Genetic Engineering : Genetic Engineering Ethical issues related to Biotechnology Definition : Definition the science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals.
The simple addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired change. Two areas : Two areas genetic engineering
embryo transfer Genetic Engineering : Genetic Engineering is based on a technology involving recombinant DNA. Genetic Engineering : Genetic Engineering involves taking a tiny bit of DNA containing the desired gene from one organism and splicing it into the DNA strand of another organism. Genetic Engineering : Genetic Engineering purpose - to have the recipient organism take on the characteristic controlled by the transferred gene. Examples : Examples disease resistant animals
new drugs and vaccines Examples : Examples specify size and sex of animals.
organism that “eats” oil used in the Persian Gulf Genetic Engineering : Genetic Engineering Genetic material can be shared across scientific kingdoms.
Bacteria engineered to produce human proteins.
Potential is virtually endless. Transgenic Organisms : Organisms altered by genetic engineering.
genetic material changed by other than random natural breeding.
gene transfer-moving a gene from one organism to another.
these require skill and knowledge to be carried out properly. Transgenic Organisms Transgenic Organisms : Transgenic Organisms GMO- genetically modified organism.
GMO free food-product in which no transgenic materials were used in its manufacture, such as soyabeans used in making oils.
GEO-genetically enhanced organism Why are transgenics important? : Why are transgenics important? We can develop organisms that express a “novel” trait not normally found in the species
<-Extended shelf-life tomato (Flavr-Savr)
<- Herbicide resistant soybean Agriculture : Agriculture Food processors affected by genetic engineering.
Shelf-life, storage, food-handling; extended and simplified.
Help resist spoilage.
Plants transformed-insect,disease, and herbicide resistant.
Animals treated engineered hormones-produce more milk, leaner meat. Agriculture Transgenics On the Market : Agriculture Transgenics On the Market Insect resistant cotton – Bt toxin
kills the cotton boll worm
transgene = Bt protein
Insect resistant corn – Bt toxin
kills the European corn borer
transgene = Bt protein Slide 15: Herbicide resistant crops
Now: soybean, corn, canola
Coming: sugarbeet, lettuce, strawberry
transgene = modified EPSP synthase Virus resistance - papaya resistant to
papaya ring spot virus
transgene = virus coat protein Slide 16: Biotech chymosin; the enzyme used to curdle milk products
transgene = genetically engineered enzyme bST; bovin somatotropin; used to increase
transgene = genetically engineered enzyme Next Generation of Ag Biotech Products : Next Generation of Ag Biotech Products Golden Rice – increased Vitamin A content
(but not without controversy)
transgene = three pathway enzymes Sunflower – white mold resistance
transgene = oxalate oxidase from wheat Slide 18: Turfgrass – herbicide resistance;
slower growing (= reduced mowing) Bio Steel – spider silk expressed in goats; used to
make soft-body bullet proof vests (Nexia) Human Applications : Human Applications Pharmaceutical products
New solutions to old problems
Determine what disease you have or may get
Correcting disease by introducing a corrective gene Pharmaceutical Products : Pharmaceutical Products Pharmacology-preparation, use, and affect of drugs
Potential production of drugs is great.
. Product Use
Human growth hormone Dwarfism
Neuroactive proteins Pain Industry and Environment : Industry and Environment More efficient use of scarce minerals
Greater efficiency in mining.
Major concern-waste management.
Biodegrade a number of waste products
Sewage and petroleum products. Environmental Applications : Environmental Applications Bioremediation - cleanup contaminated sites; uses microbes designed to degrade the pollution. Indicator bacteria -contamination can be
detected in the environment. Edible VaccinesTransgenic Plants Serving Human Health Needs : Edible VaccinesTransgenic Plants Serving Human Health Needs Works like any vaccine
A transgenic plant with a pathogen protein gene is developed
Potato, banana, and tomato are targets
Humans eat the plant
The body produces antibodies against pathogen protein
Humans are “immunized” against the pathogen
Measles Important Plant Improvement Methods Breeding- Crossing two Individuals from the same species produces a new, improved variety; not a biotechnology procedure : Important Plant Improvement Methods Breeding- Crossing two Individuals from the same species produces a new, improved variety; not a biotechnology procedure Transformation-
Adding a gene from another species; the essential biotechnology procedure to produce transgenics. The Process:- : The Process:- Isolating genes
Modifying genes so they function better
Preparing genes to be inserted into a new species
Developing transgenes. Introducing the Geneor Developing Transgenics : Introducing the Geneor Developing Transgenics Steps
