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Slide 1: 

DR. A. V. M.D,

SCORPIONS : 

SCORPIONS

HISTORY : 

HISTORY Oldest known terrestrial arthropods dating back 430 million years Believed to have had an oceanic origin with gills and claw like appendage enabling them to climb on rocky shores and seaweed Scorpions have been found in many fossil records including coal deposits

DESCRIPTION : 

DESCRIPTION Scorpions are eight legged venomous invertebrates belonging to the arachnid Related to spiders, mites, and ticks Long slender body with a five segmented tail that can be arched over the back The tail ends in a bulb like poison gland or stinger

Slide 6: 

Scorpions have two eyes on top of the head Two to five pairs of eyes along the front corner of the head Scorpions don’t see well and must rely on their pectines for sense of touch to find prey and for navigation. They have a well developed sense of hearing Scorpions range in size from ½ inch to 7 ½ in length Usually tan with flat bodies that enable them to hide in small cracks, under rocks and in bark

BIOLOGY : 

BIOLOGY Scorpions are nocturnal hiding during the day and becoming active at night Some species live 20 -25 years with the average life span of 3 to 8 years Scorpion mating takes 24- 36 hours Gestation is 5 months to 1 year Scorpions give birth live with scorpions transported on their mother’s back

Slide 10: 

Average litter is 13 to 47 Scorpions fluoresce under an ultraviolet light Scorpions have adapted to desert living with extra layers of fats on their exoskeleton that minimizes water loss. Scorpions do drink water but they derive most of their water from food Scorpions have been known to survive 4 to 5 months without food Scorpions are most active at nighttime temperatures are above 70 degrees. Less active during winter and the hottest part of the summer during daylight hours

RANGE AND HABITAT : 

RANGE AND HABITAT Thought to be desert animals Found also in grasslands and savannahs Deciduous forests Rain forests, pine forests and caves Scorpions even found under snow covered rock over 12,000 feet in the Himalayas of Asia Scorpions often found under rocks, under boards and in debris

Slide 12: 

Distinctly associated with dead vegetation, falling logs and in human dwellings i.e. my house! The burrow under rocks and climb trees and walls often found in the attics and crawl spaces of homes and move into the cooler spaces of homes during hot weather, ie bathrooms, kitchens, washrooms where water is present

SCORPION STINGS : 

SCORPION STINGS Scorpion stings can be painful and deadly depending on the species 1500 species worldwide but only 20-25 are considered dangerous 90 species of scorpions identified in the United States and Texas has 18 species, most common occurring is the striped bark scorpion Stings from poisonous scorpions can cause paralysis, convulsions, cardiac irregularities, breathing difficulties and death.

Scorpion Sting : 

Scorpion Sting Autonomic Storm Myocardial Depression Central Nervous System dysfunction Endocrine Dysfunction

Slide 19: 

Antivenom is available where poisonous scorpions live, i.e. Arizona, Mexico, New Mexico Most dangerous scorpions live in North Africa, Middle East, South America, India, and Mexico Mortality rates about 4% with children and elderly being the most susceptible Death by scorpion, if it occurs is the result of heart or respiratory failure During the 1980’s in Mexico there were 800 scorpion deaths, now none reported due to antivenom

SCORPION VENOM : 

SCORPION VENOM The venom is used for both prey capture , defense and possibly to subdue mates All scorpions do possess venom and can sting but their natural tendency is to hide and escape Scorpions can control the venom flow so some sting incidents are venom less or only mild envenomations Scorpion venoms are a complex mixture of neurotoxins that affect the victims’ nervous system. The venom of a bark scorpion may produce severe pain, rarely swelling, at the site of the sting

Slide 21: 

Numbness, frothing at the mouth, difficulties in breathing including respiratory paralysis, muscle twitching and convulsions Stings by the Centruroides species in Arizona and New Mexico may be fatal. The sing is often very painful and gives rise to immediate distress including Numbness around the wound Weakness or even paralysis of the injured part Hyperactivity ad anxiety

Slide 22: 

Profuse salivation, dizziness Difficulty in speaking and swallowing Respiratory distress and in some cases convulsions Stings by most scorpions are not likely to be serious and usually result in localized pain and paresthesia, some swelling and tenderness, localized ecchymosis and formation of vesicles

