ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

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Slide 1: 

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Slide 2: 

Organic Chemistry being the study of carbon containing substances or compounds. Chemistry is the study of substances and their different transformations

Chemistry is IMPORTANT : 

Chemistry is IMPORTANT Chemistry is present in all aspects of life: The food we eat. The clothes we wear. Medicine. Sports.

Organic chemicals are all around us : 

Organic chemicals are all around us Food Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Clothing Natural materials: Silk, Cotton Synthetic (man-made) materials: Nylon, Terylene Medicine Aspirin, Penicillin, paracetamol Others PVC, Kerosene, urea, paints, TNT

Complex molecules? : 

Complex molecules?

Some Organic Chemicals are Problematic : 

Some Organic Chemicals are Problematic Freons- responsible for loss of ozone layer Chemical weapons more prevalent Certain insecticides resistant to degradation Toxic releases Fossil fuel combustion produces large amounts of CO2 increase in greenhouse effect.

Slide 9: 

The Ozone Layer and CFCs

Slide 10: 

All these problems are due to chemical reactions of the organic compounds. To solve these problems we have to understand these molecules: How do they react? Why do they react like that? How can these properties be modified? To understand these organic molecules we have to understand the smallest unit – the carbon atom

The Carbon Atom : 

The Carbon Atom C

The Carbon Atom : 

The Carbon Atom

Slide 19: 

FULLERENE

Carbon can form different types of bonds : 

Carbon can form different types of bonds

Why can carbon form different bonds? : 

Why can carbon form different bonds? This model does not help in explaining the phenomenon. Explanation found using actual illustration of atomic orbitals

What are Atomic Orbitals : 

What are Atomic Orbitals There is no way of determining the exact location of an electron within an atom. There is a definite 3 dimensional area around the nucleus within which an electron is most likely to be found.

An Atomic Orbital is: : 

An Atomic Orbital is: A region of space around the nucleus within which the probability of finding an electron is high (~90%). This region can be calculated using advanced mathematical procedures.

Types of Atomic Orbital present in carbon that contain electrons : 

Types of Atomic Orbital present in carbon that contain electrons 1s orbital- spherical 2s orbital- spherical 2p orbitals- lobes

P orbital : 

P orbital There are three p orbitals- 2px, 2py and 2pz

P orbital : 

P orbital

Bonding : 

Bonding The ground state configuration of carbon is unsuitable for bonding. In the ground state carbon can only form two bonds For “correct” bonding to occur some changes have to be made in the orbitals.

Orbital Changes- Excitation : 

Orbital Changes- Excitation

sp3 hybridized orbital : 

sp3 hybridized orbital

sp3 hybridized orbital : 

sp3 hybridized orbital S and p orbitals Sp3 orbitals

sp3 hybridized orbital : 

sp3 hybridized orbital 4 orbitals All the same shape, size and energy Arranged in a tetrahedral conformation Gives minimum repulsion between orbitals. Angle of 109º from each other Can form bonds by overlapping with orbitals of other atoms.

Bonding in Methane : 

Bonding in Methane CH4 Alkane (saturated) Carbon atom is sp3 hybridized Bonds are formed by overlapping of the 4 s orbital of hydrogen with the sp3 orbitals of the carbon atom.

Bonding in Methane : 

Bonding in Methane Overlap of s and sp3 rbitals form sigma (s) bond. Methane has 4 s bonds

Slide 35: 

Note that each bond contains 2 electrons: 1 from s orbital of hydrogen 1 from sp3 orbital of carbon

Ethane : 

Ethane C2H6 CH3-CH3 Alkane (saturated) Carbon atom is sp3 hybridized. Differs from methane in that a C-C bond is present.

Ethane : 

Ethane

Ethane : 

Ethane Overlap of half-filled sp3 hybrid orbital of one carbon with half-filled sp3 hybrid orbital of another.

Ethane : 

Ethane There is free rotation around the C-C bond

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