SUJATHA

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Presentation Transcript

Slide 1: 

PROTECTOIN OF TRANSMISSION LINES USING GPS by: P.S.SUJATHA & ASHWINI.T EEE

OVER VIEW : 

OVER VIEW INTRODUCTION TRANSMISSION SYSTEM FAULT LOCATION CAUSES OF FAULTS GPS TECHNIQUE

Slide 3: 

A new technique for the protection of transmission systems. Relays are installed at each bus bar in a transmission network. Relay contains a fault detection system together with a communication unit. Relay determine the location of the fault. INTRODUCTION

LOCATION OF FAULT : 

LOCATION OF FAULT Save time and resources for the electric utility industry. Determine “distance to fault” from a transmission line end. Aid in fast restoration of power. Communication systems can retrieve fault location information.

Slide 5: 

GENERATION        TRANSMISSION            DISTRIBUTION TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

Slide 6: 

TRANSMISSION LINES

Slide 7: 

WHAT IS TRAVELING WAVE FAULT LOCATION? Faults on the power transmission system cause transients that propagate along the transmission line as waves. Fault location can then be obtained by multiplying the wave velocity by the time difference in line ends.

Slide 8: 

BENEFITS OF TRAVELING WAVE FAULT LOCATION Early fault locators used pulsed radar. Radar equipment is typically mobile or located at substations and requires manual operation. Impedance-based fault locators are a popular means of transmission line fault locating. Traveling wave fault locators are becoming popular where higher accuracy is important. GPS-based sub microsecond timing system has proven reliable in several utility traveling wave projects.

Slide 9: 

TRAVELING WAVE FAULT LOCATION THEORY Traveling wave fault locators make use of the transient signals generated by the fault. Unlike impedance-based fault location systems, the traveling wave fault locator is unaffected by load conditions. Precisely synchronized clocks are the key element in the implementation of this fault location technique. The required level of clock accuracy has only recently been available at reasonable cost with the introduction of the Global Positioning System.

Slide 10: 

The voltage and current at any point x obey the partial differential Equations Where L and C are the inductance and capacitance of the line per unit length.

Slide 11: 

POSSIBLE CAUSES OF FAULT

Slide 14: 

WHAT IS GPS? Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit. originally intended for military applications allows precise determination of location, velocity, direction and time.

Slide 15: 

HOW GPS WOKS? GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day . Transmit signal information to earth. Receivers take this information and calculate the user's exact location.  Accurate 3-D location require four satellites.

Slide 16: 

THE GPS SATELLITE SYSTEM 24 satellites that make up the GPS space segment are orbiting the earth about 12,000 miles above us.

Slide 17: 

WHAT’S THE SIGNAL? GPS satellites transmit two low power radio signals. A GPS signal contains three different bits of information. - a pseudorandom code, -ephemeris data, - almanac data.

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HOW ACCURATE IS GPS? Today's GPS receivers are extremely accurate. GPS receivers are accurate to within 15 meters on average. Newer GPS receivers with WAAS  (Wide Area Augmentation System) capability can Improve accuracy to less than three meters on average. Increased accuracy to within an average of three to five meters.

Slide 19: 

SOURCES OF GPS SIGNAL ERRORS Ionosphere and troposphere delays. Signal multipath. Receiver clock errors. Number of satellites visible.  Satellite geometry/shading. Intentional degradation of the satellite signal.

Slide 20: 

CONCLUSION Thus the use of GPS in protection of transmission systems is beneficial in the respects like -Value regarding programmatic goals -Technical merit -Overall performance

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