increase. The Value of Small Changes : www.gregstuart.com 30 The Value of Small Changes Ford Media Mix * Traditional Media Plan * Approx. $200 Million Budget Online Online The Big Question: Has XMOS Caused Change in the Industry? : www.gregstuart.com 31 The Big Question: Has XMOS Caused Change in the Industry? Based on detailed confidential interviews with 7 XMOS marketers:
$230 million estimated Internet Ad Spending for company one year post each brand’s study.
Lifetime would be much higher
Only $2.2 million invested in studies Analyzed Brands/Companies
Corporate Data Brand Data
Johnson & Johnson Neutrogena
Nestle Beverage Coffee-mate
Procter & Gamble Olay
Target Target Apparel
Other Studies–not included in analysis
Kimberly Clark Kleenex
Universal Pictures Home Video
VeriSign Change in Online’s Total Budget : www.gregstuart.com 32 Change in Online’s Total Budget One Year After @ Study Change in Online’s Share of Total Budget : www.gregstuart.com 33 Change in Online’s Share of Total Budget Online Advertising Research & Measurement : www.gregstuart.com 34 Online Advertising Research & Measurement And the Issues that do not get discussed publicly Online Media Measurement Data is Not Good; and Yet its World Class : www.gregstuart.com 35 Online Media Measurement Data is Not Good; and Yet its World Class Good News
Lots & lots of data
It’s all digital and networked
Can track directly to sales online
First medium to measure the ad (not just content)
Immediate insights Bad News
Lots & lots of data
Do we have the systems to handle data
There is Fraud and manipulation
Consumer has control
BIG privacy issues
Huge discrepancies creates mis-trust Online Media Research Overview : www.gregstuart.com 36 Online Media Research Overview Big Strategic Advantage was Global Internet Ad Impression Measurement Guidelines : www.gregstuart.com 37 Big Strategic Advantage was Global Internet Ad Impression Measurement Guidelines Key Elements of Guideline - 1 of 2 : www.gregstuart.com 38 Key Elements of Guideline - 1 of 2 Refined definitions and standards
Client side measurement
Via a beacon/clear gif or client side call (i.e., 302)
Spiders & Bot Filtering (database)
2 step process, via 1) short list of bots (20-25), 2) known browser
Behavioral Filtering to remove non human activity
Might not be relevant if we use 2 step process above
Do not exclude as it is insignificant
Agree to header based cache busting Key Elements of Guideline - 2 of 2 : www.gregstuart.com 39 Key Elements of Guideline - 2 of 2 Internal Controls
Shared “Areas of Auditing”
Asked to Communicate Internal Control Best Practices
Goal is Transparency
Description of Measurement Methodology
Data Collection Methods
Editing, Data Adjustment, etc.
General Reporting Parameters
Certification and/or Auditing Applied The Old Way: Server-side serving and counting : www.gregstuart.com 40 A B C 1: User requests content from publisher web server. 2: Publisher web server calls Publisher Ad Engine to retrieve ads. 3: The Publisher Ad Engine logs that it has served an ad. Publisher Ad engine returns an HTML blob to Publisher Web Server. Some of these ads may actually be pointers to a location on a Third Party server. 4: The Publisher Web Server receives the HTML blob. 5: The Publisher Web Server returns the page and the page begins to render on the user’s machine. 6: While rendering the page, the browser determines that it needs to pick up an ad from a Third Party server. The browser fires off a separate thread to get the ad from the Third Party server. 7: The Third Party server logs that it has served an ad. 8: The Third Party server receives the request for the ad and returns a pointer to the location of the ad image by instructing the user’s browser to pick up the ad from an image server. 9: The user’s browser makes a call to the image server where the creative resides. 10: The Image server logs that it has served an image. 11: The image server returns the image. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 The Old Way: Server-side serving and counting Publisher Web Server Publisher Ad Engine Publisher Ad Engine Log Third Party Ad Engine Log Image Server Log Causes of discrepancies : www.gregstuart.com 41 Causes of discrepancies Network latency
Publisher count is higher
Publisher count is lower
Publisher count is higher
Filtering techniques may differ
Typically cause extreme discrepancies The Better Way: Client-side serving and counting : www.gregstuart.com 42 A B C 1 3 4 5 2 6 7 8 9 10 11 The Better Way: Client-side serving and counting Publisher Web Server Publisher Ad Engine Publisher Ad Engine Log Third Party Ad Engine Log Image Server Log The Way it’s Being Done Now: Server-side serving with client-side counting : www.gregstuart.com 43 The Way it’s Being Done Now: Server-side serving with client-side counting A B C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Publisher Web Server Publisher Ad Engine Publisher Ad Engine Log Third Party Ad Engine Log Image Server Log D 5b Publisher Beacon Server Publisher Beacon Log 5a 5c How Good is NNR and comScore Data and do They at Least Trend the Same? : www.gregstuart.com 44 How Good is NNR and comScore Data and do They at Least Trend the Same? NetRatings and comScore Page View and Unique Visitor data trend together (are positively correlated) for less than half of websites examined.
