Infectious Disease Review

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For ATI Exit Exam Mod V LTI Shelton, CT

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Infectious Disease Review : 

Infectious Disease Review Lincoln Tech Mod 5 Ms Ventre

Body’s First Line of Defense : 

Body’s First Line of Defense Against disease or injury Skin Mucous membranes Various blood cells

Leukocytes : 

Leukocytes Act as nature’s cleanup mechanism Migrate to infected or inflamed areas PHAGOCYTOSIS - engulfs and destroys antigens Neutrophils Monocytes

Macrophages : 

Macrophages Reticuloendothelial cells In blood In connective tissue In liver In spleen In bone marrow In lymph nodes Protect the body by absorbing foreign materials such as old red blood cells, bacteria, & colloidal particles

Classic Signs of Inflammation : 

Classic Signs of Inflammation Rubor (redness) Calor (heat) Tumor (swelling) Dolor (pain)

Wound Healing : 

Wound Healing Begins at the same time inflammatory process begins Includes production of macrophages Clean up inflammatory debris Initiation of fibroplasts Repair process Formation of capillaries Provide circulation & nutrients to the new tissue Migration of epithelial cells Beneath scab, forming scar

Factors in Wound Healing : 

Factors in Wound Healing Age General Health Older adults heal more slowly as a result of: Decreased blood supply to the tissues Decrease in tissue elasticity Poor or inadeaquate nutrition

Major Infectious Agents : 

Major Infectious Agents Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Rickettsiae Helminths Mycoplasmas

Infection : 

Infection The invasion of the body by microorganisms Only possible when the CHAIN OF INFECTION is complete Causative agent Reservoir Portal of exit Mode of transfer Portal of entry Susceptible host

Signs & Symptoms of General Infection : 

Signs & Symptoms of General Infection Moderate to severe pain Swelling Fever Malaise Anorexia prostration

2 Types of Infection : 

2 Types of Infection Community acquired Through daily contact with the public Health care associated Nosocomial Iatrogenic

Standard Precautions : 

Standard Precautions The Center for Disease Control recommends the use of Standard Precautions for ALL patients, especially those cared for in settings in which exposure to blood is common THE MOST BASIC AND EFFECTIVE METHOD OF PREVENTING CROSS CONTAMINATION IS HAND WASHING WITH ADEQUATE FRICTION!

Immune System : 

Immune System Body’s defense network against infection Provides the body with resistance to invading organisms Enables the body to fight off invaders once they have gained access

Antigens : 

Antigens Substances that stimulate a response form the immune system Antibodies Imunoglobulins: proteins that are created in response to specific antigens

Immunity : 

Immunity Innate: present in the body at birth Acquired: develops after birth as a result of the body;s immune responses to antigens Depends on proper development of B & T Lymphocytes WBCs that fight infection

2 Ways Immunity Works : 

2 Ways Immunity Works Antibody Mediated (humoral) Cell Mediated – function independently to provide the immune response

Body Organs Vital to Immune System Function : 

Body Organs Vital to Immune System Function Thymus Bone marrow Lymph nodes Spleen Liver

Immunodeficiency : 

Immunodeficiency High risk for infection Body’s inability to launch adequate immune response Disease processes Secondary to immunosuppressive medications

Allergy : 

Allergy Atypical immune response Hypersensitivity In reaction to normally inoffensive foreign substance Anaphylaxis: crisis situation resultant from severe allergic reaction

Autoimmunity : 

Autoimmunity Body’s inability to recognize self Abnormal immune system reaction Body destroys it’s own tissues

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