Endangered Animals of India : Endangered Animals of India Nataraj M.B.
Department of Zoology. What is an endangered animal? : What is an endangered animal? A species is called endangered when there are so few of its kind left that it could disappear from the planet altogether and become 'extinct.'
Extinct means an animal hasn't been seen in the wild for 50 years.
In total 762 plant and animal species are now recorded as extinct. IUCN RED LIST : IUCN RED LIST The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List) is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species.
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species.
IUCN Red List is widely considered to be the most objective and authoritative system The IUCN Categories : The IUCN Categories Extinct (EX) - No individuals remaining.
Extinct in the Wild (EW) - Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range.
Critically Endangered (CR) - Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Endangered (EN) - High risk of extinction in the wild.
Vulnerable (VU) - High risk of endangerment in the wild.
Near Threatened (NT) - Likely to become endangered in the near future.
Least Concern (LC) - Lowest risk. Does not qualify for a more at risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category. Slide 5: The IUCN Categories IUCN RED LIST - 2009 : IUCN RED LIST - 2009 Number of Threatened Species of Animals
Mammals : 1142
Reptiles : 469
Amphibians : 1895
Fishes : 1414 IUCN RED LIST - 2009Indian Scenario : IUCN RED LIST - 2009Indian Scenario Extinct: 01 Critically Endangered : 52 Endangered : 117 Vulnerable : 271 Total Number of Threatened Species: 440 Causes : Causes Habitat Destruction
Expansion of Agriculture
Poaching and Trade
Global Warming and Climate Change Slide 9: White-backed Vulture
& Long-billed Vulture White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis is widely distributed in India.
Till late 1990 it was in abundant but declined rapidly.
Cause – veterinary use of diclofenac for livestock.
Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus.
This species is also widely distributed in India.
Like White-backed Vultures their population declined rapidly after 1990.
Cause – veterinary use of diclofenac for cattle. Jerdon's Courser & Forest Owlet : Jerdon's Courser & Forest Owlet Jerdon's Courser Rhinptilus bitorquatus is endemic bird found in south-eastern Andhra Pradesh. Earlier known from few places in Central India from Godavari River basin.
Habitat specialist bird found only in scrub forest.
Threats – habitat destruction because of human activities
This bird is endemic to Satpuda Mountains known from only from six places in Central India. Because of the Forest Owlet, the Central Indian Forests come under Endemic Bird Area.
Forest Owlet Heteroglaux blewitti .
Only found in dry deciduous forests.
Threats – habitat destruction for fuel wood, illicit wood cutting, overgrazing and direct persecution by tribal. Spot-billed Pelican & Sarus Crane : Spot-billed Pelican & Sarus Crane Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis is found all over India in large wetlands.
The population is declining very fast.
Threats – destruction of nesting habitat, drainage and pollution of wetlands and dearth of food.
Sarus Crane Grus antigone was historically widespread all over south Asia and Australia. Now declining all over its range.
Threats - primarily threatened by a combination of habitat loss and modification (owing primarily to agricultural expansion), pollution and persecution. Lesser Flamingo & Great Indian Bustard : Lesser Flamingo & Great Indian Bustard Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor is found only in Asia and African Continent.
Every year 10% population decline is observed in Africa. It breeds in Little Run of Katch in Gujarat.
After breeding, disperse over Indian Subcontinent.
Threats – water pollution, disturbance to nesting sites and habitat destruction.
Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps was historically spread all over Indian subcontinent but now restricted to only a few places in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
Habitat specialist birds representative of Grassland.
Threats – expansion of agriculture, habitat fragmentation, overgrazing, pesticides and hunting. Tibetan antelope & Hoolock gibbon : Tibetan antelope & Hoolock gibbon Tibetan antelope or Chiru (Pantholops hodgsonii) is a medium-sized animal which is about 2 foot 7 inches in height. It is native to the Tibetan plateau including India near Ladakh.
Tibetan antelope are gregarious, sometimes congregating in herds hundreds strong.