NetRatings and comScore trend together for both Page Views and Unique Visitors for only four of the nineteen sites
Overall, the lack of consistency between the two services is no worse (and no better) in the second half of 2006 than it was in late 2005
The average NetRatings/comScore monthly difference for Unique Visitors across the nineteen sites ranges from 15% to 25% over the 13-month period, with no particular trend. For Page Views the average monthly difference has settled around 40%
There is a tendency for a majority of individual websites to be significantly (and consistently) higher in either NetRatings or comScore.
In those cases where differences are significant, NetRatings and comScore are each higher half of the time
In most cases, the two services are not close, and are reporting different “realities” regarding usage of specific websites
Differences in websites where one service is consistently higher may be related to the demographic make-up of the panels Ad Blocking Tracking Progress : www.gregstuart.com 45 Ad Blocking Tracking Progress 8 Sites are being tracked:
Tracking puts a tag on one high volume page
Request that this continues and additional sites participate
IAB will release Ad Blocking report to all members
Issues to Board:
Have you all installed new TOS?
Is anyone considering turning off content? Ad Blocking Trends Situation Update On Ad Blocking: Do We Need to Act Now? : www.gregstuart.com 46 Situation Update On Ad Blocking: Do We Need to Act Now? Current Threat: Ad Blocking continues to increase
In-line blocking estimated at 7-8% according to DCLK, up from 2-3% two YAG.
eBay reports closer to 10-15%.
Search is lower at 5-6%
Research cannot yet determine penetration level of blockers, but 3 of the top 10 most popular software downloads are ad blockers, accounting for 243 MM, or 30% of top 10 downloads
Symantec installed on 120 million machines and 25% turn on Ad Blocking feature
Leading Indicator (?): Pop-up blocking is already over 50% (DCLK)
Compare: Movie and music industry threat response
Failure to uncover or react to real rates of illegal downloading in a timely manner
Resort to costly, both financial and reputational, punitive tactics and litigation against downloaders (music companies against consumers) and subsequently, file-sharing software vendors (RIAA companies vs. Napster and MPAA studios vs Grokster) Just When we Get Set RIA/AJAX Changes Everything : www.gregstuart.com 47 Just When we Get Set RIA/AJAX Changes Everything Audience impact – Page Views not relevant anymore
Time spent and engagement metrics should become more meaningful in the RIA experience as we can track user activities
Measurement impact – updated guidelines
The ad impression standards did not envision a disconnect between the page and the ads. Updating to reflect 1st) Strong user action, or 2nd) to allow the consideration of “in focus”
Revenue opportunity – attendant need for disclosures
Use of RIA can unlock inventory but the counting of impressions within these new applications needs to be transparent with marketers Important Documents : www.gregstuart.com 48 Important Documents I can send to you or you can get at IAB.net
Terms & Conditions
Ad & Other Creative Guidelines
Video Positioning Online Advertising : www.gregstuart.com 49 Positioning Online Advertising What Does the Research Show In How to Position Online as a Medium The Interactive Positioning : www.gregstuart.com 50 The Interactive Positioning Television Print Radio Direct Mail INTERACTIVE Only Interactive Advertising lets you combine the ability to target and create a dialogue with the AUDIENCE that matters to your brand, lets your customer EXPERIENCE your brand the way THEY want to, and allows you to measure the EFFECTIVENESS of your marketing dollars. Interactive is the only medium that lies at the intersection of Audience, Effectiveness and Experience High Intensity Agreement with the Motivations : www.gregstuart.com 51 High Intensity Agreement with the Motivations On a scale of 1-10, how