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Slide 1: 

Module: Vocabulary Facilitated By: Cheryl Harvey and Rebecca Radicchi Keys to Student Achievement: Best Practices in Teaching

Slide 2: 

BEST PRACTICES This session is based in the Vocabulary “Best Practices” module designed by Metro RESA.

How confident do you feel about your vocabulary instruction? : 

How confident do you feel about your vocabulary instruction? On a scale of 1 – 9, how confident are you about your vocabulary instruction? Place a post-it on the scale on the wall– 1 is the lowest & 9 is the highest. Adapted from Dale, Rasband, Ross, Gardner, & Cunningham, 2004

Essential Questions: : 

Essential Questions: Why is vocabulary instruction so important? What are exemplary strategies for vocabulary instruction?

Slide 5: 

A little boy was in a relative’s wedding. As he was walking down the aisle, he would take two steps, stop, and turn to the crowd. While facing the crowd, he would put his hands up like claws and roar. So it went, step, step, ROAR, step, step, ROAR, all the way down the aisle. As you can imagine, the crowd was near tears from laughing so hard. The little boy was getting more and more distressed from all the laughing, and he was also near tears. When asked what he was doing, the child sniffed and said, “I was being the Ring Bear!”

Slide 6: 

LEVEL 1 Unknown LEVEL 2 Acquainted LEVEL 3 Established Beck, McKeown, & Omanson, 1987 What level of vocabulary knowledge is evident in this child’s response?

Slide 7: 

Discuss your response with a partner. Group leader should be prepared to share with everyone. How do you teach vocabulary?

Slide 8: 

Word knowledge is much more than word identification or even definitional knowledge– “It takes more than definitional knowledge to know a word, and we have to know words in order to identify them in multiple reading and listening contexts and use them in our speaking and writing.” (Allen, 1999)

Research on the importance of vocabulary instruction: : 

There is an estimated 4,700 word difference in vocabulary knowledge between high- and low- SES. (Nagy and Herman ,1984) Research on the importance of vocabulary instruction: For English language learners the “achievement gap” is primarily a vocabulary gap. (Carlo, et.al., 2004) Vocabulary instruction is one of the essential elements for literacy development for students “at risk.” ( RAND Reading Study Group, 2002, NRP, 2000)

Word Knowledge is Multifaceted : 

Word Knowledge is Multifaceted Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002

Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction : 

Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction Rich language learning environment ( including Read-Alouds) Wide and Varied Independent Reading Direct Vocabulary Instruction

Reading Aloud : 

Reading Aloud Students retain more vocabulary when the teacher explains critical vocabulary terms in context during the reading. Reading a book several times leads to more word learning than reading several books once each.

Reading Aloud : 

Reading Aloud "The single most important activity for building the knowledge required for eventual success in reading is reading aloud to children." (Becoming a Nation of Readers, 1985)

Collaborative Pairs : 

Collaborative Pairs What are the advantages of reading aloud to students? How do read-alouds support vocabulary development?

Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction : 

Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction Rich language learning environment (including Read-Alouds) Wide and Varied Independent Reading Direct Vocabulary Instruction

Reading Volume of 5th-grade Students of Different Levels of Achievement : 

Reading Volume of 5th-grade Students of Different Levels of Achievement (Allington, 2001; Adapted from Anderson, Wilson and Fielding, 1988.)

Independent Reading: Accounts for one-third or more of vocabulary growth. : 

Independent Reading: Accounts for one-third or more of vocabulary growth. How do you show your students that independent reading is great & joyful? How do you make independent reading time meaningful? What obstacles do you need to overcome? Center for the Study of Reading, Urbana, IL

Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction : 

Comprehensive Vocabulary Instruction Rich language learning environment ( including Read-Alouds) Wide and Varied Independent Reading Direct Vocabulary Instruction

Vocabulary Instruction : 

Vocabulary Instruction Direct teaching of vocabulary can help improve comprehension when we follow these guidelines (Cooper, 1993): A few critical words are taught. The words are taught in a meaningful context. (including nonlinguistic representations) Students relate the new words to their background knowledge. Students are exposed to the words multiple times.

Slide 20: 

The Marble Effect

You Try It! : 

You Try It! Using the text provided, collaborate with group members and decide on the most important words to teach. Provide a rationale for your selection. Share!

“Which words should I teach?” : 

“Which words should I teach?” Which words are most important to understanding the text? How much prior knowledge will students have about the word/concept? Is the concept significant and therefore requires previewing? Which words can be figured out from the context? How can I make repeated exposures to the word/concept enjoyable and meaningful?

What are exemplary strategies for vocabulary instruction? : 

What are exemplary strategies for vocabulary instruction?

