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Male – Female & Cultural Differences & Love and Hate : 

Male – Female & Cultural Differences & Love and Hate PSY 230 Theories of Personality

Studies do not support gender differences in personality: : 

Studies do not support gender differences in personality: Anatomy is destiny – Freud There are similar personality traits for women and men and they do not really differ that much – personality wise

Real Measurable Differences: : 

Real Measurable Differences: Male Spatial Abilities Better at tasks & measures of spatial abilities Mathematics Verbal & Physically Aggressive Take charge in small groups Female Verbal Abilities Start talking earlier Larger Vocabularies Better in reading Better at Nonverbal communication More sensitive to nonverbal cues More nonverbally expressive Concerned & Involved in child rearing

Functionalism - Darwin : 

Functionalism - Darwin Behavior and thought evolve as a result of their functionality for survival Maternal Instinct: “an inborn emotional tendency towards nurturance that was triggered by contact with a helpless infant.” Women’s energy expended in pregnancy, childbirth, and lactation Justification for Male dominance and Female submissiveness

Genetic Sex : 

Genetic Sex Determined at moment of conception when female egg with X chromosome joins male sperm with its X or Y chromosome Boy: XY-Androgen-sexual genitalia-brain Girl: XX-absence of androgen-ovaries In fetus on Hormones influence sex differences

Turner’s Syndrome : 

Turner’s Syndrome Child born with single X chromosome: XO Have external female genitalia but no ovaries Remain fertile and sterile since not exposed to androgen due to lack of Y Excessive timid and feminine behavior Weaker mathematical and spatial skills

Androgenized Females : 

Androgenized Females Genetically female embryo exposed to excess androgen Either masculine or ambiguous genitalia Tomboy behavior Need sex hormone treatment to develop secondary sexual characteristics

Psychoanalytic Approach to Gender Differences : 

Psychoanalytic Approach to Gender Differences Biological theory assumes differences in aggression, jealousy, passivity, rationality, & dependency Males: Castration anxiety-penis=pleasure; threats re:masturbation - girls don’t have it so… Oedipus Crisis-incorporate “maleness” Females: Penis Envy , inferiority, jealousy Replace desire for penis with want for child

Neo-Analytic Approach : 

Neo-Analytic Approach Erikson Males-active, exploring, warring, pragmatic – due to external genitalia Females-nurturance, gentleness & peacefulness - due to internal genitalia Horney-reverse envy of males for child bearing Jung-Asian Ying and yang-both in all people Animus-male archetype, analytical, logical Anima-female archetype, “relationship” part Androgyny: consolidation of male and female characteristics as most healthy & adaptive

Biological Approach : 

Biological Approach Hormone influence the sexual characteristics Maternal instinct does have large learned or environmental component Evolution used incorrectly to explain why men more sexually active than females

Behaviorist Social Learning Approach : 

Behaviorist Social Learning Approach Gender type personality characteristics are learned through: reinforcement, modeling, conditioning, generalization, vicarious learning & other learning Parent: primary source of modeling, socializers for sex-typed traits. Peers, teachers, mass media reinforce gender-typed behavior Most influential model for child has most similarities to child e.g.: same sex

Cognitive Approach-Gender Schema Theory : 

Cognitive Approach-Gender Schema Theory Our culture and gender-role socialization provide us with gender schemas Schemas: organized mental structures that delineate understanding of abilities of, appropriate behaviors of, appropriate situations for men & women, boys & girls Cognitive filters-process gender-relevant information Assumptions about masculinity & femininity influence perceptions & interactions

Trait Approach to Gender Differences : 

Trait Approach to Gender Differences Culturally prescribed social roles sometimes identify different characteristics as masculine or feminine in different cultures Masculinity and femininity are not a bipolar trait but two separate traits which can co-exist in each one of us Study: Aggression, Emotionality, Achievement Motivation

Bem Sex Role Inventory : 

Bem Sex Role Inventory Feminine: high in & endorse feminine characteristics Masculine: high in & endorse masculine characteristics Androgynous: high in both M & F Undifferentiated: low in both M & F

Humanistic Approach : 

Humanistic Approach Maslow: minimized gender traits highlighting self-actualization Assumes psychological equality of men and women Differences betweens sexes become smaller as societies give equal rights and opportunities to women

