HONEY

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The Bees and their Honey : 

The Bees and their Honey

Apis Mellifera (Honey Bee-Ape domestica) : 

Apis Mellifera (Honey Bee-Ape domestica) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Hymenoptera Suborder: Apocrita Superfamily: Apoidea (unranked): Anthophila Families AndrenidaeApidaeColletidaeDasypodaidaeHalictidaeMegachilidaeMeganomiidaeMelittidaeStenotritidae Synonyms Apiformes

Bees knew the world was round about 25 million years before man!. : 

Bees knew the world was round about 25 million years before man!. Thanks to the way they communicate each other using their own unique million years old developed system the WAGGLE DANCE (dance language) The angle from the sun indicates direction; the duration of the waggle part of the dance signifies the distance.

Colony collapse disorder… and not only!! : 

Colony collapse disorder… and not only!! From 2008 the Bees are dying in their millions. It is an ecological disaster that threatens to bring global agriculture to a standstill Australian beekeepers are making a fortune replacing the planet's dying bees. There are three magnetically polarized organs in the body of each bee; one each in the head throat and abdomen those organs are the foundation of their communication system when you see video of them 'dancing' they are actually producing electro-magnetic waves by which they communicate with the entire hive

Slide 9: 

APART FROM HONEY, WHY BEES ARE SO IMPORTANT ? Yes very, the pollination benefit of bees is calculated to help the economy by millions of pounds per annum. Certain crops yield up to 25-40% more if efficiently pollinated and farmers in some areas of the world pay beekeepers to put hives into their fields and orchards (frutteti). The pollination service provided by insect pollinators, bees mainly, was about €153 billion in 2005 for the main crops that feed the world. Bees are very, very important as pollinators of fruits and vegetables that we eat, or feed to livestock. Bees also pollinate plants we get our clothes from (cotton) as well as plants that line our rivers and streams and control erosion. Since pollen can't walk, bees moving from one flower to another carry the pollen grains so a new fruit can be formed. Some pollen can be blown by the wind from flower to flower. But the pollen of apples, pears, peaches, almonds, avocados, cucumber, cotton, watermelon and many other plants, needs to be carried by bees, and honeybees do this job the best! Now, with bees and honey bees, in particular, we know that over one-third of our food supply relies upon them for pollination services and we know that pollination is essential for the reproduction of the plants the bees service.

The Beekeeper, just a very nice person….. : 

The Beekeeper, just a very nice person…..

Are you afraid of Bees???Come on, how on earth can you be…There are not Historical records of Swarms attacking Humans, apart in the films !!! : 

Are you afraid of Bees???Come on, how on earth can you be…There are not Historical records of Swarms attacking Humans, apart in the films !!! Look, don't they just love her….,

IF ANYTHING, THESE ARE THE F…..S !!! : 

IF ANYTHING, THESE ARE THE F…..S !!!

How do bees defend them self? : 

How do bees defend them self? The defense against other insects such as predatory wasps is usually performed by surrounding the intruder with a mass of defending worker bees, who vibrate their muscles so vigorously that it raises the temperature of the intruder to a lethal level. It was previously thought that the heat alone was responsible for killing intruding wasps, but recent experiments have demonstrated that it is actually the increased temperature in combination with increased carbon dioxide levels within the ball that actually comprises the lethal effect.

HOW MANY TYPES OF BEES ARE IN A HONEYBEE COLONY? : 

HOW MANY TYPES OF BEES ARE IN A HONEYBEE COLONY? a chemical laboratory….

Functions of the three castes within the colony Worker 1 - 3 days Cell cleaning and brood incubation 4 - 6 days Feeding older larvae (honey and pollen) 7 - 12 days Feeding young larvae (brood food) 13 - 18 days Processing nectar into honey, wax making, water evaporation, pollen packing. 19 - 21 days Guarding and starting to forage 22nd day + Foraging for nectar, pollen, water and propolis. These times are only approximate, and older bees can revert to their former duties should the need arise. Other duties include housekeeping, ventilation, humidity and temperature control. Drone 1 - 11 days Mainly confined to the hive, only leaving for cleansing flights 12 - 14 days Ready to mate (his sole function) Autumn Evicted by the workers. Queen 1 - 2 days Seeks out rivals and eliminates them. 3 - 5 days Orientation flights to locate the hive. 6 - 21 days Multiple mating flights with many drone partners. 3 - 4 days later she will commence egg laying. 22nd day + She remains in the hive for egg laying and pheromone production. At the height of the season the colony will contain: one queen approx 300 drones 60,000 workers. Of these workers approximately only 20,000 will actually be foraging at any one time. : 