TREATMENT : 

TREATMENT Ice immediately White vinegar treatment Apply a topical or local anesthetic to the wound to decrease paresthesia Administer local wound care and topical antibiotic to the wound Administer tetanus prophylaxis Administer systemic antibiotics if signs of secondary infection occur Administer muscle relaxants for severe muscle spasms( ie benzodiazepines ) Keep the extremity lower than heart level

Management - 1 : 

Management - 1 Analgesia: Pain relief for the local pain can be achieved with NSAID or local injection of 2% xylocaine (adrenaline free). Morphine (and other opioids) should be avoided as it can cause dysrhythmias. Antiserum:In a study published in 2006, specific antiserum was found useful in the management of severe serious scorpion sting. Needs confirmation.

Management - 2 : 

Management - 2 Prazosin: Prazosin is a competitive post synaptic alpha 1 receptor antagonist. It blunts the sympathetic storm and activates the venom inhibited calcium dependent potassium channels. Peak concentration is reached in 1-3hours and plasma half life is about 2-3hours. Clinically, it starts acting in 1 hour and maximum action occurs at the end of three hours. It is easy to administer even in rural settings. It is administered orally in a dose of 30ug / kg per dose for children and repeated every three hours initially and at six hour intervals later. However, because it is commonly available as a scored 1mg tablet and it is difficult to titrate the dose exactly on a weight basis, a dose of 250ug for children and 500ug for adults has been used initially and at 3hourly intervals with good results. Prazosin is stopped when the extremities become warm and dry. The number of doses of prazosin needed varies between 2 and 6 with a mean of 4.5 doses.

Lytic cocktail: : 

Lytic cocktail: This was the traditional therapy for scorpion sting. The “cocktail” consists of pethidine 100mg, chlorpromazine 50mg and promethazine 50mg in 50ml of 5% glucose. The dose is 0.3ml per kilogram body weight. The beneficial effect was probably due to the alpha blocking action of chlorpromazine. However, the opiate (pethidine) can potentially worsen cardiac arrhythmias. Its use has declined after after prazosin has been shown to be effective.

Glucose insulin potassium regimen: : 

Glucose insulin potassium regimen: The dose of glucose is 0.5g/kg/hour and insulin is administered at a dose 0.3units / g of glucose. It can be prepared by adding 15units of plain insulin to 500ml of 10% glucose solution and infusing it at a rate of 5ml/kg/hour. Adequate potassium is to be added by monitoring serum potassium. However no controlled trials are available to document the benefit of this preparation.

Management - 4 : 

Management - 4 Correct fluid loss Correct acid base abnormalities. Oxygen and respiratory support as indicated. Diuretics can be used cautiously. Inotropic support can be given : dopamine ( no evidence) or dobutamine 7 – 20 ug / kg / min (MAP < 60mm Hg, oliguria)

Do not Use!! : 

Do not Use!! Atropine Morphine Steroids ACE inhibitors Ca Channel blockers

COMPLICATIONS OF SCORPION BITES : 

COMPLICATIONS OF SCORPION BITES Dilated cardiomyopathy Ankylosis of small joints if the sting occurs at the joint Rhabdomyolysis Persistent paresthesia Antivenon anaphylaxis and serum sickness Iatrogenic, high does, sedative-hypnotic respiratory arrest Tachypnea Pulmonary edema with hemoptysis and a normal size heart is observed in 7-32% of cases Respiratory failure secondary to diaphragm paralysis

Allergic Symptoms : 

Allergic Symptoms Utacaria Angioedema Broncospasm Anaphylaxis

Gastrointestinal signs : 

Gastrointestinal signs Excessive salivation Dysphagia Nausea and vomiting Gastric hyperdistention

Genitourinary Signs : 

Genitourinary Signs Decreased renal plasma flow Acute tubular necrosis Rhabdomyloysis renal failure Priapism secondary to cholinergic stimulation

Cranial Nerve signs : 

Cranial Nerve signs Classic rotary eye movement, ptosis, nystagmus and blurred vision Mydriasis Tongue fasciculations Dysphagia,dyarthria, stridor Excessive salivation and drooling

