TYPES OF SOIL FOUND IN INDIA. : TYPES OF SOIL FOUND IN INDIA. Indian soils are generally divided into four broad types. These soil types are:
REGUR SOIL (black soil).
ALLUVIAL SOIL. : ALLUVIAL SOIL. This is the most important and widespread category. It covers 40% of the land area. In fact the entire Northern Plains are made up of these soils.
They have been brought down and deposited by three great Himalayan rivers-
BRAHMAPUTRA and their tributaries.
REGUR SOIL. : REGUR SOIL. These soils are black in colour and are also known as black soils.
Since, they are ideal for growing cotton, they are also called cotton soils, in addition to their normal nomenclature of regur soils.
These soils are most typical of the Deccan trap region spread over north-west Deccan plateau and are made up of lava flows.
RED SOIL. : RED SOIL. These soils are developed on old crystalline rocks under moderate to heavy rainfall conditions.
They are deficient in phosphoric acid, organic matter and nitrogenous material.
Red soils cover the eastern part of the peninsular region comprising Chhotanagpur plateau, Orissa, eastern Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, the Nilgiris and Tamil Nadu plateau.
LATERITE SOIL. : LATERITE SOIL. Laterite soils results in intense leaching owing to heavy tropical rains.
They are found along the edge of plateau in the east covering small parts of Tamil Nadu, and Orissa and a small part of Chhotanagpur in the north and Meghalaya in the north-east.