Republic of Zambia : Republic of Zambia Slide 5: Zambia 752614㎢
Korea 100032㎢ Slide 6: CHOMA MPIKA Slide 8: 11,668,000 Lozi : Lozi Ngoni, 1 Kwacha = 100 Ngwee1 USD = 4690 Kwacha : 1 Kwacha = 100 Ngwee1 USD = 4690 Kwacha Kenneth Kaunda : Kenneth Kaunda Levy Mwanawasa : Levy Mwanawasa Rupiah Bwezani Banda : Rupiah Bwezani Banda Health- The history of AIDS in Zambia : Health- The history of AIDS in Zambia Zambia, in southern Africa, has one of the world’s most devastating HIV and AIDS epidemics. Global Report AIDS, 2009 The history of AIDS in Zambia : The history of AIDS in Zambia Zambia's first reported AIDS diagnosis in 1984 was followed by a rapid rise in the proportion of people living with HIV. Although Zambia has received hundreds of millions of dollars for HIV programmes from rich country governments, prevalence rates are not dropping and have remained more or less stable since the nineties, at as high as 25% in some urban areas. The history of AIDS in Zambia : The history of AIDS in Zambia Zambia’s first AIDS case was reported in 1984.4 Within two years the National AIDS Surveillance Committee (NASC) and National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme (NAPCP) were established to coordinate HIV/AIDS-related activities. The history of AIDS in Zambia : The history of AIDS in Zambia In the early stages of the epidemic much of what was known about HIV prevalence was kept secret by the authorities under President Kaunda.By the early nineties it was estimated that as many as 1 in 5 adults had been infected with HIV, leading the World Health Organization to call for the establishment of a National AIDS Advisory Council in Zambia. The history of AIDS in Zambia : The history of AIDS in Zambia The new millennium signaled a marked change in political attitude and, according to Stephen Lewis, ‘an entirely new level of determination to confront the epidemic. The National HIV/AIDS Council (NAC) became operational in 2002 when Parliament passed a national AIDS bill that made the NAC a legally-established body able to apply for funding The history of AIDS in Zambia : The history of AIDS in Zambia In 2004, President Mwanawasa declared HIV/AIDS a national emergency and promised to provide antiretroviral drugs to 10,000 people by the end of the year. Having exceeded this target, he set another to provide free treatment for 100,000 by the end of 2005. Medicine and Test HIV The history of AIDS in Zambia : The history of AIDS in Zambia In 2008 UNAIDS reported a stabilizing of Zambia's epidemic and some evidence of favorable behavior change. HIV Class The impact of HIV/AIDS in Zambia : The impact of HIV/AIDS in Zambia Unlike in some countries, HIV in Zambia is not primarily a disease of the most underprivileged; infection rates are very high among wealthier people and the better educated. HIV is most prevalent in the two urban centers of Lusaka and the Copperbelt, rather than in poorer rural populations. The impact of HIV/AIDS in Zambia : The impact of HIV/AIDS in Zambia The collapse of copper prices in the 1970's weakened Zambia's economy and saw an increase in the number of men seeking work away from home. The movement of miners, seasonal agricultural workers and young men between rural areas and urban centers has been shown to spread HIV to new areas. The impact on women : The impact on women Although the HIV epidemic has spread throughout Zambia and to all parts of its society, some groups are especially vulnerable - most notably young women and girls. Among young women aged 15-24, HIV prevalence is nearly four times that of men in this age category. The impact on women : The impact on women A number of factors resulting from gender inequality contribute to the higher prevalence among women. Women are often taught never to refuse their husbands sex or to insist their partner uses a condom. In a Zambian behavioral survey, around 15 percent of women reported forced sex, although this may not reflect the true number as many women do not disclose this information The impact on economic productivity : The impact on economic productivity Agriculture, from which the vast majority of Zambians make their living, is also affected by AIDS. The loss of a few workers at the crucial periods of planting and harvesting can significantly reduce the size of the harvest. AIDS is believed to have made a major contribution to the food shortages that hit Zambia in 2002, which were declared a national emergency. Book about HIV and Development The impact on children : The impact on children Children have been much affected by the AIDS epidemic in Zambia. In 2007 there were 600,000 AIDS orphans in the country.Thousands of these children are abandoned due to stigma or a simple lack of resources, while others run away because they have been mistreated and abused by foster families. The impact on children : The impact on children Many of the most tragic stories connected with HIV transmission involve the sexual abuse of children. Men are targeting increasingly younger sexual partners whom they assume to be HIV-negative, and the "virgin cure" myth (which wrongly claims that sex with a virgin can cure AIDS) fuels much of the abuse. HIV Prevention : HIV Prevention HIV and AIDS prevention through awareness-raising began early in Zambia. An American journalist in 1988 reported, "Zambia is waging one of the world's most aggressive educational campaigns against AIDS,surpassing anything being done in the United States". campaigns against AIDS, Zambia HIV Prevention : HIV Prevention Much of the early campaign involved pamphlets and posters that warned of the dangers of AIDS and promoted abstinence before marriage, for example: "Sex thrills, but AIDS kills". Over the years, a wide range of media has been used to carry messages about AIDS, and children have been taught at least the biological facts in school. Condoms and abstinence : Condoms and abstinence It has been conclusively proven that condoms are highly effective at preventing sexual HIV transmission, when used correctly and consistently. the use of condoms remains infrequent, especially in rural areas. One issue is availability and affordability: many villages are miles from the nearest outlet. AIDS education : AIDS education Nearly half of all Zambians are between 0 and 14 years old; relatively few of these young people have HIV, and they are all eager to learn. Effective education therefore has the power to change attitudes and behavior for life. Preventing mother-to-child transmission : Preventing mother-to-child transmission Zambia's prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) initiative was launched in 1999.
In 2004 it had expanded so that 74 health facilities in four provinces offered antiretroviral drugs (primarily nevirapine) to expectant mothers and newborn infants. In 2007 an estimated 47% of pregnant women living with HIV received ARVs for preventing mother-to-child transmission. By 2008 this estimate had increased to 59%.