Nonneurologic systemic signs : 

Nonneurologic systemic signs Hypertension Tachycardia greater than 130 beats per minute Transient apical pansystolic murmur consistent with papillary muscle damage Cardiovascular collapse secondary to profuse loss from sweating, vomiting, diarrhea and hypersalivation

PREVENTION OF SCORPION BITES : 

PREVENTION OF SCORPION BITES Check shoes, gloves, clothing, and backpacks for scorpions prior to use Keep yards free of debris which can serve as a place for scorpions to hide Make sure windows and doors fit tightly to prevent scorpions from entering house Avoid walking barefoot especially at night when scorpions are active Never thrust hand or kick your foot where the eye cannot see Brush don’t swat anything off your body during the night Never bring firewood directly into house unless it goes right on the fire

PROGNOSIS : 

PROGNOSIS The prognosis depends on which species of scorpion stung the patient The symptoms generally persist for 10-48 hours. If the victim survives the first few hours without severe symptoms the prognosis is usually good. Worst prognosis can be expected with the presence of systemic symptoms such as cardiovascular symptoms, seizures, or coma.

FIRE ANTS a.k.a THE ANTS FROM HELL : 

FIRE ANTS a.k.a THE ANTS FROM HELL Indigenous to central Brazil has found its way to this country through the shipping ports of Mobile Alabama and has moved upward through southeast United States and Texas An estimated one million people are bitten each year by fire ants Damage by fire ants in rural Texas is estimated at $236.5 million a year up to 1 billion Damage is caused by loss of crops, wildlife, electrical equipment destruction not to mention the hazards to humans

MOUNDS : 

MOUNDS Most single queen mounds number up to 100/acre with 80,000 to 250,000 individuals per colony Typical mounds are rounded being up to 18’ high and 24’ in diameter Each has several tunnels just under the soil extending out several feet

THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF EGGS : 

THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF EGGS unfertilized eggs- become males with wings whose only function is to mate with the queen fertilized eggs- become females which are either Winged virgin queens or various castes of sterile workers

Slide 44: 

Fire ants are a member of the mile high club mating in the air After mating the male dies and the female loses her wings and begins searching for a suitable nesting site: A queen can live up to six years and is capable of producing her own weight in eggs each day or about 1500 or more

Slide 45: 

Developmental time from egg to worker ranges up to 38 days Minor workers live 60 days, intermediates to 90 days and majors up to 180 days or longer Younger workers are assigned the job of caring for the developing brood, middle aged workers maintain and protect the colony and the eldest forage for food

HABITS : 

HABITS Fire ants are typically ground nesting ants They also nest in the wood or masonry of buildings, near soil or warm places such as fireplaces and also near kitchens Fire ants are attracted to electrical junction boxes of traffic signals, air conditioners. When they mass around electrical contact points they cause equipment to malfunction.

Slide 49: 

They also nest in gas and water meter boxes and follow pipes into buildings Fire ants gnaw into the roots, stems, buds and fruits of plants such as cabbage, okra, peas and seriously injure young trees by removing the outer bark from roots or trunks They prefer a food high in protein content but will feed on almost anything, plant or animal

Slide 50: 

Fire ants have been known to remove insulation from phone and electrical wires and to gnaw on clothing, especially if soiled They are a menace to wild animals and to the eggs and young of ground nesting birds and farm animals

DESCRIPTION : 

DESCRIPTION Fire ants look very much like ordinary house or garden ant Fire ants are small, coppery brown in color to red They come in a variety of sizes within one nest ranging from 2 mm to 6 mm, a distinguishing feature Have nests with no obvious entry or exit hole on top of them They are EXTREMELY AGGRESSIVE , particularly near their nest

ENVENOMATION : 

ENVENOMATION A fire ant has a stinger and a poison sac When biting a fire ant first pinches up the skin with its mandibles, raising it slightly , this in itself causes pain The ant then arches its back and inserts its stinger, maintaining its position for 20-25 seconds. The ant then uses its head as a pivot and rotates and inserts the stinger in 2 and 3 additional places causing a clustering of sting sights. After two minutes a bright red hemorrhagic puncture may be seen at the point where the mandibles entered