Interactionist Approach : 

Interactionist Approach Gender-relevant activities are heavily tied to demands of social situations Helping-research males higher, not so?… Nurturance, giving-female but cross culture?… Sociability-no difference Nonverbal Behavior-Female higher Influenceability-slight female more Insturmentality vs expressiveness

Instrumentality vs Expressiveness : 

Instrumentality vs Expressiveness Instrumental behavior: being oriented to objective that are task focused and separate from interpersonal system Expressive behavior: involves emotional well-being of one’s social and family group

Social Roles – Alice Eagly 1987 : 

Social Roles – Alice Eagly 1987 Social behaviors that differ between the sexes are embedded in social role Social roles: gender roles as well and many other roles pertaining to work and family Different roles that men & women find themselves in, specify behavior

Gender Roles-social roles based on gender : 

Gender Roles-social roles based on gender Beliefs & attitudes about abilities, activities, and aspirations of members of each gender role-which affects performance Elicits behaviors that are specified by gender role in wide range of circumstances making them look like stable, internal gender characteristics

Same gender in-group comparisons : 

Same gender in-group comparisons Brenda Major 1994 found: People tend to compare themselves to same sex people in group and are at ease if their roles are the same in the group This can results in cross gender inequities of status and pay - more likely ignored

Cross Cultural Gender Differences : 

Cross Cultural Gender Differences Margaret Mead 1935 Argued that gender differences vary among cultures produced by the culture through socialization New Guinea: Arapesh-M & F feminine nurturing Mundugamor-M & F masculine aggressive

Cultural & Ethnic Differences in Personality Perspective : 

Cultural & Ethnic Differences in Personality Perspective

Culture : 

Culture Is one key determinant of what it means to be a person beside the biological and social influences Cultural effects: shared behaviors and customs people learn from institutions of their society Ethnic group: cultural traditions Social class: economic & educational status

Ethnocentrism : 

Ethnocentrism Evaluation other’s from one’s point of view Tendency to degrade or dismiss the different practices in other cultures Viewing habits of other cultures as strange and even abhorrent using terminology e.g.: heathen, uncivilized, perverse, barbaric etc.

Margaret Mead, 1929, 1939 : 

Margaret Mead, 1929, 1939 Observed children and adolescents in Samoa in the South Pacific Focus on childrearing Adolescence was a smooth transition to adulthood based on effect of society on the individual how the society approaches adolescence

Beatrice Whiting & John Whiting, 1975 : 

Beatrice Whiting & John Whiting, 1975 Studied Mexican & Filipino children Found them helping care for their younger siblings and cooperating in doing family chores: Grow up to be prosocial – helping others Contrast to competitive American youth Hispanic kids might do less well in competitive school situations than would American kids

Ralph Linton, 1945 : 

Ralph Linton, 1945 The Cultural Background of Personality A person comes to situations armed with much knowledge derived from culture, e.g. boy from hunting tribe finds self alone in woods after dark will know how to build shelter & survive the night, even if he has never been alone or done this before People are shaped by their cultures and subcultures & are the same as those in the same cultures and subcultures

Bradd Shore, 1996 : 

Bradd Shore, 1996 In studying Samoans Only after he became familiar with the shared culture of the community could he recognize the differences in personalities within the people in the community and see each person as a unique individual with difference from other members of the same culture

Kurt Lewin, 1930 : 

Kurt Lewin, 1930 Study of different style of leadership effectiveness Democratic vs autocratic(fascist) Morale higher in Democratic Task performance was not as high in Democratic and higher in autocratic

emic Approach vs etic Approach : 

emic Approach vs etic Approach emic approach: culture specific-focuses on a single culture, understood on its own terms-linguistic:specific language sounds etic approach: cross cultural approach, searches for generalities across cultures- linguistic: universal ways of describing speech sounds Various culture specific variables must be considered

Jung’s Archetypes : 

Jung’s Archetypes Found in mythology, religion, ancient rituals, & dreams Collective unconscious: depository of memories of human evolution-guiding thoughts & motivations shared over time Archetypes: universal structures of the collective unconscious-universal concepts at same time with cultural variations

Individualistic vsCollectivist Cultures : 