much do you agree with the following statements? Chart represents % of the population agreeing with an 7 or above (high intensity) “Interactive Advertising is a must have in my media mix.” “I will further my career if I use Interactive Advertising successfully” “I realize there is so much more I can do with Interactive Advertising” Respondent Agreements with Key Motivations : www.gregstuart.com 52 Respondent Agreements with Key Motivations Sample Segmentation By Current Attitudes to Interactive Advertising : www.gregstuart.com 53 Sample Segmentation By Current Attitudes to Interactive Advertising Based on composite mean scores for six motivation questions Fence-Sitters Profile : www.gregstuart.com 54 Fence-Sitters Profile Median Revenues (in $mm) Median Ad spend (in $mm) Print Ads : www.gregstuart.com 55 Print Ads Slide 56: www.gregstuart.com 56 Trends & Data : www.gregstuart.com 57 Trends & Data Never Enough Data. Lots of Trends.
What Does it Mean? Global Online Population : www.gregstuart.com 58 Global Online Population Currently about 1.2 billion
Projected to grow to 1.8 billion by 2010 The Internet is the 3rd most used medium and about to become 2nd only to TV : www.gregstuart.com 59 The Internet is the 3rd most used medium and about to become 2nd only to TV * Excludes work usage. The Internet is a already a massive medium, but still growing rapidly in a variety of ways : www.gregstuart.com 60 The Internet is a already a massive medium, but still growing rapidly in a variety of ways 191 million U.S. people age 2+ online in a month, spending an average of 30 hours online per person*
But 77% of 841 million global Internet users now outside of U.S.
99% of online population search in a month, conducting 80 searches per searcher**
73% of online population stream a video, viewing an average of 83 videos per viewer per month ***
Up 50% vs YA
67% of online population visit a social networking site, spending 4 hours per month per visitor*
Online consumer spending totaled $200B in 2007, up 20% vs. YA
Non-travel represents 8% of consumer spend (excl. food, gas, and autos) Internet’s reach exceeds TV’s from 7 am to 8 pm : www.gregstuart.com 61 Internet’s reach exceeds TV’s from 7 am to 8 pm 61 Source: National People Meter, comScore Media Metrix 2007 The Web Already Delivers More Advertising Than TV! : www.gregstuart.com 62 The Web Already Delivers More Advertising Than TV! 62 2.2 x Monthly GRP’s Monthly Impressions Per Person Source: Display Impressions: comScore Ad Metrix, Jan -08, Television GRP’s: comScore Estimates 62 The CPM’s are just much, much lower for Internet. Internet Ad Revenues Continue to Surge : www.gregstuart.com 63 Internet Ad Revenues Continue to Surge Quarterly Internet Advertising Revenues
($ Billions) 1998 1999 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 Source: Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB), PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) estimates. $21.1B in 2007,
Up 26% Over 2006 Ad Dollars are Flowing Online : www.gregstuart.com 64 Ad Dollars are Flowing Online Internet
Newspapers $21 Billion
$44 Media Advertising Dollars Spent in 2007* Percent Change from 2006 Source: Global Insights as published in BusinessWeek* Other sources may define categories differently, leading to different results 60% of all ad spending in traditional media goes to branding campaigns Yet, online is only 7% of total ad spending in the U.S. : www.gregstuart.com 65 Yet, online is only 7% of total ad spending in the U.S. 2007 Estimate
($ in Millions) Source: Advertising Age by Robert J. Coen, McCann-Erickson Inc; Newspaper Association of America; Radio Advertising Bureau; Simba Information; Outdoor Advertising Association of America; Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB); Lehman Brothers 65 Decline in Online Ad Click-Through Rates : www.gregstuart.com 66 Decline in Online Ad Click-Through Rates Sources: Doubleclick, eMarketer, Eyeblaster, ABI Research estimates Clickers Follow the 80/20 Rule : www.gregstuart.com 67 Clickers Follow the 80/20 Rule Source: comScore, Total US Online Population, July 2007 Clickers are predominantly