Slide 56: 

Within several minutes a wheal 4 to 8 mm in diameter appears and by that time the stinging sensation subsides Within 24 hours a pustule 2 to 3 mm in diameter appears The blisters formed at the site of each sting are very itchy while healing and are prone to infection if broken In 3 to 8 days the purulent material is absorbed or sloughed off and leaves a smooth pink are 2 to 3 mm in diameter persisting for several weeks A scar tissue eventually develops

Slide 57: 

The venom of stinging ants is typically proteinaceous but the venom of a fire ant is found to contain an alkaloid The venom is a potent necrotoxin and has pronounced hemolytic, phytotoxic, insectididal and antibiotic activities Some people are sensitive to the venom and experience anaphylaxis requiring emergency treatment

ANAPHYLACTIC REACTIONS TO FIRE ANTS INCLUDE : : 

ANAPHYLACTIC REACTIONS TO FIRE ANTS INCLUDE : Dizziness Nausea Sweating Low blood pressure Headache Shortness of breath SHOCK COMA, DEATH

TREATMENT : 

TREATMENT ICE Solution of half bleach half water can reduce pain, itching and pustule formation if applied immediately Baking soda and water An antihistamine or topical corticosteroid may reduce the itching Aloe vera also helps reduce the itching Antibiotics for infection Tetnus Epi pen Benadryl

MOST AT RISK PATIENTS : 

MOST AT RISK PATIENTS Very young children Elderly People allergic to the venom

CONTROLLING FIRE ANTS : 

CONTROLLING FIRE ANTS Broadcasting chemicals across the lawn and on the mound takes 6-8 weeks Phorid flies controls by laying eggs in fire ants that grow and decapitates the fire ant Armadillos

BROWN RECLUSE SPIDER : 

BROWN RECLUSE SPIDER ONLY ONE OF TWO COMMON SPIDER GROUPS IN THE UNITED STATES CONSIDERED POISONOUS IDENTIFIED BY LONG THIN LEGS OVAL SHAPED ABDOMEN, LIGHT TAN TO DARK BROWN CHARACTERISTIC VIOLIN SHAPED MARKING ON ITS BACK KNOWN AS FIDDLEBACK SPIDERS SHY AND NON AGGRESSIVE IN NATURE

Slide 68: 

BROWN RECLUSE HAVE SIX SETS OF EYES UNLIKE MOST SPIDERS THAT HAVE EIGHT EYES THE TAIL END HAS NO MARKINGS RANGE IN SIZE FROM 3/8 INCH TO ½ IN WITH THE MALE SMALLER THAN THE FEMALE BROWN RECLUSE BUILD IRREGULAR WEBS THAT FREQUENTLY INCLUDE A SHELTER OF DISORDERLY THREADS

HABITS : 

HABITS FOUND THROUGHOUT THE SOUTHCENTRAL AND MIDWESTERN PART OF THE UNITED STATES NOCTURAL COMING OUT ONLY AT NIGHT TO HUNT INSECT PREY EITHER ALIVE OR DEAD THEY DO NOT EMPLOY A WEB TO CAPTURE FOOD

Slide 71: 

BROWN RECLUSE CAN LIVE UP TO TWO TO FOUR YEARS THEY CAN OFTEN SURVIVE MONTHS WITHOUT FOOD OR WATER A TYPICAL HOME CAN HOUSE ONE TO A FEW SPIDERS TO A COUPLE OF HUNDRED SPIDERS ALL BROWN RECLUSE, FEMALES, MALES AND BABIES CARRY VENOM

THE BROWN RECLUSE BITE : 

THE BROWN RECLUSE BITE THE BROWN RECLUSE IS NOT AGGRESSIVE AND USUALLY BITES ONLY WHEN PRESSED AGAINST HUMAN SKIN TYPICAL SCENARIOS INCLUDE WHEN PEOPLE PUT ON CLOTHING THAT WAS LEFT ON THE FLOOR OVERNIGHT WHEN PEOPLE BLINDLY PICK UP OR GRAB OBJECTS WITHOUT GLOVES IN A SECLUDED OR RARELY VISITED AREA WHEN PEOPLE ROLL OVER IN BED ON A SPIDER THAT HAS CLIMBED UP THE COVERS THAT WERE TOUCHING THE FLOOR

