Bones Muscles

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Bones & Muscles : 

Bones & Muscles “We are going to PUMP, You Up!”

Skeletal System : 

Skeletal System Without your skeletal system you would not have any muscle!! The skeleton provides attachment points for all of the muscles in your body

Skeletal System : 

Skeletal System The adult skeletal system contains 206 bones! The Axial skeleton consists of the skull, rib cage and vertebral column

Skeletal System : 

Skeletal System The Appendicular Skeleton includes your upper and lower limbs and the bones in your pelvic region

Structure of Bones : 

Structure of Bones The Periosteum is a tough layer of connective tissue that covers the bone Compact bone is the dense, hard part of your bones that is made up of repeating osteon systems Spongy bone has a network of holes and pores allowing vessels and veins to penetrate the bone and gives bone it’s light weight Periosteum Compact bone Spongy bone Compact bone

Structure of Bones : 

Structure of Bones Living bone cells, or osteocytes receive oxygen and nutrients from small blood vessels running within the osteon systems Spongy bone Osteon systems Artery Vein

Bone Structure : 

Compact bone Spongy bone Osteocyte Periosteum Bone marrow Bone Structure

Bone Structure : 

Bone Structure Bone marrow is found in the center of many bones There are two types of bone marrow: Red Marrow Yellow Marrow Marrow cavity

Bone Structure : 

Bone Structure Red marrow is found in the humerus, femur, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, and pelvis It is the production site for red blood cells, white blood cells, and cell fragments involved in blood clotting

Bone Structure : 

Bone Structure Yellow marrow is found in many of the bones in your body and consists of stored fat Yellow bone marrow

Joints of the Skeleton : 

Joints of the Skeleton A place where bones meet is called a joint Joints make it possible for us to move and have “flexibility” There are some joints that allow a wide range of movement, like the shoulder joint

Joints of the Skeleton : 

Joints of the Skeleton Joints are classified by what type they are There are three different types of joints: Immovable Slightly Movable Freely Movable

Joints of the Skeleton : 

Joints of the Skeleton Immovable Joints Often called fixed joints because they do not allow any movement They are found where bones meet and are interlocked by connective tissue An example would be the interlocking plates of your skull

Joints of the Skeleton : 

Joints of the Skeleton Slightly Movable Joints These joints allow for very little movement The bones of these joints are very close to one another An example would be vertebrae in your backbone 7 Cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar

Joints of the Skeleton : 

Joints of the Skeleton Freely Movable Joints These joints allow movement in one or more directions These joints are further classified due to the type of connection between the bones that meet and form the joint

Freely Movable Joints : 

Freely Movable Joints Ball and Socket joints Your hips and shoulders are ball and socket joints These joints allow for the widest range of movement

Freely Movable Joints : 

Freely Movable Joints Hinge joints Allow for back and forth movement These joints are found in the elbows, knees, fingers and toes

Freely Movable Joints : 

Freely Movable Joints Pivot Joints Pivot joints allow for one bone to rotate around another Examples of this type of joint are found at your elbow

Freely Movable Joints : 

Freely Movable Joints Saddle Joint Saddle joints allow for one bone to slide over the other bones Examples of this type of joint are found in your carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges (otherwise known as your hand)

Structure of Joints : 

Structure of Joints In the joints that are freely movable the ends of the bones are covered in a smooth layer of cartilage These joints are also surrounded by a joint capsule that holds the bones together

Structure of Joints : 

Structure of Joints Joint capsules are composed of two layers of tissue The first layer is a layer of tough connective tissue called ligaments These ligaments help hold the bones together and provide overall support for the joint The second layer is made up of cells that secrete synovial fluid This fluid allows the joint to move freely and with minimal friction

Structure of Joints : 

Structure of Joints In some of the freely movable joints there are some sacs that form that are full of synovial fluid These sacs are called bursae The bursae further reduce friction and act as little shock absorbers

Structure of the Knee : 

Structure of the Knee Muscle Tendon Femur Patella Bursa Ligament Synovial Fluid Cartilage Fat Fibula Tibia

Muscles : 

Muscles

Muscles : 

Muscles There are three types of muscle tissue: Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Skeletal muscle

Types of Muscles : 

Types of Muscles Smooth Muscles Not usually under voluntary control (considered involuntary) it’s shape is spindled not striated and it only has one nucleus! Most function without nervous stimulation They are connected to one another by gap junctions that allow electrical impulses to travel directly from one muscle to the next Nucleus Smooth muscle fiber

Types of Muscles : 

Types of Muscles Smooth Muscles They are found in hollow structures like the stomach, blood vessels and small & large intestines They move food through your digestive tract, control how your blood flows, and even decrease the size of your pupil in your eye Large and Small Intestine

Types of Muscles : 

Types of Muscles Cardiac Muscle The only place you have cardiac muscle is in your heart The prefix cardio – comes from the Greek word meaning “heart” They can have one or two nuclei They have striated muscle tissues Cardiac muscles are like smooth muscles in that they are connected by gap junctions and are under involuntary control Striation

Types of Muscles : 

Types of Muscles Cardiac muscle is one of the most important muscles in your body It pumps your heart that supplies the rest of the muscles in your body with the oxygen they need to survive and contract Heart & Cardiac Muscle

Types of Muscles : 

Types of Muscles Skeletal Muscle The type of muscle that you think of when you hear the word “muscle” It is called skeletal muscle because they are the muscles that attach to your skeleton!

Types of Muscles : 

Types of Muscles Skeletal Muscles Voluntary muscle is muscle that “you” control through your voluntary choice Most skeletal muscles are controlled by the central nervous system Skeletal muscle has dark bands throughout the muscle called striations and is the reason that skeletal muscle is often called striated muscle Striation Nucleus

Skeletal Muscle : 

Skeletal Muscle Skeletal muscles mostly work in opposing pairs This is an example of voluntary muscle contraction All skeletal muscles have many nuclei Contracting triceps Relaxed biceps Relaxed triceps Contracting biceps

Skeletal Muscle : 

Skeletal Muscle Muscle cells are called muscle fibers and they are broken down into smaller units called myofibrils The smallest functional unit of a muscle cell is called a sarcomere In the Sarcomere there are thick and thin filaments that cross over each other The thick myosin filaments pull themselves along the thin actin filaments during a muscle contraction Skeletal muscle Muscle fiber (cell) Myofibril Sarcomere Myosin Actin

Skeletal Muscle : 

Skeletal Muscle A muscle contracts when the thin filaments in the muscle fiber slide over the thick filaments

Skeletal Muscle Contraction : 

Skeletal Muscle Contraction During muscle contraction the myosin filament attaches to the actin filament on a binding site ATP powers the reaction that pulls the actin filament towards the center of the sarcomere Then, the cross-bridge is broken and the myosin binds to another site on the actin filament, and repeats Sarcomere Myosin Actin Actin Myosin Movement of Actin Filament Contracted Muscle Relaxed Muscle

Skeletal Muscle : 

Skeletal Muscle The energy for muscle contraction is supplied by ATP What does ATP stand for?