Functions of the three castes within the colony Worker 1 - 3 days Cell cleaning and brood incubation 4 - 6 days Feeding older larvae (honey and pollen) 7 - 12 days Feeding young larvae (brood food) 13 - 18 days Processing nectar into honey, wax making, water evaporation, pollen packing. 19 - 21 days Guarding and starting to forage 22nd day + Foraging for nectar, pollen, water and propolis. These times are only approximate, and older bees can revert to their former duties should the need arise. Other duties include housekeeping, ventilation, humidity and temperature control. Drone 1 - 11 days Mainly confined to the hive, only leaving for cleansing flights 12 - 14 days Ready to mate (his sole function) Autumn Evicted by the workers. Queen 1 - 2 days Seeks out rivals and eliminates them. 3 - 5 days Orientation flights to locate the hive. 6 - 21 days Multiple mating flights with many drone partners. 3 - 4 days later she will commence egg laying. 22nd day + She remains in the hive for egg laying and pheromone production. At the height of the season the colony will contain: one queen approx 300 drones 60,000 workers. Of these workers approximately only 20,000 will actually be foraging at any one time.

Slide 19: 

WHAT DOES THE QUEEN BEE DO ? The major purpose of the queen is to lay eggs. During April and May she lays day and night, each egg taking about 20 seconds. That’s over 2000 eggs a day, more than her own body weight. The queen mates only once and holds sufficient sperm from the male drones to lay eggs for 3-5 years; incidentally the drone bee dies in the process which must come as a major disappointment for him. if the queen bee dies, one of the worker bees will feed 1 of the larvae growing a royal jelly which will turn this larvae into a queen it sounds stupid but it's true. DOES THE QUEEN ‘RULE’ THE COLONY ? No, the queen is “simply” an egg-laying machine. The queen bee has a smaller brain than a worker bee. WHY IS THERE ONLY ONE QUEEN? It is not understood (by man) why bees will only tolerate one queen but any attempt to introduce a second queen results in her death. If a queen dies unexpectedly during the summer the bees are able to make an emergency queen from eggs younger than 3 days old. HOW LONG DOES A BEE LIVES? In the summer a worker bee only lives for about 40 days. As no young are raised over the winter months, the workers born in the autumn will live until the following spring. A queen can live up to 5 years however for the beekeeper a queen is passed her prime in her third year.

HOW DO BEEKEEPERS CATCH A SWARM A swarm (sciame d`api) is actively looking for a home, so if the beekeeper puts a nice hive with perhaps some old honey comb in it close to where the swarm has settled, then it is easy to persuade them to take up residence. Normally a few bees are dropped into the hive and they then 'fan' their scent to the other bees once it has been 'approved'. It is a dramatic sight to see a swarm 'marching' into a new hive. Help! I'm lost… : 

HOW DO BEEKEEPERS CATCH A SWARM A swarm (sciame d`api) is actively looking for a home, so if the beekeeper puts a nice hive with perhaps some old honey comb in it close to where the swarm has settled, then it is easy to persuade them to take up residence. Normally a few bees are dropped into the hive and they then 'fan' their scent to the other bees once it has been 'approved'. It is a dramatic sight to see a swarm 'marching' into a new hive. Help! I'm lost…

WHY DO BEES MAKE HONEY ? Honey bees are special in that, over winter as a colony, unlike wasps and bumble bees . The colony does not hibernate but stays active and clusters together to stay warm. This requires a lot of food stored from the summer before ...honey. Although a hive only needs 20-30 lb. of honey to survive an average winter, the bees are capable, if given the space of collecting much more. This is what the beekeeper wants them to do. : 

WHY DO BEES MAKE HONEY ? Honey bees are special in that, over winter as a colony, unlike wasps and bumble bees . The colony does not hibernate but stays active and clusters together to stay warm. This requires a lot of food stored from the summer before ...honey. Although a hive only needs 20-30 lb. of honey to survive an average winter, the bees are capable, if given the space of collecting much more. This is what the beekeeper wants them to do.