THE BITES : 

THE BITES BROWN RECLUSE BITES PRODUCE A RANGE OF SYSTEMS BOTH CUTANEOUS AND SYSTEMIC FIFTY PERCENT OF THE BITES ARE DRY WITH NO VENOM INJECTED AND NOTHING HAPPENING TO THE VICTIM THESE VICTIMS OFTEN DON’T REALIZE THEY HAVE EVEN BEEN BITTEN

SYMPTOMS OF THE VENOMOUS BITE : 

SYMPTOMS OF THE VENOMOUS BITE THE VICTIM OFTEN DOES NOT FEEL THE BITE WHEN THE VENOM IS INJECTED IMMEDIATE REDNESS DEVELOPS AROUND THE SITE AND DISAPPEARS WITHIN A FEW HOURS FOR THE FIRST 24 HOURS THE BITE APPEARS NO WORSE THAN A MOSQUITO BITE A CLEAR BLISTER FORMS IN THE CENTER OF THE BITE,OFTEN BECOMING ITCHY AND PAINFUL WITHIN 24 TO 36 HOURS THE BLISTER BREAKS OPEN LEAVING AN OPEN , NECROTIC WOUND

Slide 81: 

THE ULCERTION SCABS OVER WITHIN THREE WEEKS FROM THE INITIAL BITE LEAVING A PERMANENT SCAR IF THE BITE IS DELIVERED IN FATTY TISSUE THE LESION MAY BE VERY DEEP AND EXTENSIVE NOT HEALING FOR OVER TWO TO THREE YEARS IN EXTREME CASES WHERE THE BITE WAS NOT TAKEN CARE OF EARLY, SKIN GRAFT AMPUTATION, AND THE POSSIBILITY OF BONE MARROW FAILURE MAY OCCUR

SYSTEMIC REACTIONS : 

SYSTEMIC REACTIONS MORBILLIFORM RASH FEVER CHILLS NAUSEA VOMITING JOINT PAIN HEMOLYSIS DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULTION RENAL FAILURE SEIZURES COMA DEATH

BROWN RECLUSE VENOM : 

BROWN RECLUSE VENOM HEMOLYTIC CONTAINS 8 COMPONENTS THAT CAUSE TISSUE DESTRUCTION AND HEMOLYSIS

IS IT A BROWN RECLUSE BITE? : 

IS IT A BROWN RECLUSE BITE? MRSA OFTEN MISTAKEN FOR A BROWN RECLUSE BITE IF THE WOUND IS WEEPING OR MOIST AND RED LOOKING IT IS NOT A BROWN RECLUSE BROWN RECLUSE VENOM SEALS OFF THE CAPILLARIES AND PRODUCE A DRY WOUND IF A LUMP OR SWELLING OCCURS THIS IS NOT A BROWN RECLUSE

TREATMENT : 

TREATMENT FIRST AID INCLUDES ICE, ALOE VERA, ANTIPURITICS IF POSSIBLE CAPTURE THE SPIDER AND BRING IT IN FOR ID TETNUS ANTIBIOTICS STEROIDS DAPSONE ELECTRIC SHOCK SURGICAL INCISION

BLACK WIDOW SPIDERS : 

BLACK WIDOW SPIDERS KNOWN AS THE MOST VENOMOUS SPIDER IN NORTH AMERICA THE BLACK WIDOW EARNS IT’S NAME BECAUSE THE FEMALE OFTEN EATS THE MALE AFTER MATING, THEREORE MAKING HER A WIDOW BLACK WIDOW SPIDERS INHABIT MOST OF THE WARMER REGIONS OF THE WORLD

RECOGNIZING A BLACK WIDOW : 

RECOGNIZING A BLACK WIDOW THE FEMALE BLACK WIDOW IS SHINY BLACK AND HAS A REDDISH HOURGLASS ON THE UNDERSIDE OF HER SPHERICAL ABDOMEN THE MALES ARE HARMLESS TO HUMANS, HALF THE SIZE OF THE FEMALE, WITH YELLOW AND RED BANDS AND SPOTS OVER THE BACK