Individualistic vsCollectivist Cultures Autonomous individual vs centrality of the collective Individualistic themes: Western cultures Collectivist themes: Eastern cultures Americans like “lone cowboy” Asians may like group leader, winning team Personal responsibility is not likely to develop if a focus on collective identity interferes with the initial development of personal identity and responsibility

American Dilemma – Gunnal Myrdal 1944 : 

American Dilemma – Gunnal Myrdal 1944 The American constitution stated “All Men are created equal” & at same time allowed for slavery worth 3/5 of a man

Racial stereotypingKatz & Braly, 1933 : 

Racial stereotypingKatz & Braly, 1933 In racial stereotype test: Americans: industrious, intelligent, progressive Negroes: superstitious, lazy, happy-go-lucky, musical Simplistic categorization by race ignores promising concepts as temperamental differences among individual & cultural influences on behavior and development

SES Gradients : 

SES Gradients Socioeconomic Status: measure of people’s levels of education & income SES Gradient: higher a person’s SES the lower the risk of getting sick or dying prematurely Social Class can have sweeping effects on individuals

Karl Marx 1818-1883 : 

Karl Marx 1818-1883 German social philosopher wrote on effects of the economic system on individual behavior Marx belief: many societal institutions served mainly to maintain the economic power of the elite Saw strong socioeconomic influence on what it means to be a person Influence on thinking of Fromm: capitalist society must create a culture of consumption

Language & Identity : 

Language & Identity Speaking & listening are a pervasive mode of interpersonal interaction in all human societies & a central part of who we are Language is one of the defining features of a person’s identity-you are what you speak-keeps out those who can’t speak it and reinforces ties among those that do

Idiolect & Dialect : 

Idiolect & Dialect Idiolect: each individual speaks a unique version of the native language which is a form of self-expression and part of personality (Johnstone & Bean ‘97) Dialect: variations between groups of people who share regional or cultural characteristics-important aspect of group identity. Used to assert speaker’s membership in the dialect group & prevents outsiders from understanding the communication among members

Example of Shared Language Culture : 

Example of Shared Language Culture Deaf community: being deaf interferes with them being able to fully communicate with the larger society They share their(sign) language inside their group but not outside it & become a linguistic & social community Hearing family members are often not members of this deaf culture

“English Only” Movement : 

“English Only” Movement Limiting all governmental communication to English Based on US citizens to full participants & contributors to society forced to become proficient in language of majority English embodies the essence of public life in the USA. Opponents: say racist, exclusivist, bigoted, undermines cultures-take away rights of non-English speaking minority

Linguistic Relativity-Sapir-Whorf hypothesis : 

Linguistic Relativity-Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Our interpretation of the world is to a large extent dependent on the linguistic system by which we classify it. Our language influences not only how we say things, but even how we think about & understand & perceive the world

Pronouns and Status : 

Pronouns and Status Each language community enforces norms of politeness that are reflective of its view on proper conversational interaction You: familiar used with intimates & subordinates You: polite used with whom respect is due tu vs usted Spanish, tu vs vous French du vs sie German

Gender & Language : 

Gender & Language Many languages have different pronouns for each sex for first, second and third person pronouns Gender neutral language need to eliminate use of male pronoun as default rather use gender free term Language usage influences how we think and behave

Culture and Personality Testing : 

Culture and Personality Testing Culture-Free Tests: not dependent on culture Culture-Fair Tests: control for or rule out effects that result from culture rather than individual differences System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMA): assumes test results cannot be divorced from the culture-comparison within cultural group rather than between groups (Jane Mercer,1979)

Stereotype ThreatClaude Steele, 1997 : 

Stereotype ThreatClaude Steele, 1997 Threat that others’ judgments or their own actions will negatively stereotype them Testing situation filled with with social expectations If people believe that the test is not gender or race relevant their performance improves- Individual’s identity depends on how they construe the challenge and affects behavior in predictable ways

Incorporating Culture & Personality : 

Incorporating Culture & Personality Personality & predictable behavior are meaningless outside of a framework or cultural context in which they are to be understood. Erikson 1950 studied the Sioux-students did not act like white students and were seen as flawed-did not cooperate or do well in the classroom

Allport, 1954 : 