Natural Hives : 

Natural Hives

WHY ARE SOME TYPES OF HONEY CLEAR AND RUNNY AND OTHER TYPES OPAQUE AND HARD ?The type of honey made by the bees is dependant on the types of foliage and flowers available to the bees. Crops such as Sunflower produce large quantities of honey that sets very hard, so hard that even the bees could not use it in the winter, garden flowers tend to give a clear liquid honey. If the beekeeper wants to produce a monofloral honey i.e. clover, orange blossom etc. the bee hive is put out of range from other sources. This can be difficult for the small hobbyist and a blend of the seasons honey is usually the result. In the autumn some beekeepers move their hives onto the moors (brughiera) to harvest only the nectar from one type of flower. : 

WHY ARE SOME TYPES OF HONEY CLEAR AND RUNNY AND OTHER TYPES OPAQUE AND HARD ?The type of honey made by the bees is dependant on the types of foliage and flowers available to the bees. Crops such as Sunflower produce large quantities of honey that sets very hard, so hard that even the bees could not use it in the winter, garden flowers tend to give a clear liquid honey. If the beekeeper wants to produce a monofloral honey i.e. clover, orange blossom etc. the bee hive is put out of range from other sources. This can be difficult for the small hobbyist and a blend of the seasons honey is usually the result. In the autumn some beekeepers move their hives onto the moors (brughiera) to harvest only the nectar from one type of flower.

Slide 24: 

HOW DO BEES MAKE HONEY ? Bees collect nectar which is a sticky substance exuded by most flowers or from some insects (Honeydew) and mix it with enzymes from glands in their mouths. This nectar/enzyme mix is stored in hexagonal wax honeycomb until the water content has been reduced to around 17%. When this level is reached the cell is capped over with a thin layer of wax to seal it until the bees need it. This capping indicates to the beekeeper that the honey can be harvested. Capped honey can keep almost indefinitely. Perfectly edible honey comb was found in the tombs of the Pharaohs, over three thousand years old. DOES HONEY CONTAIN ADDITIVES ? No. The only treatment is to filter to remove any wax debris produced during the extraction process DOES HONEY GOES UNDER SPECIAL TREATMENTS ? No. The only treatment is pasteurization carried out usually only by the industry to keep the honey very liquid, for marketing purposes only.

Slide 25: 

WHAT IS ROYAL JELLY (Pappa Reale)? Royal jelly is the food fed to queen bee larvae. It is a creamy white color and is very rich in proteins and fatty acids. It is produced by mouth glands in young bees. Each queen needs only a teaspoon of royal jelly, so as health product it is very expensive. HOW DO BEES MAKE WAX ? The youngest bees cluster in large numbers to raise their body temperature. Wax producing glands under their abdomen slowly excrete slivers of wax about the size of a pin head. Other worker bees 'harvest' these wax scales and take them to the part of the hive requiring the new wax. Bees use about 8-10g of honey to produce 1g of wax.

Slide 26: 

WHY DO BEES COLLECT POLLEN? Pollen is mixed with water and enzymes supplied by the worker bees mandibular glands to form a type of bread that is fed to the growing larvae. It provides rich source of proteins and fat whilst honey provides energy (carbohydrate). A bee colony collects about 40kg of pollen every year that’s 2 million pollen loads at 20mg a go.

Slide 27: 

WHAT`S PROPOLIS Propolis is a resinous mixture that honey bees collect from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. It is used as a sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive It is also used as an antiseptic, lining each cell and the interior of the hive. If another insect enters the hive, it is promptly killed and removed. If the body is too large to be remove, it is covered with propolis to keep its contaminants from harming the hive See the blackish colored resin in this honey bee's pollen basket ? The Worker Bees make this into "propolis"

Slide 28: 

EU Definition of honey   Honey is the natural sweet substance produced by Apis Mellifera bees (Honey Bee-Ape Domestica) from the nectar of plants or from secretions of living parts of plants or excretions of plant -sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which the bees collect, transform by combining with specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in honeycombs to ripen and mature .

