logging in or signing up Very Large Scale Integration aSGuest43958 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 5695 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (2) Dislike it (0) Added: May 02, 2010 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 1 Presentation Description for 4th sem bput students Comments Posting comment... By: sravanigujju (2 month(s) ago) can u mail me advancements in vlsi ppt plz........... Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: venkatarakeshkumar (35 month(s) ago) hi, Can you mail me the above ppt plz. Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: VLSI Slide 2: What is VLSI? “Very Large Scale Integration” SSI – Small-Scale Integration (0-102)---1960 MSI – Medium-Scale Integration (102-103)---1967 LSI – Large-Scale Integration (103-105)---1972 VLSI – Very Large-Scale Integration (105-107)---1978 ULSI – Ultra Large-Scale Integration (>=107)---1989 GSI _ Giant Scale Integration (>=109)---2000 *Where these are given as no of transistors. Integration Level Trends : Integration Level Trends Obligatory historical Moore’s law plot Slide 5: Integrated Circuits/MEMs Hierarchy of various technology Semiconductor process Silicon GaAs Unipolar Bipolar Unipolar Bipolar ECL TTL NMOS PMOS CMOS Slide 6: Chips Integrated circuits consist of: A small square or rectangular “die”, < 1mm thick Small die: 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm => 2.25 mm2 Large die: 15 mm x 15 mm => 225 mm2 Larger die sizes mean: More logic, memory Less volume Less yield Dies are made from silicon (substrate) Substrate provides mechanical support and electrical common point Advancements over the years : Advancements over the years © Intel 4004 Processor Introduced in 1971 2300 Transistors 108 KHz Clock © Intel P4 Processor Introduced in 2000 40 Million Transistors 1.5GHz Clock System Design Pyramid : System Design Pyramid Slide 9: • Photo-litho-graphy: latin: light-stone-writing • Photolithography: an optical means for transferring patterns onto a substrate. • Patterns are first transferred to a photoresist layer. •Typically a wafer is about 8-10 inches in diameter. Individual ICs are placed inside it. Photolithography and Patterning Slide 10: Photoresist is a liquid film that is spread out onto a substrate, exposed with a desired pattern, and developed into a selectively placed layer for subsequent processing. • Photolithography is a binary pattern transfer: there is no gray-scale, color, nor depth to the image. Slide 14: Steps Photo resist Coating (covering) A light sensitive organic polymer (plastic) Mask/ Reticle formation Exposure to light (UV/X-RAY/E-BEAM) Slide 17: WHAT IS A PHOTOMASK? Photomasks are high precision plates containing microscopic images of electronic circuits. Photomasks are made from very flat pieces of quartz or glass with a layer of chrome on one side. Etched in the chrome is a portion of an electronic circuit design. This circuit design on the mask is also called geometry. Slide 18: The Resist The first step is to coat the Si/SiO2 wafer with a film of a light sensitive material, called a resist. A resist must also be capable of high fidelity recording of the pattern (resolution) and durable enough to survive later process steps Solvent Evaporates Slide 21: Photolithography Energy - causes (photo)chemical reactions that modify resist dissolution rate Mask - blocks energy transmission to some areas of the resist Aligner - aligns mask to previously exposed layers of the overall design Resist - records the masked pattern of energy Slide 22: Next Generation Lithography In 1996, five technology options were proposed for the 130 nm gate length technology: •X-ray proximity Lithography (XPL) •Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) •Electron Projection Lithography (EPL) •Ion Projection Lithography (IPL) •Direct-write lithography (EBDW). These options were referred to as the next generation lithography. MOSFET Design Rules : MOSFET Design Rules Lambda based design Rule Micron Rule Minimum width and Spacing : Minimum width and Spacing Layer Value Poly 2L Active 3L N select 3L Metal 3L Slide 26: Stick Diagrams Slide 27: Wiring Tracks A wiring track is the space required for a wire 4 l width, 4 l spacing from neighbor = 8 l pitch Transistors also consume one wiring track Slide 28: Well spacing Wells must surround transistors by 6 l Implies 12 l between opposite transistor flavors Leaves room for one wire track Basic Circuit Layout : Basic Circuit Layout Stick Diagram Stick Diagrams Layout Diagrams : Layout Diagrams Stick Diagrams Slide 31: Example: Inverter MOSFET Arrays and AOI Gates : MOSFET Arrays and AOI Gates A B C y x y x A B C Parallel Connected MOS Patterning : Parallel Connected MOS Patterning x y A B X X X A B x y Alternate Layout Strategy : Alternate Layout Strategy A B x y X X X X x A B y MOSFET Arrays and AOI Gates NAND2 Layout : MOSFET Arrays and AOI Gates NAND2 Layout Vp Gnd NOR2 Layout : NOR2 Layout Vp Slide 37: Stick Diagrams Cells, Libraries, and Hierarchical Design : Cells, Libraries, and Hierarchical Design Creation of a Cell Library Gnd Slide 41: Cell Placement System Hierarchy (MOSFET-Gates-F/Fs-Registers-Networks-Systems) Floorplans and Interconnect Wiring Y= (# of Good Chips/Total No)*100% Y=Yield ‘Y’ depends on total area=A, and no of defects=D, Y=e *100% Interconnects : Interconnects Place and Route Algorithm. Wiring Delay td=kl2 l=length of inter connect. td You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.