Allport, 1954 Bring culture in as a key consideration of personality Culture is part of what it means to be a person-no people without cultures Prejudice: more likely during social change, economic rivalries exist, government sanctions scapegoats, traditions support hostility, society has unfavorable attitudes towards assimilation and pluralism (after WW1, Great Depression, 1930’s, prior Vietnam War era)

Impact of Culture on Us : 

Impact of Culture on Us Impact on roles we are to assume – behaviors Helps us set goals by way socialized Impact on cognitive sets Impact on way one leads one’s life Impact on healthy way of living e.g.: 7th Day Adventists

Impact of the Group on Individual : 

Impact of the Group on Individual In Japan: success of society is seen as utmost importance Selflessness & self-sacrifice of one’s life is admired Japan culture but scorned in US American hero: people who rebel against & overcome social expectations-Susan B Anthony, MLK, Jobs from Apple

Love and Hate : 

Love and Hate

Ethnological Theories of Hate : 

Ethnological Theories of Hate Aggression: product of adaptive evolutionary process (Lorenz, 1967 & Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1972 & 1979)-fatalistic view, hatred is inevitable & natural Hatred is innate since aggression was adaptive in the evolution of our species Natural hatred can be distorted & expressed inappropriately if restrained or frustrated-serial killers have strict parents

Brain Disorders & Hatred : 

Brain Disorders & Hatred Alcohol & Drug Induced Brain Disorders can result in aggression-murder, rage Lesion on or near hypothalamus & amygdala (temporal lobe)-intense rage-sudden & uncontrollable Low density of dopamine receptors in basal ganglia-more aloof, detached

Freud’s Theory of Thanatos : 

Freud’s Theory of Thanatos That all people have a death instinct Drive toward death & self-destructive behaviors Projection of aggression-hatred & paranoia towards others Use of defense mechanism to redirect thanatos drive towards out-group of people

Antisocial Personality Disorder : 

Antisocial Personality Disorder psychopaths Violate rules and norms of society Have no or little conscience Lie to and con others Violate rules as youngsters pull wings off insects, carry knife to bully others, destroy property, fire setters, kill or torture small domestic animals

301.7Antisocial Personality Disorder : 

301.7Antisocial Personality Disorder Disregard for & violation of the rights of others since age 15, as indicated by 3 or more: Failure to conform to social norms or lawful behavior & repeated acts-grounds for arrests Deceitfulness, repeated lying, use of aliases or conning others for profit/pleasure Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead Irritability & aggressiveness, repeated physical fights or assaults Reckless disregard for safety of self or others Consistent irresponsibility, repeated failure on job or to meet financial responsibility Lack of remorse, indifferent, rationalize: hurting, mistreating or stealing from others

Jung’s Ruling Type : 

Jung’s Ruling Type Shadow Archetype: Primitive, animal instincts reside Inappropriate or uncontrolled expression one’s shadow-results primal hatred & aggression Power complex could increasingly influence perceptions & actions until it is in control Shadow + Power Complex + thinking-extroverted (rigid, obstinate) type=Ruling Type

Adler & Horney’s Belief about Hatred : 

Adler & Horney’s Belief about Hatred Hostile & hateful personalities developed during childhood Adler: focus on early coping & rejection=world inhospitable & hostile Horney: children who experience extended time when do not feel safe-shamed, embarrass, punish-repressed anxiety-self-protective measures-achieve power & control over others-neurotic trends to be aggressive personality-move against people

Erikson’s view of Aggression : 

Erikson’s view of Aggression Emerges during social interactions in early childhood 3 unsuccessfully resolved psychosocial stages result in angry, hostile, hateful Lack of trust as infant Treated in hostile manner as seeking autonomy Punished initiative & thwarted rather than realistically channeled

Fromm’s Authoritarian Personality Type : 

Fromm’s Authoritarian Personality Type Existential: Arises empty society’s loneliness & alienation Biological: Cruel penchant for exerting power, abusing and taking others possessions- Actually want to cause the suffering of others Social Interaction: Generated by negative relationship with parents-poor channeling of drives

Roger’s View of Hatred : 

Roger’s View of Hatred Negative emotions stem from lack of positive regard-parents especially Lack of unconditional love and acceptance-especially from mothers Grow up anxious, afraid to realize full potential-threatened by life experiences Discrepancy between perception of self and life experience-distortion of reality=hatred and aggressiveness