Slide 29: 

CLASSIFICATION BY FLORAL SOURCE Generally, honey is classified by the floral source of the nectar from which it was made. Honeys can be from specific types of flower nectars, from indeterminate origin, or can be blended after collection. Blended (e.g. Miele X) Most commercially available honey is blended, meaning that it is a mixture of two or more honeys differing in floral source, color, flavor, density or geographic origin. Polyfloral (e.g. Miele di Millefiori) Polyfloral honey, also known as wildflower honey, is derived from the nectar of many types of flowers. The taste may vary from year to year, and the aroma and the flavor can be more or less intense, depending on which blooming are prevalent. Monofloral (e.g. Miele di Acacia) Monofloral honey is made primarily from the nectar of one type of flower. Different monofloral honeys have a distinctive flavor and colour because of differences between their principal nectar sources. In order to produce monofloral honey beekeepers keep beehives in an area where the bees have access to only one type of flower. Is done to the beekeeper to avoid the bees collecting other then one single varietal. Honeydew honey (e.g. Melata Di Miele) Instead of taking nectar, bees can take honeydew, the sweet secretions of aphids (cocciniglia) or other plant sap-sucking insects.

Slide 31: 

Honey Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 300 kcal   1270 kJ Carbohydrates     82.4 g - Sugars  82.12 g - Dietary fiber  0.2 g   Fat 0. g  Protein 0.3 g Water 17.10 g Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.038 mg   3% Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.121 mg   1% Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.068 mg  1% Vitamin B6  0.024 mg 2% Folate (Vit. B9)  2 μg  1% Vitamin C  0.5 mg 1% Calcium  6 mg 1% Iron  0.42 mg 3% Magnesium  2 mg 1%  Phosphorus  4 mg 1% Potassium  52 mg   1% Sodium  4 mg 0% Zinc  0.22 mg 2%

Miele di lavanda Miele di limone Miele di lupinellaMiele di mandarino Miele di mandorlo Miele di marrubio Miele di marruca Miele di maroMiele di meliloto Miele di rovoMiele di sulla Miele di timo Miele di trifoglio Miele di melo Miele di nespolo Miele pesco Miele di rododendro Miele di rovo Miele di schiucciolo Miele di stregoniaMiele di sonacciolaMiele di sulla Miele di sideritis Miele di tarassaco Miele di tiglioMiele di melata di abeteMiele di melata di metcalfa : 

Miele di lavanda Miele di limone Miele di lupinellaMiele di mandarino Miele di mandorlo Miele di marrubio Miele di marruca Miele di maroMiele di meliloto Miele di rovoMiele di sulla Miele di timo Miele di trifoglio Miele di melo Miele di nespolo Miele pesco Miele di rododendro Miele di rovo Miele di schiucciolo Miele di stregoniaMiele di sonacciolaMiele di sulla Miele di sideritis Miele di tarassaco Miele di tiglioMiele di melata di abeteMiele di melata di metcalfa S SOME TYPE OF ITALIAN MONOFLORAL HONEYS Miele corbezzolo- strawberry tree Miele di acacia Miele di ailanto- tree of heaven Miele di arancio Miele di asfodelo Miele di bosco Miele di calluna Miele di cardo -thistle Miele di carrubo- carob Miele di castagno- chestnut Miele di colza Miele di ciliegio- cherry Miele di edera Miele di erba medica- lucerne Miele di erica Miele di eucalipto Miele di ferola Miele di fichi d'india Miele di ginestrino Miele di girasole Miele di Inula Miele di lampone

Slide 33: 

CRYSTALIZATION, IS IT THAT BAD???  The tendency of honey to crystallize depends primarily on its glucose content and moisture level, the speed of the crystallization will depend on the nectar source, the temperature, and the availability of "seed" crystals - the starting point for the growth of a crystal.  Storage conditions, temperature, relative humidity and type of container-may also influence the tendency of honey to crystallize.   WHY DOES HONEY CRISTALIZE? Honey crystallizes because it is a supersaturated solution.This supersaturated state occurs because there is so much sugar in honey (more than 70%) relative to the water content (often less than 20%).It is a natural phenomenon happens when glucose, one of three main sugars in honey, spontaneously precipitates out of the supersaturated honey solution. All honey will naturally crystallize

WHOSE LOOKING AFTER THE BEES THEN? : 

WHOSE LOOKING AFTER THE BEES THEN?

