Do Hate Crimes Really Exist in College Communities? : 11/28/2008 1 Do Hate Crimes Really Exist in College Communities? Patricia Aqui Pacania
Frederic MacDonald-Dennis Agenda (e) : 11/28/2008 2 Agenda (e) Establish a common frame of reference to understand the basics of hate crimes and hate incidents
Share national, state and campus data on hate crimes and hate incidents
Share various approaches to responding to hate crimes and hate incidents Goals (p) : 11/28/2008 3 Goals (p) Examine UM campus statistics within the context of other Big 10 universities, the state, and the nation relative to hate crimes
Address myths about hate crimes
Understand what contributes to hate crimes occurring on campuses
Explore responses to hate incidents Definitions (p) : 11/28/2008 4 Definitions (p) Hate Crime: Any criminal act in which bias motive is a clear contributing factor.
Hate incident: Any act, including conduct, speech, or expression, in which bias motive is a clear contributing factor. Hate incidents do not have to include a criminal act.
- National Center for Hate Crime Prevention, Education Development Center, Inc. Federal Level (e) : 11/28/2008 5 Federal Level (e) Federal level: The FBI Uniform Crime Report defines a hate crime or bias crime as a criminal offense against a person, property, or society which is motivated, in whole, or in part, by the bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity/national origin. State Level (p) : 11/28/2008 6 State Level (p) State law: (Excerpt from the Michigan Penal Code) A person is guilty of ethnic intimidation if that person maliciously and with specific intent to intimidate or harass another person because of that person’s race, color, religion, gender or national origin, does any of the following:
(a) Causes physical contact with another person.
(b) Damages, destroys or defaces any real or personal property of another person.
Threatens, by word or act, to do an act described in subdivision (a) or (b), if there is reasonable cause to believe that an act described in subdivision (a) or (b) will occur. Myths about Hate Crimes (e) : 11/28/2008 7 Myths about Hate Crimes (e) Myth: Hate crimes are rare incidents.
FACT: 7,462 hate crime incidents were reported nationwide. (Hate Crime Statistics 2002)
FACT: The Southern Poverty Law Center cites that every hour someone in America commits a hate crime; every day 8 blacks, 3 whites, 3 gays, 3 Jews and one Latino become victims of hate crime; every week, a cross is burned somewhere in America. Myths about Hate Crimes (e) : 11/28/2008 8 Myths about Hate Crimes (e) The only impact the individual victim.
FACT: Hate crimes are committed with the intent not only of sending a message to the victim but also to the larger community. Hate crimes create a climate of public injury because these crimes shatter the public confidence in being kept free and safe from these incidents. (www.partnersagainsthate.org) Myths about Hate Crimes (e) : 11/28/2008 9 Myths about Hate Crimes (e) Hate incidents do not occur on college campuses.
FACT: 29.5 % of all reported hate crime incidents occurred at homes or residences. 20% occurred at highways, roads, alleys or streets. 10.6% took place at schools and colleges. (Hate Crime Statistics 2002)
FACT: Every day at least one hate crime occurs on a college campus. (10 Ways to Fight Hate on Campus)
FACT: Every minute a college student somewhere sees or hears racist, sexist, homophobic or otherwise biased words or images. (10 Ways to Fight Hate on Campus) Hate Crime Statistics (p) : 11/28/2008 10 Hate Crime Statistics (p) There may be more hate crimes occurring than what is reported. Reporting hate crimes to the FBI is a voluntary action taken by States and localities.
Furthermore, victims are hesitant to come forward due to the trauma of the crime. National Statistics : 11/28/2008 11 National Statistics State Statistics : 11/28/2008 12 State Statistics The 5 states with the highest numbers of hate crimes were: (total incidents = 7,462)
California - 1,648 (22%)
New York – 693 (9.3%)
New Jersey – 570 (7.6%)
Massachusetts – 430 (5.8%)
Michigan – 416 (5.6%)
(Hate Crime Statistics 2002) Clery Act StatisticsBig 10 Universities : 11/28/2008 13 Clery Act StatisticsBig 10 Universities Types of Hate Episodes on Campus : 11/28/2008 14 Types of Hate Episodes on Campus What factors contribute to hate crimes and hate incidents on college campuses? (p) : 11/28/2008 15 What factors contribute to hate crimes and hate incidents on college campuses? (p) What factors contribute to hate crimes and hate incidents on college campuses? : 11/28/2008 16 What factors contribute to hate crimes and hate incidents on college campuses? Responding to Hate Crimes and Incidents : 11/28/2008 17 Responding to Hate Crimes and Incidents Rise Up and stand against bigotry.
Help students to pull together and build alliances in the fight against hate.
Advocate for students who are targeted. Responding to Hate Crimes and Incidents : 11/28/2008 18 Responding to Hate Crimes and Incidents Support survivors and targeted students.
Develop an understanding of bias-related incidents.
Know campus information, policies, and statistics relating to hate acts.
Teach understanding and acceptance of all. UM Crime Prevention Policy : 11/28/2008 19 UM Crime Prevention Policy Hate crimes are viewed in the community not only as crimes against the targeted victim, but also as a crime against the victim’s group as a whole. Working constructively with segments of this larger audience after such episodes is essential to help reduce fears that stem from possible retaliation, help prevent additional incidents and encourage any other previously victimized individuals to step forward and report those crimes. Towards this end, DPS’ community relations function, or officers so assigned, shall: UM Crime Prevention Policy : 11/28/2008 20 UM Crime Prevention Policy Meet with neighborhood groups, residents in target communities and other identified groups to allay fears, relay the department’s concern over and response to this and related incidents, reduce the potential for counter-violence and provide safety, security and crime prevention information.
Provide direct and referral assistance to the victim and their family. UM Crime Prevention Policy : 11/28/2008 21 UM Crime Prevention Policy Conduct public meetings on hate threats and violence in general, and as it relates to specific incidents.
Establish a liaison with formal organizations and leaders.
Expand, where appropriate, existing preventative programs such as anti-hate seminars for school children. Questions and Answer Period : 11/28/2008 22 Questions and Answer Period Resources to find out more about hate crimes and prevention : 11/28/2008 23 Resources to find out more about hate crimes and prevention