Language Across the TITLE

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Language

A Global Village : 

A Global Village

Diversity within the Classroom : 

Diversity within the Classroom gender age/generation ethnicity race sexual orientation class/SES religion language learning styles

Areas of Lesson Focus : 

Areas of Lesson Focus Listening • to understand instructions interpret thoughts, ideas and opinions • to acquire information in a range of situations • to participate in discussion Talking • to convey information, thoughts, ideas, feelings and opinions • to question, hypothesise speculate, evaluate and think critically Writing using a range of media • to take notes • to express a view • to write reports Reading • to communicate in different contexts • to learn • to develop understanding • to select and evaluate information • for enjoyment Technology and literacy – taking advantage of the opportunities offered by technologies, for example by using text messages, the internet and email.

Demonstrate vocabulary comprehension strategies : 

Demonstrate vocabulary comprehension strategies Teachers need to provide students with a variety of strategies to use when trying to understand new vocabulary. Demonstrations need to include a wide range of text types and cover a variety of subject areas. Teachers need to demonstrate to students that real understanding and ownership of a word takes time. Comprehension of a word grows as one fully experiences the word in the process of reading and thinking. Meeting and understanding a new vocabulary word may take several exposures and varied contexts for a student to begin to really take ownership. Teachers should model and encourage students to explain vocabulary in their own words after they’ve had numerous encounters with the word. Students need ample time to practice these strategies and they may discover that some work better in one context than in another

How do we Integrate Language and Content Learning? : 

How do we Integrate Language and Content Learning? 1. Use graphic organizers. Give students a visual (e.g. timeline, diagram) which relates information and helps to organize new concepts. Graphic organizers also provide a “visual grammar” by allowing common language patterns to be connected to key concepts (e.g. smallpox vaccine was developed in 1796, the Red Cross was founded in 1864). 2. Teach vocabulary. Provide students with thematic lists of difficult words before a new unit, and return to these words throughout the unit. Pay attention to how common words (i.e. table) may be used differently in an academic context. Teach students to use prefixes, suffixes and roots to understand and remember new words since approximately 60% of English words have Latin or Greek origins. Practice with fun activities like bingo, pictionary, or crossword puzzles. 3. Use dialogue journals. Have students write back and forth with other students, with their family or with the teacher. They can describe what they have done in class, articulate what they have learned and share any questions that remain. 5. Reverse the lesson. Instead of introducing a new idea through a reading and then following it with application activities, reverse the sequence. Start with a lab, video, demonstration or other hands-on activity, then use the text to reinforce both content and key academic

Reading Comprehension : 

Reading Comprehension 1. Model “think aloud” strategies during reading. 2. Vary questions and ask open-ended questions that promote discussion. 3. Emphasize key strategies including questioning, predicting, summarizing, clarifying, and associating the unknown with what is known. 4. Use graphic or three-dimensional modeling of text structure. 5. Model and encourage flexible use of strategies, including self-monitoring.

How to Integrate : 

How to Integrate Language arts integration can be considered in three different ways: The most common understanding of integration is learning each of the language arts in terms of the others. Reading is learned through appropriate oral and written activities; writing is learned by attending to reading as a writer would -- composing orally, reading drafts to peers, and engaging in related activities; and oral language is learned in the context of rich opportunities for receiving and producing written language. The second concept of integration is implied in the first: each language mode is an integrated whole, not a set of isolated, minute components. Finally, integration may involve the development of language while learning other content areas, such as social studies, science, or math, as in the "language-across- the-curriculum" model.

Guided Experiences : 

Guided Experiences Give students: Knowledge of different types of text — their structure and format features — can be very helpful to students as they learn how to learn from a wide variety of written materials. The written materials should range from newspapers to magazines, charts, graphs, maps, textbooks, dictionaries, encyclopedias — the list goes on and on. Features in textbooks such as indexes of different types, appendices, glossaries, question sections, and graphic organizers can all provide important information to the student who knows how to use them. Instruction in typical patterns found in texts such as cause-effect, sequence, and compare-contrast should be provided. Teachers in all subject areas need to model for their students how to learn from their particular textbook. They need to provide many opportunities for students to practice these strategies, offering guidance when needed. Again, students and teachers need to share their thinking processes aloud with each other frequently as they do this. Then students need to take increasing responsibility for use of strategies when reading.

Build prior understanding of key vocabulary. : 

Build prior understanding of key vocabulary. . Key vocabulary is the terminology critical to understanding information on a specific topic. Without understanding of these key terms, it will be difficult to build a conceptual framework for understanding the written material. When beginning a new topic of study, first explore and activate prior knowledge to find out what students already know about the topic. You may discover that students already have some understanding of the key vocabulary and topic. For instance, if you are beginning an eighth-grade unit on plants, photosynthesis is a key vocabulary term for this topic. To activate students’ prior knowledge, have students brainstorm on the term, and then with the students’ help map out the information. This activity also gives students the opportunity to think about and identify what they would like to learn about the topic. When working with key vocabulary, always model for students and always share your thinking. When trying to identify the key vocabulary terms, begin by identifying the key concepts — these will often be the key vocabulary terms. As you help students build an understanding of these terms, always try to find a way to relate the new information to something they already know and understand. Remember that vocabulary is best learned and understood in a written context, so preteach only those few words essential to understanding. Students need many opportunities to participate in group activities where key vocabulary is identified within written text and then explicated, and then they need opportunities to practice this in small groups, with a peer, or on their own.

How do we go about achieving this? : 

How do we go about achieving this? • How can we build on our current structures to lead and develop literacy across the whole school? • In secondary schools and colleges, what will we expect of each faculty or subject department and each teacher or lecturer in developing literacy skills? • In secondary schools and colleges, what role will our language specialists have in supporting literacy across the curriculum? • What role will teachers play in monitoring, evaluating and communicating the progress of children and young people in literacy? • How do we provide opportunities at all stages for learners to review and refresh earlier learning in literacy? • What strategies can we use to engage and involve parents and the wider community in supporting our work on literacy? • How will we evaluate the impact of the teaching of literacy across the curriculum?

Ways to Approach This? : 

Ways to Approach This? For secondary teachers and staff this means taking account of the literacy outcomes in the teaching and learning process within their subject. The draft experiences and outcomes in each curriculum area will suggest opportunities where learning within the subject can go hand in hand with the development of literacy skills. This variety of contexts makes learning relevant, motivating and promotes progress.

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