Lecture 15 : Lecture 15 Contrastive Analysis (2) The Contrastive Analysis Assumptions : The Contrastive Analysis Assumptions 1. L1 causes most errors in the L2.
2. Bigger differences mean more
3. Difficulty is caused by difference.
4.Learn differences, not similarities. CA Hierarchy of Difficulty : CA Hierarchy of Difficulty Split: One item in the native language becomes two or more in the target language requiring the learner to make a new distinction.
New category: (Over-differentiation) A new item in the target language, which is not at all similar to a native language item, must be learned. CA Hierarchy of Difficulty : CA Hierarchy of Difficulty Absent category (Under-differentiation )
An item in the native language is absent in the target language. The learner must avoid that item.
Coalesced: Two items in the native language become coalesced into essentially one item in the target language. This requires that learners overlook a distinction they have grown accustomed to. CA Hierarchy of Difficulty : CA Hierarchy of Difficulty Complete correspondence (transfer): No difference or contrast is present between the two languages. The learner can simply transfer a sound, structure, or lexical item from the native language to the target language.
( Difficulty will be greatest when there is a split and least in the case of coalesced) CA Methodology : CA Methodology Build hypotheses on the possible negative and positive transfers and empirically test these hypotheses by selecting compatible tasks and describing them in the same way.
Analyze the data and then accept or reject hypotheses.
Develop teaching material on the possible positive and negative transfers. CA and L2 Teaching : CA and L2 Teaching The most effective teaching material to be learned by L2 learners are those based upon a CA between a learner’s L1 and L2.
Criteria for selecting testing items can ideally be done on basis of CA.
The importance of CA in choosing teaching material is generally evidenced as a method of preventing L1 transfer, remedying errors, and exploiting similarities between languages. CA and L2 Teaching : CA and L2 Teaching If CA is carried out on a large scale for two or three surveys, it can be helpful in drawing up a curriculum.
CA is very useful in a homogeneous classroom more than in a heterogeneous classroom. CA Critics : CA Critics Being based on the notion of habit – formation which neglects the role of the mind in the SLA process.
Adequate knowledge of languages to be contrasted may not be possessed by some researchers.
Overprediction of errors.
Underprediction of errors.
Contrast between an L2 and L1 alone does not tell much about how a learner goes about the learning process of a task. CA Defense : CA Defense CA is not necessarily connected with habit formation, but it is based on transfer theory as being an integral factor in the L2 learning process.
At present, different aspects of most known languages are written in English.
Overprediction may be due to poor analysis or poor predictions about what is difficult and what is not.
For Underprediction, CA is not the only approach for L2 learning and teaching.