genetic engineering and ethical issues

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An introduction to genetic engineering.and ethical issues in biotechnology.

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Genetic Engineering : 

Genetic Engineering Ethical issues related to Biotechnology

Definition : 

Definition the science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals. The simple addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired change.

Two areas : 

Two areas genetic engineering embryo transfer

Genetic Engineering : 

Genetic Engineering is based on a technology involving recombinant DNA.

Genetic Engineering : 

Genetic Engineering involves taking a tiny bit of DNA containing the desired gene from one organism and splicing it into the DNA strand of another organism.

Genetic Engineering : 

Genetic Engineering purpose - to have the recipient organism take on the characteristic controlled by the transferred gene.

Examples : 

Examples disease resistant animals growth regulators new drugs and vaccines

Examples : 

Examples specify size and sex of animals. organism that “eats” oil used in the Persian Gulf

Genetic Engineering : 

Genetic Engineering Genetic material can be shared across scientific kingdoms. Bacteria engineered to produce human proteins. Potential is virtually endless.

Transgenic Organisms : 

Organisms altered by genetic engineering. genetic material changed by other than random natural breeding. gene transfer-moving a gene from one organism to another. these require skill and knowledge to be carried out properly. Transgenic Organisms

Transgenic Organisms : 

Transgenic Organisms GMO- genetically modified organism. GMO free food-product in which no transgenic materials were used in its manufacture, such as soyabeans used in making oils. GEO-genetically enhanced organism

Why are transgenics important? : 

Why are transgenics important? We can develop organisms that express a “novel” trait not normally found in the species <-Extended shelf-life tomato (Flavr-Savr) <- Herbicide resistant soybean

Agriculture : 

Agriculture Food processors affected by genetic engineering. Shelf-life, storage, food-handling; extended and simplified. Help resist spoilage. Plants transformed-insect,disease, and herbicide resistant. Animals treated engineered hormones-produce more milk, leaner meat.

Agriculture Transgenics On the Market : 

Agriculture Transgenics On the Market Insect resistant cotton – Bt toxin kills the cotton boll worm transgene = Bt protein Insect resistant corn – Bt toxin kills the European corn borer transgene = Bt protein

Slide 15: 

Herbicide resistant crops Now: soybean, corn, canola Coming: sugarbeet, lettuce, strawberry alfalfa, potato. transgene = modified EPSP synthase Virus resistance - papaya resistant to papaya ring spot virus transgene = virus coat protein

Slide 16: 

Biotech chymosin; the enzyme used to curdle milk products transgene = genetically engineered enzyme bST; bovin somatotropin; used to increase milk production transgene = genetically engineered enzyme

Next Generation of Ag Biotech Products : 

Next Generation of Ag Biotech Products Golden Rice – increased Vitamin A content (but not without controversy) transgene = three pathway enzymes Sunflower – white mold resistance transgene = oxalate oxidase from wheat

Slide 18: 

Turfgrass – herbicide resistance; slower growing (= reduced mowing) Bio Steel – spider silk expressed in goats; used to make soft-body bullet proof vests (Nexia)

Human Applications : 

Human Applications Pharmaceutical products New solutions to old problems   Disease diagnosis Determine what disease you have or may get  Gene therapy Correcting disease by introducing a corrective gene

Pharmaceutical Products : 

Pharmaceutical Products Pharmacology-preparation, use, and affect of drugs Potential production of drugs is great. . Product Use Insulin Diabetes Interferon Cancer Interleukin Cancer Human growth hormone Dwarfism Neuroactive proteins Pain

Industry and Environment : 

Industry and Environment More efficient use of scarce minerals Greater efficiency in mining. Major concern-waste management. Biodegrade a number of waste products Sewage and petroleum products.

Environmental Applications : 

Environmental Applications Bioremediation - cleanup contaminated sites; uses microbes designed to degrade the pollution. Indicator bacteria -contamination can be detected in the environment.

Edible VaccinesTransgenic Plants Serving Human Health Needs : 

Edible VaccinesTransgenic Plants Serving Human Health Needs Works like any vaccine A transgenic plant with a pathogen protein gene is developed Potato, banana, and tomato are targets Humans eat the plant The body produces antibodies against pathogen protein Humans are “immunized” against the pathogen Examples: Diarrhea Hepatitis B Measles

Important Plant Improvement Methods Breeding- Crossing two Individuals from the same species produces a new, improved variety; not a biotechnology procedure : 

Important Plant Improvement Methods Breeding- Crossing two Individuals from the same species produces a new, improved variety; not a biotechnology procedure Transformation- Adding a gene from another species; the essential biotechnology procedure to produce transgenics.

The Process:- : 

The Process:- Isolating genes Modifying genes so they function better Preparing genes to be inserted into a new species Developing transgenes.

