transcultural nursing

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Health and Illness: A Socio Cultural Perspective : 

1 Health and Illness: A Socio Cultural Perspective Muhammad Yaqoob RN, BScN Instructor Nursing Institute of Nursing Dow University of Health Sciences

The concept of culture : 

2 The concept of culture

Culture… : 

3 Culture… Shared and learned values, ideals, and meanings that guide behaviors, decisions, and actions. It has explicit and implicit rules of behavior and expectations. Explicit: Visible components —easily seen Clothing, jewelry, hairstyles, etc. Implicit: Invisible components —less observable Value belief system that drives visible practices (Leininger, 1995)

Culture… : 

4 Culture… It has material and non-material items that characterize the culture It has traditional practices that are passed on through generations. There are etic (outsider’s) and emic (insider’s) views and knowledge about the culture. There are intercultural variations between two or more cultures and within a particular culture. (Leininger, 1995)

What is culture? : 

5 What is culture? Socially transmitted knowledge of values, beliefs, norms, and lifeways of a particular group that guides their thoughts and behaviors— (Purnell and Paulanka, 1998)

Slide 6: 

6 Culture is a way of life Material Possessions Ideas Attitudes Values Behavior Patterns “Everything that people have, think, and do as members of a society” (Ferraro, 2008) Or more simpler….

Cultural Elements : 

7 Cultural Elements Values and beliefs Customs and traditions Language/communication patterns Diet and food preparation Dress and/or body decoration Religious practices Family structure View of time may vary Recreations/ games

Slide 8: 

8 Characteristics of Culture Culture is learned Culture is shared Culture is adaptive Culture is integrated Culture is Symbolic Culture is Dynamic Culture is Comparative

Slide 9: 

9 Culture is learned How do we learn our culture? Culture is learnt (not biologically transmitted) through the process of learning or interacting with one’s cultural environment  enculturation.

Slide 10: 

10 Culture is shared Culture is shared (member vs. outsider) -> People of the same culture can predict, within limits, how others will think and behave -> Explain cross-cultural misunderstanding caused when we step outside out familiar cultural setting where meanings are not shared with other people.

Culture is Adaptive : 

11 Culture is Adaptive Culture is humanity’s most powerful strategy for survival ->How basic “natural” demands of human life are met in different ways because of culturally defined variations

Slide 12: 

12 Culture is Integrated -> All various parts of a culture must operate in perfect harmony at all times -> Study one or two aspects of a culture does not give a comprehensively grounded knowledge of the culture.

Slide 13: 

13 Culture is Symbolic

Culture is Dynamic : 

14 Culture is Dynamic Cultures interact and change (through networks, telecommunications, education, migration, and tourism) -> Cultural diffusion: the spreading of a cultural element from one culture to another -> Acculturation

Slide 15: 

15 Should everyone use a deodorant? USA 89% French Canada 81% United Kingdom 71% Italy 69% France 59% Australia 25% Culture is comparative

Slide 16: 

16 To communicate - makes the actions of individuals intelligible to others A tool gives meaning to differences Identity Why do humans have Culture? What is its function?

What is society? : 

17 What is society?

Slide 18: 

18 `A distinct and relatively autonomous community whose members' mutual social relations are embedded in and expressed through the medium of culture'. `A group of people who occupy a specific locality and who share the same cultural traditions or culture.' Society

CULTURE VS SOCIETY : 

19 CULTURE VS SOCIETY THIS IS A SOCIETY

CULTURE VS SOCIETY : 

20 CULTURE VS SOCIETY THIS IS ALSO A SOCIETY

WHAT MAKES A SOCIETY DIFFERENT FROM OTHER SOCIETY? : 

21 WHAT MAKES A SOCIETY DIFFERENT FROM OTHER SOCIETY?

CULTURE IS WHAT MAKES A SOCIETY DIFFERENT FROM OTHER SOCIETY : 

22 CULTURE IS WHAT MAKES A SOCIETY DIFFERENT FROM OTHER SOCIETY

Concept of society at micro and macro levels : 

23 Concept of society at micro and macro levels Micro level: Focuses on individuals and their interactions. --- The relationship between adult children and their parents ---- The effect of negative attitudes on older people.

Concept of society at micro and macro levels : 

24 Macro level: Focuses more upon social structure, social processes and problems, and their interrelationships. -----The effects of industrialization on older people's status ------ How gender and income affect older people's well being. Concept of society at micro and macro levels

Perceptions of Health and Illness in Different Societies and Cultures: Common Practices in Pakistan : 

25 Perceptions of Health and Illness in Different Societies and Cultures: Common Practices in Pakistan

Beliefs : 

26 Beliefs Certain diseases are due to anger of God and administration of drugs is harmful e.g. chicken pox, measles, and mumps Certain diseases are due to sins committed in the past life e.g. tuberculosis/ leprosy STDs are due to sex with prostitutes/ commercial sexual practices Certain skin diseases are because of impure blood which need purification by neem’s leaves etc.

Beliefs : 

27 Beliefs Effects of cold and hot: too much cold water causes runny nose, fish is hot in nature Eating papaya during pregnancy causes abortion Eating green leafy vegetables causes dark skin in foetous, if eaten during pregnancy Eating from common plate and drinking from common glass are signs of brotherhood

Custom : 

28 Custom Open land is often meant for open field defecation. Latrine within the house is dirty and objectionable. Forbidding entry of women in to kitchen during menses period Keeping the animals within the house. Breast feeding of baby by lactating mothers up to two-and-half years

Custom : 

29 Custom No colustrum is given to the new born Circumcision in infancy

Habits : 

30 Habits Putting finger in nose and ears Putting sticks in mouth Nail biting Eating fish/ eggs as hot foods Eating curd/ milk as cold foods Eating pan, tobacco and smoking Hand washing after defecation and before eating foods

Tradition : 

31 Tradition Men eat first and women in the last Sending woman for first delivery in their parents’ house Touching the feet of elders to get their blessings Delivery by the TBAs Performing the marriages within same cast. Puncturing ear/ nose Dowery