Slide 37: 

Locanda Locatelli Honey description and Cheese Pairing suggestions   The Honey is the natural sweet substance produced from the Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera) by collecting the nectar of plants, or from the secretion from living part of plants, or from the secretion of insects suckers (Metcalfa Aphids) which are on plants, the bees collect, transform, combining with their own specific substances, then store in the Hives, dried then up, and live then maturing in their own honey comb.   Polyfloral Honey is derived from the nectar of many type flowers Monofloral Honey is a type of Honey which has a high value in the market place because it has a distinctive flavour or other attribute due to its being from the nectar of one plant species. Is done to the beekeeper or apiarist experience to domesticate the bees colonies in order to let them collect the nectar only from one plant species. Honeydew Honey (Melata di Miele) instead of taking nectar, bees collect honeydew; which is a sugar-rich sticky substance secreted by aphids as they feed on the plant sap

Acacia Honey: Miele Di Acacia : 

Acacia Honey: Miele Di Acacia Appearance: colorless to pale yellow Nose: New wax, cooked pear, typical honey delicate, medium intensity Palate: very sweet, medium acid, not very aromatic, vanilla, syrupy   Cheeses matching: Pecorino Romano,Provolone (Caciocavallo), Canestrato Crotonese

Heaven Tree Honey: Miele Di Fichi D`India : 

Heaven Tree Honey: Miele Di Fichi D`India Appearance: Pale amber with green-yellow hue Nose: Medium intensity, refreshing, menthol, balsamic, medicinal, typical flower of which derives Palate: Normally sweet slightly bitter, intense, fresh, menthol, camphor, long length   Cheeses matching: Gran Sardo, Rocchetta

Medlar Tree Honey: Miele Di Nespolo : 

Medlar Tree Honey: Miele Di Nespolo Appearance: colorless to pale amber Nose: Very intense, floral, almost cosmetic Palate: very sweet, medium acid, bitter almond, slightly spicy   Cheeses matching: Caprino, Brunette, Pecorino

Heather Honey: Miele Di Erica : 

Heather Honey: Miele Di Erica Appearance: Never perfectly clear, amber with red and orange hue Nose: Medium intensity, caramel, flowery Palate: Medium Intensity, moue caramel, crème caramel, slightly vegetable, medium length   Cheeses matching: Pecorino, Caprini, Provola, Fiore Sardo

Lime Tree Honey: Miele Di Tiglio : 

Lime Tree Honey: Miele Di Tiglio Appearance: Pale amber with green-yellow hue Nose: Medium intensity, refreshing, menthol, balsamic, medicinal, typical flower of which derives Palate: Normally sweet slightly bitter, intense, fresh, menthol, camphor, long length   Cheeses matching: Bitto, Bagoss, Castelmagno

Honeydew Honey: Melata Di Metcalfa : 

Honeydew Honey: Melata Di Metcalfa Appearance: Dark Amber Nose: Medium Intensity, Vegetable, Tomato Puree, Cooked fruit, Figs jam and Yeasty Palate: Medium Intensity, not very Sweet, Tomato and figs, molasses, malt, cooked beetroots, dates, persistent with a long finish   Cheeses matching: Pecorino, Gorgonzola, Murianengo, Castelmagno

Strawberry Tree Honey: Miele Di Corbezzolo : 

Strawberry Tree Honey: Miele Di Corbezzolo Appearance: Amber color Nose: Very intense, pungent, green ivy, coffee dregs, leather, burnt, bitter herbs Palate: Not very sweet, astringent, bitter   Cheeses matching: Ricotta, Mascarpone, Robiola

Sunflower Honey: Miele Di Girasole : 

Sunflower Honey: Miele Di Girasole Appearance: Intense yellow Nose: Medium Intensity, pollen, grassy, oily, old wax, green tomato jam,apricot Palate: Not excessively sweet, medium intensity, very refreshing, medium length   Cheeses matching: Taleggio, Asiago, Pecorino

and they lived happily ever after… : 

and they lived happily ever after… Hhappily ever after...

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