Introducing the Geneor Developing Transgenics : 

Introducing the Geneor Developing Transgenics Steps 1. Create transformation cassette. 2. Introduce and select for transformants.

Transformation Cassettes : 

Transformation Cassettes Contains Gene of interest The coding region and its controlling elements 2. Selectable marker Distinguishes transformed/untransformed plants 3. Insertion sequences Aids Agrobacterium insertion

Transformation Steps : 

Transformation Steps Prepare tissue for transformation Tissue must be capable of developing into normal plants Leaf, germinating seed, immature embryos Introduce DNA Agrobacterium or gene gun Culture plant tissue Develop shoots Root the shoots Field test the plants Multiple sites, multiple years

Delivering the Gene to the Plant : 

Delivering the Gene to the Plant Transformation cassettes are developed in the lab They are then introduced into a plant Two major delivery methods:-

The Lab Steps : 

The Lab Steps

The Next Test Is The Field : 

The Next Test Is The Field Herbicide Resistance

Agrobacterium Tumefaciens : 

Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a bacterium that causes a disease known as crown gall in plants. Infects plants by transferring its genetic material into plant cell. Agrobacterium transformation is the most common technique for genetically engineered plants.

Genetic Engineering of Animals : 

Genetic Engineering of Animals Due to early cell differentiation, genetic transformation in animals must occur in the early embryo stage following the union of sex cells. This is accomplished by using microinjection, to randomly inject DNA into the fertilized cell Microinjection- is the injection of materials directly into cells using a small glass pipette.

Endonucleases : 

Endonucleases Type of enzyme in DNA strand. Produced nucleic acid strand breaks interior of nucleic acid strand. Restriction endonucleases enzyme produced by bacteria that is used in recombinant DNA. Cuts open bacterial plasmid.

Cloning Vectors : 

Cloning Vectors Carrier for DNA during the recombinant DNA process. Plasmid-piece of free-floating DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria. Double-stranded, circular molecules that replicate independently of the chromosome

The process of creating transgenic animals involves three major steps: : 

The process of creating transgenic animals involves three major steps: Obtaining embryos Microinjectioning embryos Culturing and transferring zygotes Transgenic integration- is expressed by the animal of that desired trait.

Opposition to “Biotech” : 

Opposition to “Biotech” people fear. production of new uncontrollable disease. freak animals. long term adverse effects of environment from products.

Slow Progress : 

Slow Progress lack of money for research government regulations environmental groups filing lawsuits to stop research and testing

Slow Progress : 

Slow Progress many farmers don’t support genetic engineering because they feel we already have surplus production

Issues and Ethics : 

Issues and Ethics

Major Issues in Biotechnology : 

Major Issues in Biotechnology Changing the genetic material of an organism using artificial means Planting genetically modified plants Raising genetically modified animals

Major Issues in Biotechnology cont. : 

Major Issues in Biotechnology cont. Consuming foods from genetically modified plants and animals Using substances that alter or enhance the normal processes of plants and animals

Major Issues : 

Major Issues Maintaining genetic diversity in wild plants and animals Taking drugs produced through genetic modification Injecting foreign genes into the human body to promote good health

Actions Plans : 

Properly identify the problem or issue Good information is needed to properly deal with an issue Identify possible solutions to the issue Actions Plans

Action Plans cont. : 

Action Plans cont. Identify the consequences of using possible solutions Focus on the one best solution Implement the solution

Ethics and Biotech : 

Ethics and Biotech Ethics: a set of principles that guide human actions Bioethics: the area of ethics that deals with the life sciences Religion: a system of beliefs and practices that an individual chooses to follow

Ethics in Science : 

Ethics in Science Divided into three areas: Scientific misconduct Questionable research practices Other misconduct

Religion and Biotech : 

Religion and Biotech Influence biotech 2 different ways: Religion set moral rules that will influence the way a person perceives what is good or bad Common fact that God created life

Ethics and the Future of Biotech : 

Ethics and the Future of Biotech Developments are limited by advancements in science and by ethical rules. Some of the progress are considered morally unacceptable exp. Cloning

Bill Clinton Says….. : 

Bill Clinton Says….. “Banning human cloning reflects our humanity. At its worst, this could lead to misguided and malevolent attempts to select certain traits, even to create certain kinds of children – to make our children objects rather that cherished individuals.”

The Human Genome Project : 

The Human Genome Project Identify all genes in human DNA (80,000 to 100,000) Determine the sequences of the chemical base pairs Maintain databases of the information Develop methods of data analysis Study ethical issues associate with human genome information and uses

THE END : 

THE END By: Manisha Sharma MSc. Biotech Sem Ist References: www.encyclopedia.com www.cnn.com www.NDSU.com

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