Tibetan antelope are listed as endangered by the World Conservation Union due to commercial poaching for their underwool, and the development of their rangeland for gold mining. The Chiru's wool, known as shahtoosh, can only be obtained by killing the animal.
The Hoolock Gibbon is the only ape species found in India. Hoolocks reach a size of 60 to 90 cm and weigh 6 to 9 kg.
The range of the hoolocks extends from Assam in North-east India, to Myanmar. Their diet consists mainly of fruits, insects and leaves. Indian Elephant& Asian Black Bear : Indian Elephant& Asian Black Bear The Indian Elephant, Elephas maximus indicus, is one of four subspecies of the Asian Elephant, the largest population of which is found in India.
Indian Elephants live in or near scrub-forested areas.
The Indian Elephant is up to 6.4 metres (21 ft) long & weighs between 2.7 and 4.5 tonnes .
The WWF considers the Indian Elephant widely distributed, but endangered. The current population of the Indian Elephant is in the range of 20,000-25,000.
The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), is a medium-sized bear, largely adapted for arboreal life. Occurs through much of southern Asia.
Black bears typically inhabit deciduous forests, deserts, mixed forests and thornbrush forests. Tiger & Indian Rhinoceros : Tiger & Indian Rhinoceros The Tiger (Panthera tigris) reaches up to 3.3 metres (11 ft) in total length and weighs up to 300 kilograms (660 pounds).
Tigers are among the most recognisable of all the cats.
Of the nine subspecies of modern tiger, three are extinct and the remaining six are classified as endangered.
The Indian Rhinoceros or the Great One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is a large mammal primarily found in north-eastern India and Nepal.
The Indian Rhino is from 1.7 to 2 m (5 ft 7 in to 6 ft 7 in) tall and can be up to 4 m (13 ft) long.
The Great One-Horned Rhinoceros has a single horn; this is present in both males and females
These rhinos live in tall grasslands and riverine forests, but due to habitat loss they have been forced into more cultivated land. Asiatic Lion & Red Panda : Asiatic Lion & Red Panda The Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica) or Persian lion or the Indian Lion is a subspecies of the lion which survives today only in the Gir Forest of Gujarat, India
The Asiatic lion is one of the three major big cats found in India. They reach a weight of 160-190 kg.
The Gir Forest National Park of western India has about 359 lions.
The Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens, "shining cat") is a small arboreal mammal.
Endemic to the temperate forests of the Himalayas, the Red Panda ranges from Nepal in the west to China in the east. It is also found in northern India, Bhutan and northern Myanmar.
It eats mainly bamboo, but is omnivorous and may also eat eggs, birds, insects, and small mammals. Dhole & Capped Langur : Dhole & Capped Langur The Dhole (Cuon alpinus), also known as the Asiatic Wild Dog or Indian Wild Dog is found throughout India & is an endangered species.
Dhole was declared a protected species under Schedule 1 of the Wildlife Act of 1972.
The Capped Langur (Trachypithecus pileatus) is found in India, and neighbouring countries. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
They mainly feed on leaves, flowers and fruits. Blue Whale & Ganges River Dolphin : Blue Whale & Ganges River Dolphin The Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal. At up to 32.9 metres (108 ft) in length and 172 metric tons in weight it is the largest animal ever to have existed.
B. m. brevicauda (also known as the pygmy blue whale) is found in the Indian Ocean.
The IUCN Red List counts the blue whale as ‘endangered’. Whale population is dwindling because of whaling, accidental collision with ships, and due to global warming.
The Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) is primarily found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers and their tributaries in India, Bangladesh and Nepal.
The Ganges River Dolphin has been very adversely affected by human use of the river systems, entanglement in fishing nets , killing for oil and meat, and poisoning of the water supply from industrial and agricultural chemicals. Himalayan Wolf & Lion-tailed Macaque : Himalayan Wolf & Lion-tailed Macaque The Himalayan Wolf (Canis himalayensis) is a critically endangered species.
It is native to a small region in northern India (Jammu and Kashmir and then Himachal Pradesh) and eastern Nepal in the Himalayas.