younger (25 - 44) with lower income (under $40K) Those Who Viewed the Ad But Did Not Click Drove Majority of Site Engagement and Sales : www.gregstuart.com 68 Those Who Viewed the Ad But Did Not Click Drove Majority of Site Engagement and Sales % of Exposed People Include View-Through Effects When Measuring the Campaign – Clicks Are NOT Enough Clicks on Display Ads Are a Misleading Metric and They Don’t Reflect Brand-Building Effects : www.gregstuart.com 69 Clicks on Display Ads Are a Misleading Metric and They Don’t Reflect Brand-Building Effects Only use for direct response ad campaigns (or search)
Clicks don’t measure all of a campaign’s sales impact, including the cumulative (latent) and offline impact of ads
Clicks don’t tell you anything about brand building effects 69 Future and Other Suggestions : www.gregstuart.com 70 Future and Other Suggestions Future Trends to Watch : www.gregstuart.com 71 Future Trends to Watch What are the key issues to look for:
Video Online: More, better, targeted and innovative ad units
Targeting: More options, behavioral, ISP Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), Social Media, Influencers
Mobile: Still very small but they are getting there. Lots of road blocks but it is “unique” for reaching consumers
IPTV: Canoe by Comcast and TimeWarner will push the boundaries here. Internet Video Advertising Spending TrendsThe hottest growth is in Video Ads on the Net : www.gregstuart.com 72 Internet Video Advertising Spending TrendsThe hottest growth is in Video Ads on the Net Source: eMarketer Other Suggestions : www.gregstuart.com 73 Other Suggestions Subscribe to IAB Smartbrief
Potential events to attend
AdTech – August 5-6 in Chicago (perf oriented)
iMedia - Various
Get on LinkedIn
Get on Facebook More at www.linkedin.com/in/gregstuart : www.gregstuart.com 74 More at www.linkedin.com/in/gregstuart Greg Stuart is a recognized thought leader in the digital media and advertising and was selected by Ad Age as one of “10 Who Made Their Mark” in 2006.
He is the former CEO & President of the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB), the trade group for the interactive advertising & marketing industry. He led the industry from $6 to $17 billion annually while growing the IAB’s revenues +500% in just 4 years. The IAB serves AOL, CNET, Google, Disney, Yahoo! & others.
His recent book, “What Sticks: Why Most Advertising Fails and How to Guarantee Yours Succeeds,” Ad Age identified it as “One of 10 books you should have read,”
Greg has more than two decades of experience in Internet start-ups, digital media and traditional advertising. He has served as head of Marketing/Biz Dev/Ad Sales at Cars.com pushing them to number 1 in category 6 months post launch. Also was VP of BD at Flycast Networks, when it IPO'd and then sold to CMGI. He's been a Venture Partner, Interim CEO of 2 Ad Technology companies, launched Sony's Online The Station and built the first Interactive division at the world’s leading direct marketing agency, Wunderman (a subsidiary of Young & Rubicam).
He was on the Board of Rapt, Inc. in SF, sold to Microsoft; and Board of Allyes in China, sold to Focus Media. He volunteers his time to SEMPO, IAB Mexico, Mobile Marketing Association and anyone else that asks.
Since Greg applauds entrepreneurs, serving on the Advisory Boards of multiple venture-backed companies Adify [Ad Networks], Anchor Intelligence [Search], Veoh [Video], Tremor Media [Video], Vizu [Research], Komli [Ad Network], Zumobi [Mobile], AdInfuse [Mobile], myYearbook [Social Ntk] and others.
He is also member of the National Speakers Association and speaks around the world on the Internet and failings of Advertising.
Greg has a BA in Economics from the University of Washington and completed Wharton’s Advanced Management Program in July 2008. He lives very happily in Bridgehampton, NY with his wife Pamela, twin daughters, and son.