Maslow’s View of Hatred : 

Maslow’s View of Hatred Fears and doubts about self are root of immaturity and hate Comes from unmet safety needs Evil and Hatred not basic part of people’s personality-from deficient environment Child abuse, poverty, divorce & discrimination Need structure & regulation along with love and feelings of safety to grow and change

Hatred as a Trait : 

Hatred as a Trait Cardinal Trait (Allport): personality characteristics highly influential in person’s personality and daily actions Hatred & aggression: cardinal traits Cattell-factor analysis of aggression Eysenck-aggression related to psychoticism Feshbach(1971): empathy inhibits aggressive feelings and behaviors

Kelly’s Cognitive Simplicity : 

Kelly’s Cognitive Simplicity People do not make many distinctions about other people -likely perceive other people as similar to one another Authoritarian people might dismiss whole groups of people as “enemies” Hostility-results when concept of other is not supported by evidence-try to fit or constrain others to fit their concept rather than change their interpretation of reality-distortions of meaning of social interactions

Hate as Learned Behavior : 

Hate as Learned Behavior Aggression is acquired through the same mechanisms as all behavior Hateful emotions are conditioned responses Hateful behaviors is modeled, observed, imitated & vicariously reinforced

Love Explained by Evolutionary Psychology : 

Love Explained by Evolutionary Psychology Love through the millennia developed because of its adaptive consequences Attraction to members of opposite sex necessary for reproduction Insure genetic transfer characteristics: Ensure survival after birth Ensures that helpless child survives to reproductive age

David Buss, Evolutionary Psychologist: Attraction : 

David Buss, Evolutionary Psychologist: Attraction Cross cultural characteristics sought due to reproductive roles: Men: attracted to suitability to conceive & carry healthy offspring-young,fit, healthy Females: attracted to potential fertility & genetic health based on attractiveness & skills to be successful to acquired resources-earning potential- to support women in pregnancy

Romantic Attachment Styles-Phillip Shraver : 

Romantic Attachment Styles-Phillip Shraver Attachment learned during childhood accounts for differences in quality of adult relationships Secure lover:easily forms and invites warm close relationships Avoidant lover:uncomfortable, trouble trusting Anxious-ambivalent lover: wants closeness, insecure, pushes others away

Maslow’s “Being” Love vs “Deficiency” Love : 

Maslow’s “Being” Love vs “Deficiency” Love B-Love: unselfish & cares for the needs of the others-more self-actualized and help partners to actualization D-Love: selfish & needy, immature

Erich Fromm’s Types of Love : 

Erich Fromm’s Types of Love Love: humanizes people-overcome feelings of loneliness-positive result of people joining with people Immature love: taking of love overwhelms the giving of love Motherly love: one-side, unequal-unconditional love, asking nothing-gives stability & security Brotherly love: loving all others-mankind, reunites isolates self with others Erotic Love: short lived intimacy, satisfy sexual need, alleviates anxiety, control or be controlled Mature love: incorporates brotherly love and self-love, each partner cares for the other, sense of responsibility towards one another, knowledge of one another, self-respect

Rollo Mays Types of Love : 

Rollo Mays Types of Love Humans are depersonalized by modern culture & technology Violence & dehumanization results Types of Love: Sex: lust, tension release Eros: procreative love-savoring, experiential Philia: brotherly love, liking Agape: devotion to welfare of others, unselfish love Authentic love: incorporates other other types of love

Cultural Difference in Love : 

Cultural Difference in Love Match Making made on basis of Respect Maturity Potential for deep integrative love Physical compatibility Practical concepts about love

Concepts of Loneliness : 

Concepts of Loneliness Difficultly finding love and forgo meaningful relationships Difficulty forming relationships, trusting others, getting close Difficulty talking about themselves, disclosing feelings, forming social relationships, uncomfortable socially Low in extroversion, agreeableness, emotional stability Negative explanatory style, see things out of their control, view others negatively

Attraction to Sexual Aggression Scale Malamuth1989 : 

Attraction to Sexual Aggression Scale Malamuth1989 Identify men who are apt to engage in sexual violence towards women Believe in rape myths-women enjoy rape, women strong need for being dominated Positive attitudes sexual aggression Lack understanding of humanness Lack empathic abilities

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