The Himalayan Wolf only has a small population of 350 animals, and 21 specimens live in zoos throughout India.
The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) is an Old World monkey that is endemic to the Western Ghats of South India.
A recent assessment for IUCN reports 3000-3500 of these animals living scattered over several areas in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Slide 20: Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei) is an Old World monkey found in a small region of western Assam, India and in the neighboring foothills.
The Golden Langur is known for its rich golden to bright creamish hair, a black face and a very long tail measuring up to 50 centimetres (20 in) in length.
The Golden Langur is currently endangered, the total Indian population in 2001 was recorded to be 1,064 individuals.
The Nilgiri Tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius) is endemic to the Nilgiri Hills and the southern portion of the Western Ghats in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in southern India.
It is the state animal of Tamil Nadu. Golden Langur
& Nilgiri Tahr Markhor & Namdapha flying squirrel : Markhor & Namdapha flying squirrel The Markhor (Capra falconeri), is the largest member of the goat family, and is found in northeastern Afghanistan, northern India (southwest Jammu and Kashmir), & central Asia. The species is classed by the IUCN as Endangered, as there are less than 2,500 mature individuals.
The Namdapha Flying Squirrel (Biswamoyopterus biswasi), is an arboreal, nocturnal flying squirrel endemic to India, and is listed as a critically endangered species due to habitat loss. Nilgiri Langur & Snow Leopard : Nilgiri Langur & Snow Leopard The Nilgiri Langur (Trachypithecus johnii) is found in the Nilgiri Hills of the Western Ghats in South India. Its range also includes Kodagu in Karnataka, Palani Hills in Tamil Nadu and many other hilly areas in Kerala.
The species is endangered due to deforestation and poaching for its fur and flesh, the latter believed to have aphrodisiac properties.
The snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is a moderately large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia.
Snow leopards live between 3,000 and 5,500 metres (9,800 and 18,000 ft) above sea level in the rocky mountain ranges of Central Asia. It has been estimated that between 3,500 and 7,000 snow leopards exist in the wild. Wild water buffalo & Servant Mouse : Wild water buffalo & Servant Mouse The wild water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis arnee or Bubalis arnee) is a large ungulate, and the ancestor of the domestic Water Buffalo.
It is an endangered species, thought to survive in (from west to east) India & neighbouring countries.
The Servant Mouse (Mus famulus) is a species of rodent found only in India. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland. It is threatened by habitat loss. Nicobar Treeshrew & Narcondam Hornbill : Nicobar Treeshrew & Narcondam Hornbill The Nicobar Treeshrew (Tupaia nicobarica) is endemic to India. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
The Narcondam Hornbill (Rhyticeros narcondami) is a species of endemic to the Indian island of Narcondam in the Andamans.
It is threatened by habitat loss.
Since 2009 it has had a Conservation status of endangered. Peter's Tube-nosed Bat & Malabar Large-spotted Civet : Peter's Tube-nosed Bat (Murina grisea) has tube-shaped nostrils which assist them with their feeding.
They are brown with white-yellow and underparts and have specks of orange around their neck. They are 3.3-6.0cm in length and have round heads, large eyes and soft fur.
This bat is found in India. They are endangered due to clearing of the rain forests. They feed on rain forest fruit and blossoms.
The Malabar Large-spotted Civet (Viverra civettina) was once common in Kerala and Karnataka in South India. It became rare by the beginning of the 20th century.
In 1999, fewer than 250 mature individuals were thought to survive in the wild.
This nocturnal animal is carnivorous, solitary and aggressive in nature. It feeds on small mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, & birds eggs. Peter's Tube-nosed Bat & Malabar Large-spotted Civet Kondana Soft-furred Rat & Salim Ali's fruit bat : Kondana Soft-furred Rat & Salim Ali's fruit bat The Kondana Soft-furred Rat (Millardia kondana) is a species of rodent found only in India. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, and urban areas.
Salim Ali's fruit bat (Latidens salimalii) is a rare species. This bat is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN.
