Chaps 1 2 Fall2010-207Note Packet[1]

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Class Note Packet : 

June 2010 Williford 1 Class Note Packet FN 207 Introduction to Human Nutrition Fall 2010 Instructor: Julian H. Williford, Jr., PhD.

Introduction : 

Introduction Chapter 1: Food Choices & Human Health Chapter 2: Nutrition Tools- Standards and Guidelines

Slide 3: 

June 2010 Williford 3 51% cal from fat 13% cal from fat

Benefits of Good Dietary Nutrition : 

June 2010 Williford 4 Benefits of Good Dietary Nutrition Proper nutrition is needed for: 1. Normal cell growth, tissue/organ development and function. 2. Normal reproduction. 3. Growth of body in height and weight. 4. Maintenance of all body tissues.

Proper nutrition is needed for : 

June 2010 Williford 5 Proper nutrition is needed for 5. Optimum muscle and thinking activity levels and working efficiency. 6. Strong Immune System for Resistance to infection and disease. 7. Ability to maintain repair of bodily damage or injury.

Malnutrition: : 

June 2010 Williford 6 Malnutrition: Impairment of health over time resulting from either a deficiency, excess, or imbalance of nutrient intakes. Only 2 common lifestyle habits have more of a negative effect on human health than poor nutrition or dietary habits: “smoking and alcohol abuse”.

The Essential Nutrients : 

June 2010 Williford 7 The Essential Nutrients The essential nutrients are those that the body cannot make any of -- or sufficient amounts for itself from other raw materials, like: *Some forms of carbohydrate;  *Certain parts of fat; *The dietary essential fatty acids; and *Fat soluble vitamins.

The Essential Nutrients (Cont.) : 

June 2010 Williford 8 The Essential Nutrients (Cont.) * Certain constituents of protein (the 9 dietary essential amino acids). * ~14 vitamins. * All mineral nutrients (about 25).  * Water.

The Leading Causes of Death in the United States in 2008 : 

June 2010 Williford 9 The Leading Causes of Death in the United States in 2008 Heart Disease……………………… 28.0% Cancers ……………………………. 22.7% Strokes ……………………………… 6.4% Diabetes mellitus ………………….. 3.0% All of the above are usually nutrition related Alzheimer’s ………………………… 2.6% Chronic lower respiratory diseases .. 5.2% Pneumonia and influenza …………. 2.7% Source: National Center for Health Statistics 2008

Slide 10: 

Healthy People 2010 Physical activity *Mental health Immunization *Overweight and obesity Environmental quality *Tobacco use Injury and violence *Substance abuse Access to health care Responsible sexual behavior 10 June 2010 Williford

Caloric Values of the Energy NutrientsLearn These Values!! : 

June 2010 Williford 11 Caloric Values of the Energy NutrientsLearn These Values!! One ounce (oz) = 28.35grams (~30g) Calorie = cal or C or Kcal Carbohydrates = 4 cal/g or 113cal/oz (28.35g) Protein = 4 cal/g or 113 cal/oz Lipids (fats) = 9 cal/g or 255 cal/oz Alcohol = 7 cal/g or 198 cal/oz

The Human Genome : 

June 2010 Williford 12 The Human Genome Probably no other event in your lifetime will have a more positive impact on human health and protection from disease than the “mapping” of the human genome [ the completion of the entire sequence of human DNA, or your “genetic code”]. Note that the human genome is 99.9% the same in all people. The individual variations of color, size, as well as variations that contribute to diseases lie in the 0.1% difference between individuals.

Nutritional Genomics : 

June 2010 Williford 13 Nutritional Genomics This is the “new science” of studying how nutrients affect “gene activity”, and how genes affect the activities of nutrients in the body. Nutritional Genomics is also called “molecular nutrition” or “nutrigenomics” Genome is the full complement of the genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell.

Goals for Good Health : 

June 2010 Williford 14 Goals for Good Health Aim for physical and mental fitness Maintain a Healthy body weight equal to + 5% of your ideal body weight Be physically active aerobically for a minimum of 20 minutes every day!!

Build Healthy Dietary Habits : 

June 2010 Williford 15 Build Healthy Dietary Habits Choose a Variety of Cereal Grains Daily. Oat products are a very good choice. Choose 5+ Servings of Fruits and Vegetables Daily [the more different colors of fruits and veggies you eat regularly, the healthier your diet] Keep food at the proper temperatures <40º F and >140º F, and store in sealed containers/packaging to prevent: food borne illness and food spoilage.