FACTOIDS : 

FACTOIDS THE VENOM OF THE BLACK WIDOW SPIDER IS 15 TIMES AS TOXIC AS THE VENOM OF THE RATTLESNAKE BLACK WIDOW SPIDERS ARE NOT USUALLY DEADLY BECAUSE THEY INJECT ONLY A SMALL AMOUNT OF VENOM ONLY THE FEMALE IS DANGEROUS TO HUMAN, MALES AND JUVENILES ARE HARMLESS LIFESPAN IS ABOUT THREE YEARS

Slide 92: 

THE FEMALE BLACK WIDOW HANGS BELLY UPWARD AND RARELY LEAVES THE WEB THE BLACK WIDOW SPIDER IS SHY AND NOCTURNAL USUALLY STAYING IN HER WEB SHE BECOMES AGGRESSIVE AND BITES WHEN HER WEB IS DISTURBED THE FEMALE AVOIDS LIGHT AND SEEKS PREY AT NIGHT

HABITAT : 

HABITAT BLACK WIDOWS LIVE IN PROTECTED AREAS WOODPILES UNDER STONES AND DECKS HOLLOW TREES LOW BRANCHES BARNS, SHEDS, OUT HOUSES DRY PLACES CRAWL SPACES

THE BLACK WIDOW BITE : 

THE BLACK WIDOW BITE CAN GO UNNOTICED, ALTHOUGH IT OFTEN PRODUCES A SHARP IN PRICK PAIN THE BITE COMES FROM A SET OF FANGS THE SPIDER INJECTS A NEUROTOXIN SEVERITY OF AN INDIVIDUAL’S REACTION DEPENDS ON AREA OF BODY BITTEN AMOUNT OF VENOM INJECTED SENSITIVITY TO VENOM

Slide 96: 

THE BITE MAY GO UNNOTICED BUT MOST REPORT A SHORT STABBING PAIN THE VENOM TRAVELS IN THE BLOODSTREAM THROUGHOUT THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CAUSING VARIOUS DEGREES OF PAIN

SYMPTOMS : 

SYMPTOMS LOCALIZED SWELLING AND TWO FAINT RED SPOTS AT BITE AFTER THREE HOURS THE SITE OF THE BITE BECOMES MORE PAINFUL COMMON REACTIONS INCLUDE AN OVERALL ACHE OF THE BODY, PARTICULARLY THE LEGS

OTHER SYMPTOMS : 

OTHER SYMPTOMS ALTERNATING SALIVATION AND DRY MOUTH PARALYSIS OF THE DIAPHRAGM PROFUSE SWEATING SWOLLEN EYES HEADACHE ELEVATED BLOOD PRESSURE NAUSEA AND VOMITING ANXIETY

Slide 100: 

THE POISON INJECTED BY THE BITE CAN CAUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN SIMILAR TO APPENDICITIS AS WELL AS PAIN TO MUSCLES AND SOLES OF THE FEET IN MOST CASES SYMPTOMS DISAPPEAR IN TWO OR THREE DAYS

TREATMENT : 

TREATMENT CLEAN THE SITE OF THE BITE WELL WITH SOAP AND WATER APPLY A COOL COMPRESS OVER BITE LOCATION AND KEEP AFFECTED LIMB ELEVATED TO ABOUT HEART LEVEL CALCIUM GLUCONATE IS USED INTRAVENOUSLY TO RELIEVE AND RELAX MUSCLE SPASM PRODUCED BY VENOM

Slide 102: 

CONTACT POISON CONTROL IF YOU ARE BITTEN AND GET TO A HOSPITAL TRY TO COLLECT THE SPIDER IN A PLASTIC BAG FOR ID ANTIVENOM IS USED IN SEVERE CASES BUT THERE IS A RISK OF ALLERGIC REACTION CHILDREN AND ELDERLY AND THOSE WITH MEDICAL PROBLEMS MOST AT RISK MAY BE LIFE THREATENING PREGNANT FEMALES MAY GO INTO EARLY LABOR

PREVENTION : 