It is found in Annamalai Western Ghats, Theni district, Tamilnadu, South India.
In 2002 the Indian government added the Salim Ali's fruit bat to Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act. Clouded Leopard & Eld's Deer : Clouded Leopard & Eld's Deer The Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is a medium-sized cat found in Southeast Asia. Preferred habitat is tropical and subtropical forests at altitudes up to about 2,000 meters (6,500 ft); also found in mangrove swamps and grassland.
Fewer than 10,000 individuals exist, and the population is declining.
Habitat loss due to deforestation and hunting for use in Chinese medicinal preparations are causing populations of the Clouded Leopard to decline.
Eld's Deer or Sangai(Rucervus eldi eldi) is a species of deer indigenous to Southeast Asia.
In India, the Eld's Deer species, called Sangai locally, is confined to the peculiar floating bog called Phumdis in Loktak Lake in Keibul Lamjao National Park in Manipur and is numbered at less than a few hundred animals. Gaur & White-bellied Musk Deer : Gaur & White-bellied Musk Deer The Gaur (Bos gaurus gaurus) is a large, dark-coated forest animal of South Asia and Southeast Asia. The largest populations are found today in India.
It is also called Indian bison.
Where gaur have not been disturbed, they are basically diurnal. But where populations have been disturbed by human populations, gaur have become largely nocturnal, rarely seen in the open after eight in the morning.
The Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus leucogaster) is found in parts of northern Afghanistan, Tibet (China), Kashmir (Pakistan), Kumaon(India) Nepal, Bhutan and Sikkim.
It inhabits high alpine environments, with the lowest occurring altitude at 2500 m from sea level.
The species is endangered due to a high volume of illegal animal trades within its range. Nilgiri Marten & Indian Wild Ass : Nilgiri Marten & Indian Wild Ass The Nilgiri Marten (Martes gwatkinsii) is the only species of marten found in southern India.
The species is reported from the Nilgiris, parts of southern Kodagu and northern Kerala of the Western Ghats.
Very little is known about the Nilgiri marten. It is diurnal, and though arboreal, descends to the ground occasionally. It is reported to prey on birds, small mammals and insects such as Cicadas.
The Indian wild ass (Equus hemionus khur) is also called khur.
Its last refuge lies in the Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary, Little Rann of Kutch and its surrounding areas of the Greater Rann of Kutch in the Gujarat .
its last refuge lies in the Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary, Little Rann of Kutch and its surrounding areas of the Greater Rann of Kutch in the Gujarat . Gharial Green turtle : Gharial Green turtle The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a long-established group of crocodile-like reptiles with long, narrow jaws.
It is a critically endangered species.
The gharial is one of the longest of all living crocodilians.
They are usually found in the river systems of Indus and the Brahmaputra, the Ganges, and the Mahanadi.
The bulbous growth on the tip of the male's snout is called a 'ghara' (meaning 'pot'), present in mature individuals.
Chelonia mydas, known as the green turtle, is a large sea turtle.
The range of the sea turtle extends throughout tropical and subtropical seas around the world.
It is listed as endangered by the IUCN.
Many turtles die caught in fishing nets. Real estate development often causes habitat loss by eliminating nesting beaches. Leatherback turtleMugger crocodile : Leatherback turtleMugger crocodile The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) is the largest of all living sea turtles
Dermochelys populations in the Indian Ocean, nesting populations are known from Sri Lanka and the Nicobar Islands.
exploitation of the turtle's nests have been cited as the most significant factor for the species' global population decline.
The mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) (literally "crocodile of the marsh"), also called the Indian, Iranian, marsh, mugger or Persian crocodile (in Persian گاندو Gandu), is found throughout the Indian subcontinent
Mainly a freshwater species, the mugger crocodile is found in lakes, rivers and marshes. Malabar Tree Toad : Malabar Tree Toad The Malabar Tree Toad (Pedostibes tuberculosus) is a species of toad found in forests along the Western Ghats of India south of Goa. It is small and is found in wet tree hollows or leaf bases containing water. Help Save the Animals! : Help Save the Animals!