Choose Sensible Foods to Eat : 

June 2010 Williford 16 Choose Sensible Foods to Eat Choose a staple diet low in Saturated Fat, Cholesterol, and Total Fat to help decrease heart disease and strokes Choose beverages low in sugars to decrease weight gain and potential adult on-set diabetes Use less salt in food preparation and choose low salt foods to lower hypertension If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation [no more than 2 drinks (2 oz) of ethanol alcohol per day]

What is in a Nutritious Diet? : 

June 2010 Williford 17 What is in a Nutritious Diet? A nutritious diet uses the following 5 principles to make good food choices: 1. Adequacy: foods provide enough of the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy to the diet 2. Balance: food choices do not over emphasize one nutrient or food type 3. Variety: foods you eat differ regularly

What is in a Nutritious Diet? : 

June 2010 Williford 18 What is in a Nutritious Diet? 4. Calorie control: on average, only consume enough calories daily to maintain healthy weight 5. Moderation: do not eat a lot of foods that provide excess fat, sugar, salt, or alcohol The Bottom line is: EAT COLORFUL FOODS!! because they are lower in calories and higher in vitamins and minerals per serving eaten!!

Phytochemicals : 

June 2010 Williford 19 Phytochemicals The prefix phyto means plant, so these are organic compounds found in plant foods that contribute to food flavors, aromas, and colors, and they have biological activity, which can affect cell functions in the human body. [Note Table C2-1, p.60 in text] Example: lycopene is a phytochemical in tomatoes

Factors that influence your food choices : 

June 2010 Williford 20 Factors that influence your food choices 1. Advertising 2. Availability 3. Economy 4. Emotional comfort 5. Habit 6. Personal preference 7. Positive Associations 8. Regional preferences 9. Social Pressure 10. Values/beliefs 11. Nutritional value 12. Weight control/gain

USDA Food Groups : 

June 2010 Williford 21 USDA Food Groups Review the USDA Food Dietary Guidelines on pages 35-41 of the text, and learn the following for the tests!!!!! What constitutes one serving from each food group? [In white boxes in Fig. 2-5, pp. 38-39] Which nutrients does one serving from each food group contribute to the diet? [above the white boxes in print!]

NUTRIENT STANDARDS: : 

NUTRIENT STANDARDS: LEARN THE DEFINITIONS OF THESE TERMS [Table 2-1: Page 32 in text] Dietary Reference Intakes: a set of 4 lists of nutrient values to plan and assess diets: 1. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) 2. Adequate Intakes (AI) 3. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) 4. Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)

The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA’s) : 

June 2010 Williford 23 The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA’s) Are divided into many age and sex categories Allow for “margins of safety” in the diet Are used to help determine the adequacy of a person’s individual’s food intake

Slide 24: 

June 2010 Williford 24 Vitamins & minerals CHO’s, Fat, and Proteins Meets 97% of pop needs Meets 50% of pop needs Fig 2.3:p.35 Fig.2-2:p.34

Fast Foods : 

June 2010 Williford 25 Fast Foods The Nutritional Values of “Common Fast Foods” are found in the Appendix pages A-78-A-97 in the back of your text [For your reference in completing your dietary records for 5-days] How to Judge Which “Food Form” is More Nutritious [NEXT SLIDE]

Slide 26: 

June 2010 Williford 26 Nutrients in whole cooked foods versus cut up and cooked foods

Slide 27: 

Enriched: a term that refers to 5 nutrients (iron, thiamin (B-1), riboflavin (B-2), niacin (B-3), and folic acid), which are added back to refined grains, in the approximate amounts in which they were originally present prior to the processing of the grains into flour. 38

Slide 28: 

June 2010 Williford 28 Fortified: the addition of any nutrients to a food, even one nutrient that may not have been in the food originally; and, fortified may also involve adding nutrients in amounts well above those found naturally in a food. “See Examples in slides below”:

FACTS ABOUT FOODS : 

June 2010 Williford 29 FACTS ABOUT FOODS EXAMPLES OF ENRICHED AND FORTIFIED FOODS ARE: Bread, pastas, crackers, baked goods (Often enriched, but may also be fortified, like snack bars) Milk, to which vitamins A and D are usually added. {FORTIFIED} Sunny Delight® and other nutrient [vitamin, mineral, protein, etc.] “fortified” drinks

FOOD FEATURE (CONT.) OTHER FORTIFIED PRODUCTS : 

June 2010 Williford 30 FOOD FEATURE (CONT.) OTHER FORTIFIED PRODUCTS Soy milk, to which calcium and vitamin B-12 are added. Salt [NaCl], to which iodine [I] is added. A sweetened drink to which vitamin C is added.

Nutrient Density: : 

June 2010 Williford 31 Nutrient Density: A characteristic of food that means one serving of a food provides a higher amount of one or more essential nutrients in the diet, with a smaller amount of calories “per one serving” consumed. Therefore, a food lower in calories and better in nutrition per one serving.

Kilocalorie = kcalorie =Calorie : 

June 2010 Williford 32 Kilocalorie = kcalorie =Calorie A measure of the amount of energy per gram of food. The amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1000 grams (one Kg) of water 1 degree centigrade. In this textbook, the lower case “cal” means the same thing!!