Slide 24: 

Before Reading Strategies

Background Knowledge : 

Background Knowledge “The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and background knowledge is explicit in research.” (Nagy & Herman, 1984; Marzano, 2004; Hart & Risley, 1995)

Slide 26: 

herd migration predators Serengeti camouflage 40 fingerprint Powerful Zebras HO

Word Sorts : 

Word Sorts Provide students with a set of vocabulary word cards (related to a specific concept or topic). Work in groups to sort the words into categories. Encourage students to find more than one category for the vocabulary words. Students then discuss with teacher & peers their rationale for categorizing words. cold front meteorologist temperature barometer hurricanes

Slide 28: 

migrate Schwartz & Raphael, 1985 To move regularly from one region to another people working for seasonal jobs birds Nomads traveling relocating moving around What are some examples? What is it like? What is it?

Slide 29: 

Definition Characteristics Non-Examples Examples Frayer Model (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969) herd Group Like animals Clustered a congregation of wild animals

Slide 30: 

Definition Characteristics Non-Examples Examples Frayer Model (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969) Prime 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, . . . 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10. . . 2 is the only even prime number 0 and 1 are not prime Every whole number can be written as a product of primes A whole number with exactly two divisors (factors)

Slide 31: 

During Reading Strategies

Slide 33: 

MATHEMATICS CRISS (2004) pg. 146

Reading with Word Explanation : 

Reading with Word Explanation Read the book/text once with minimal explanation. After an initial reading, we can interrupt up to 8-10 times to explain words while rereading (possibly less, depending on length) With very young children, don’t interrupt more than once per page. Keep explanations simple~ explain only what is needed to understand the content being read in everyday language.

Slide 35: 

After Reading Strategies

Four Square Response : 

Four Square Response Term Illustration Definition a degree of wetness especially of the atmosphere Connection humidity

Concept Circles : 

Concept Circles Why? ___________________________________________________ Which word does not belong? Cone Rectangle Trapezoid Hexagon

Slide 38: 

racism stereotyping Church bombing violence Concept: Civil Rights Movement

Vocabulary Strategies for ELL : 

Vocabulary Strategies for ELL Preview texts for unfamiliar or difficult words and the use of idiomatic language. To reduce students’ frustration, such words and expressions can be taught prior to the lesson. Use extensive modeling and visual representations– e.g., pantomime, graphic organizers, pictures, hands-on materials. Emphasize meaning rather than pronunciation CORE, 2000

4-2-1 Summarizer : 

4-2-1 Summarizer Four Two One Rogers, et.al (1999). Motivation and Learning. . .

PictionaryUsing only a piece of paper and pen, draw and get your partner to say these words. : 

PictionaryUsing only a piece of paper and pen, draw and get your partner to say these words. Los Angeles New York Miami Chicago

Assessing Vocabulary Instruction : 

Assessing Vocabulary Instruction Ongoing Varied, Meaningful & Authentic Use word wall Do you see them using words in writing and speaking?

How do you keep words you teach directly fresh in their minds and internalized? : 

How do you keep words you teach directly fresh in their minds and internalized? Vocabulary word review tub Center with former words Keep ongoing list of words with guided reading groups Use words in classroom talk Word wall

Slide 44: 

Finding definitions and writing those words in sentences have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use. Janet Allen, 1999

Assessing Integration & Meaningful Use : 

Assessing Integration & Meaningful Use Sample “test” questions: One of our target words for this week was preposterous. What kind of in-school behavior would the principal think was preposterous? Describe a time when you felt liberated. What was the reason for that feeling? The concept we have been studying this week is stereotyping? Give an example of what you think is stereotypical behavior. Why do you think the behavior was stereotypical?

Dictionary Use : 

Dictionary Use When students have been provided dictionary definitions and asked to create sentences or answer brief questions about the words, research has shown: 63 percent of the students’ sentences were judged to be “odd” (Miller & Gildea, 1985) 60 percent of students’ responses were unacceptable (McKeown, 1991; 1993)

3 x 3 Vocabulary : 

3 x 3 Vocabulary word knowledge reading with explanation strategies direct instruction Nonlinguistic representations Frayer dictionaries background knowledge assessment Adapted from Guilford County Schools, 2002

Essential Questions: : 

Essential Questions: Why is vocabulary instruction so important? What are exemplary strategies for vocabulary instruction?

Web Resources for Vocabulary Practice : 

Web Resources for Vocabulary Practice Vocabulary.com Vocabulary Builders Super Kids Word Scrambler Online Vocabulary Games Quia (Insert your words)

Resources : 

Resources Best Practices Research: Metro RESA Clipart: Jeff Shelly and Google Images

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