PREVENTION THIS SPIDER IS RESISTANT TO MANY INSECTICIDES THE EGG SACS ARE UNAFFECTED BY INSECTICIDES THE FEMALE CAN STORE SPERM AND PRODUCE NEW EGGS WITHOUT A MATE REMOVE ALL MATERIAL WHERE THEY MIGHT HIDE ELIMATE CLUTTER IN STORAGE AREAS

Slide 104: 

FREQUENTLY DUST AND VACUUM ESPECIALLY CORNERS AND UNDER FURNITURE TO REMOVE WEBS, SPIDERS, AND EGG SACS TRIM WEEDS AROUND BUILDING FOUNDATIONS DON’T GO BAREFOOT DON’T GARDEN, HANDLE FIREWOOD, STRAW WITHOUT GLOVES

SNAKE BITES : 

SNAKE BITES ABOUT 25 SPECIES OF VENOMOUS SNAKES ARE NATIVE TO THE U.S. VENOMOUS SNAKES INCLUDE PIT VIPERS RATTLESNAKES COPPERHEADS COTTONMOUTHS ALSO INCLUDED ARE CORAL SNAKES

CHARACTERISTICS OF PIT VIPERS : 

CHARACTERISTICS OF PIT VIPERS LARGE FANGS THAT ARE HOLLOW PUPILS ARE VERTICAL SLITS TRIANGULAR OR ARROW SHAPED HEAD PRESENCE OF A PIT BETWEEN THE EYE AND THE MOUTH WHICH IS A HEAT SENSING ORGAN MAKING IT POSSIBLE TO STRIKE A WARM BLOODED VICTIM EVEN IF THE SNAKE CAN’T SEE THE VICTIM

SNAKE FACTOIDS : 

SNAKE FACTOIDS ROUGHLY 45,000 SNAKEBITES IN THE U.S. EACH YEAR FEWER THAN 8000 BY VENOMOUS SNAKES ABOUT SIX PEOPLE DIE IN ABOUT 25% OF ALL PIT VIPER BITES, VENOM IS NOT INJECTED RATTLESNAKES ACCOUNT FOR 70% FOR POISONOUS SNAKE BITES AND ALMOST ALL DEATHS DEATHS IN CHILDREN AND ELDERLY AN THOSE UNTREATED OR TREATED INAPPROPRIATELY

COPPERHEADS : 

COPPERHEADS SHY AND RECLUSIVE COLOR RESEMBLES FALLEN LEAVES AND STICKS COPPERHEAD WITH A CHESTNUT COLORED BODY AND DARK BROWN BANDS YOUNG COPPERHEADS HAVE A LIGHT GREEN TO YELLOW TIPPED TAIL TO LURE PREY THEY GROW 1 ½ TO 3 FEET IN LENGTH

COPPERHEAD BITES : 

COPPERHEAD BITES VENOM IS HEMOTOXIC SNAKES HAVE FOLDED FANGS BITE CAUSES SEVERE PAIN AND ILLNESS BUT IS SELDOM FATAL SNAKE BITE USUALLY OCCURS ON THE OUTER EXTREMITIES, HANDS AND FEET WHERE THERE IS LITTLE MUSCLE TISSUE TO ABSORB THE ENVENOMATION

COTTONMOUTHS : 

COTTONMOUTHS LARGE AQUATIC VENOMOUS SNAKES DARK OLIVE BROWN OR BLACK TWO TO SIX FEET IN LENGTH FOUND IN WETLAND, RIVERS, LAKES AND MY SWIMMING POOL WHITE LINED MOUTH VERY AGGRESSIVE WITH A STRONGER VENOM MAKING THEM MORE DANDEROUS

RATTLESNAKE : 

RATTLESNAKE MOST COMMON TO TEXAS IS THE WESTERN DIAMOND BACK DIAMOND SHAPED MARKINGS ALONG THE MIDDLE OF THE BACK WITH ALTERNATING BLACK AND WHITE RINGS ON THE TAIL AVERAGE LENGTH 3 TO 7 FEET CLASSIC RATLER ON THE TAIL

Slide 118: 

VENOMOUS BITE FATAL TO HUMANS VERY AGGRESSIVE SNAKE HIBERNATES IN THE WINTER USUALLY MAKES THEIR HOMES NEAR ROCKY LEDGES OR SNAKE DENS SNAKES ON THE MOVE DURING WARM NIGHTS , THIS IS WHEN MOST PEOPLE GET BITTEN