1. Create transformation cassette.
2. Introduce and select for transformants. Transformation Cassettes : Transformation Cassettes Contains
Gene of interest
The coding region and its controlling elements
2. Selectable marker
Distinguishes transformed/untransformed plants
3. Insertion sequences
Aids Agrobacterium insertion Transformation Steps : Transformation Steps Prepare tissue for transformation
Tissue must be capable of developing into normal plants
Leaf, germinating seed, immature embryos
Agrobacterium or gene gun
Culture plant tissue
Root the shoots
Field test the plants
Multiple sites, multiple years Delivering the Gene to the Plant : Delivering the Gene to the Plant Transformation cassettes are developed in the lab
They are then introduced into a plant
Two major delivery methods:- The Lab Steps : The Lab Steps The Next Test Is The Field : The Next Test Is The Field Herbicide Resistance Agrobacterium Tumefaciens : Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a bacterium that causes a disease known as crown gall in plants.
Infects plants by transferring its genetic material into plant cell.
Agrobacterium transformation is the most common technique for genetically engineered plants. Genetic Engineering of Animals : Genetic Engineering of Animals Due to early cell differentiation, genetic transformation in animals must occur in the early embryo stage following the union of sex cells.
This is accomplished by using microinjection, to randomly inject DNA into the fertilized cell
Microinjection- is the injection of materials directly into cells using a small glass pipette. Endonucleases : Endonucleases Type of enzyme in DNA strand.
Produced nucleic acid strand breaks interior of nucleic acid strand.
Restriction endonucleases enzyme produced by bacteria that is used in recombinant DNA.
Cuts open bacterial plasmid. Cloning Vectors : Cloning Vectors Carrier for DNA during the recombinant DNA process.
Plasmid-piece of free-floating DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria.
Double-stranded, circular molecules that replicate independently of the chromosome The process of creating transgenic animals involves three major steps: : The process of creating transgenic animals involves three major steps: Obtaining embryos
Culturing and transferring zygotes
Transgenic integration- is expressed by the animal of that desired trait. Opposition to “Biotech” : Opposition to “Biotech” people fear.
production of new uncontrollable disease.
long term adverse effects of environment from products. Slow Progress : Slow Progress lack of money for research
environmental groups filing lawsuits to stop research and testing Slow Progress : Slow Progress many farmers don’t support genetic engineering because they feel we already have surplus production Issues and Ethics : Issues and Ethics Major Issues in Biotechnology : Major Issues in Biotechnology Changing the genetic material of an organism using artificial means
Planting genetically modified plants
Raising genetically modified animals Major Issues in Biotechnology cont. : Major Issues in Biotechnology cont. Consuming foods from genetically modified plants and animals
Using substances that alter or enhance the normal processes of plants and animals Major Issues : Major Issues Maintaining genetic diversity in wild plants and animals
Taking drugs produced through genetic modification
Injecting foreign genes into the human body to promote good health Actions Plans : Properly identify the problem or issue
Good information is needed to properly deal with an issue
Identify possible solutions to the issue Actions Plans Action Plans cont. : Action Plans cont. Identify the consequences of using possible solutions
Focus on the one best solution
Implement the solution Ethics and Biotech : Ethics and Biotech Ethics: a set of principles that guide human actions
Bioethics: the area of ethics that deals with the life sciences
Religion: a system of beliefs and practices that an individual chooses to follow Ethics in Science : Ethics in Science Divided into three areas:
Questionable research practices
Other misconduct Religion and Biotech : Religion and Biotech Influence biotech 2 different ways:
Religion set moral rules that will influence the way a person perceives what is good or bad
Common fact that God created life Ethics and the Future of Biotech : Ethics and the Future of Biotech Developments are limited by advancements in science and by ethical rules.
Some of the progress are considered morally unacceptable exp. Cloning Bill Clinton Says….. : Bill Clinton Says….. “Banning human cloning reflects our humanity. At its worst, this could lead to misguided and malevolent attempts to select certain traits, even to create certain kinds of children – to make our children objects rather that cherished individuals.” The Human Genome Project : The Human Genome Project Identify all genes in human DNA (80,000 to 100,000)
Determine the sequences of the chemical base pairs
Maintain databases of the information
Develop methods of data analysis
Study ethical issues associate with human genome information and uses THE END : THE END By: Manisha Sharma