Ethnic and Regional Foods in the Food Groups [See pages 46-47 in Text] : 

June 2010 Williford 33 Ethnic and Regional Foods in the Food Groups [See pages 46-47 in Text] Favorite foods from different Ethnic cuisines that are low in “nutrient density” as noted by yellow triangle in margin: Asian: fried rice Mediterranean: Baklava cakes Mexican: Churros: doughnuts U. S. Deep South: Biscuits

Aids to Calculations: For the tests, learn the following: (See Appendix C in Text): [pp. C-1&C-2: in the back of SIZER/WHITNEY 11th Ed.] : 

June 2010 Williford 34 Aids to Calculations: For the tests, learn the following: (See Appendix C in Text): [pp. C-1&C-2: in the back of SIZER/WHITNEY 11th Ed.] Body weight conversion [from lbs. to Kg] How to calculate Calories in foods Percent of calories from each of the 3 energy nutrients in a meal How to calculate the “Percents of the RDA” of any nutrients you consumed

Slide 35: 

June 2010 Williford 35 Tools the Health Care Provider Uses to Detect Nutrition Related Diseases NOTE NOTE

Slide 36: 

June 2010 Williford 36 Nutrition and Disease Know this figure: Figure 1-1; p.3 text

What Do Nutrition Scientists DO? : 

June 2010 Williford 37 What Do Nutrition Scientists DO? Observe Nutrition and Health problems, and ask specific questions to be answered; Formulate Hypotheses and Predictions; Conduct Scientific Experiments; Collect experiment data and develop interpretations of results; Develop theories that integrate the current research with other studies; Seek new observations and questions.

The Scientific Approach: Research Designs – 4 types : 

June 2010 Williford 38 The Scientific Approach: Research Designs – 4 types Epidemiological study This country’s food supply has more olive oil and they have less heart disease. Lab study Let’s prove that a vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy in these rats. Examples of research design

The Scientific Approach: Research Designs – 4 types : 

June 2010 Williford 39 Case study: This person eats too little iodine and has goiter Intervention study: Let’s add foods with vitamin C to his diet and see if he gets fewer colds. The Scientific Approach: Research Designs – 4 types

Nutrition Information on the Net : 

June 2010 Williford 40 Nutrition Information on the Net PUBMED (www.pubmed.org) Internet resource For your source to more “sound nutrition information” : Figure C1-2: p. 26

Who Are the True Nutrition Experts? : 

June 2010 Williford 41 Who Are the True Nutrition Experts? Page- 27

Slide 42: 

June 2010 Williford 42

Nutrition Labels: [Review pp. 40- 54 in text ] : 

June 2010 Williford 43 Nutrition Labels: [Review pp. 40- 54 in text ] By U.S. law, labels must state the following: Common or usual name of the product The name, address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor The net contents in terms of weight, measure, or count The nutrient contents of the product [Nutrition Facts Panel] The ingredients in descending order of predominance by weight Know for tests!

Nutrition Facts Panel on Labels : 

June 2010 Williford 44 Nutrition Facts Panel on Labels The Nutrition Facts Panel contains: Serving Sizes (1/2 cup;3/4 cup; one slice, etc.) Serving per container Calories (total) and Calories from Fat/serving Nutrient Amounts and % of Daily Values based on a 2000 calorie diet/ serving Ingredients in the Product, listed from highest amount by wt. [1st] to lowest [last]. Know for tests!

Nutrient Amounts listed on Labels : 

June 2010 Williford 45 Nutrient Amounts listed on Labels Nutrient Amounts and Percentages of Daily Values per Serving, based on a 2000 Calories intake per day include: Total fat (grams): [saturated and trans fat] Cholesterol (milligrams) Sodium (milligrams) Total Carbohydrates (grams): fiber and sugars Protein (grams)

Nutrients on Labels : 

June 2010 Williford 46 Nutrients on Labels In addition, according to law, the label must state the contents of the following nutrients expressed as %of the Recommended Daily Value per serving: Vitamin A (Retinol) Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Calcium Iron Know for tests!

How to “Simply” Measure Your Weight Loss : 

June 2010 Williford 47 How to “Simply” Measure Your Weight Loss Measure your neck circumference in inches Measure your waist in inches Subtract your neck size from your waist size 1. If the number is decreasing [your waist is getting smaller relative to your neck] you are losing body fat! GOOD If the number is increasing, increase your work out and eat less food/snacks/ beer/other calorie beverages!! BAD

Meet the Essential Nutrients : 

June 2010 Williford 48 Essential nutrients – must be obtained in the diet because the body does not make them Essential nutrients are found in all 6 “classes of foods” There is no single food that has all of the essential nutrients humans need! Meet the Essential Nutrients

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