RATTLESNAKE ROUNDUP : 

RATTLESNAKE ROUNDUP

CORAL SNAKE : 

CORAL SNAKE HIGHLY DANGEROUS BUT SECRETIVE ENCOUNTERED EARLY MORNING AND EVENING HOURS AVERAGE LENGTH 24 TO 47 INCHES HEAD IS BLACK AND THE SNAKE HAS RED AND YELLOW BANDS THAT TOUCH “ RED AND YELLOW KILL A FELLOW”

CORAL SNAKES : 

CORAL SNAKES UNLIKE PIT VIPERS THEY ARE ROUNDED HEAD LONG THIN BODIES ROUND EYES NOT SLIT LIKE EYES NO PITS NO FANGS

CORAL SNAKE BITES : 

CORAL SNAKE BITES VENOM IS NEUROTOXIC SNAKE HAS NO FANGS SO IT HANGS ON WHILE BITING INJECTING AS MUCH VENOM AS POSSIBLE HIGH PERCENTAGE OF FATALITIES FROM THE CORAL SNAKE BITE

Slide 127: 

THE BITE IS USUALLY NOT PAINFUL LITTLE OR NO SWELLING OR DISCOLORATION IS PRESENT SYMPTOMS MAY BE DELAYED FOR SEVERAL HOURS BUT WHEN THEY DO PROGRESS THEY PROGRESS RAPIDLY

SYMPTOMS : 

SYMPTOMS NAUSEA DROWSINESS VOMITING MARKED SALIVATION DIFFICULTY BREATHING PARALYSIS

EARLY SYMPTOMS OF VENOMOUS SNAKE BITES : 

EARLY SYMPTOMS OF VENOMOUS SNAKE BITES PAIN PUNCTURE WOUNDS FROM FANGS BLURRED VISION BLOOD FROM THE WOUND DIZZINESS EXCESSIVE SWEATING FAINTING

EARLY SYMPTOMS : 

EARLY SYMPTOMS LOSS OF MUSCLE COORDINATION SWELLING WEAKNESS RAPID PULSE NAUSEA AND VOMITING

LONG TERM EFFECTS OF VENOMOUS SNAKE BITES : 

LONG TERM EFFECTS OF VENOMOUS SNAKE BITES LOSS OF LIMB DECREASED MOBILITY TISSUE DEATH NECROSIS AT THE SITE OF INJURY

HOW DO I AVOID GETTING A SNAKE BITE : 

HOW DO I AVOID GETTING A SNAKE BITE LEAVE SNAKES ALONE! STAY OUT OF TALL GRASS UNLESS YOU WEAR THICK BOOTS REMAIN ON HIKING PATHS KEEP HANDS AND FEET OUT OF AREAS YOU CAN’T SEE DON’T PICK UP ROCKS OR FIREWOOD UNLESS YOU ARE OUT OF A SNAKE’S STRIKING DISTANCE BE CAUTIOUS AND ALERT WHEN CLIMBING ROCKS

I’VE BEEN BITTEN : 

I’VE BEEN BITTEN SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY WASH THE BITE WITH SOAP AND WATER KEEP THE BITTEN AREA LOWER THAN THE HEART IMMOBILIZE THE BITTEN AREA

HOW NOT TO TREAT A SNAKE BITE : 

HOW NOT TO TREAT A SNAKE BITE DO NOT APPLY ORAL SUCTION TO BITE DO NOT CUT OR INCISE BITE MARKS WITH A BLADE DO NOT APPLY HOT OR COLD PACKS DO NOT APPLY A TOURNIQUET DO NOT USE A STUN GUN OR ELECTRIC SHOCK OF ANY KIND DO NOT WASTE TIME TRYING TO KILL OR BRING IN SNAKE

TREATMENT : 

TREATMENT PRIOR TO 2000 ONLY TREATMENT WAS ANTIVENIM ( Crotalidae) Polyvalent CROFAB INTRODUCED IN 2000 JANUARY 2001 ANTIVENIM DISCONTINUED

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