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Great ExpectationsFigurative Language : 

Great ExpectationsFigurative Language

Irony : 

Irony Verbal: The result of a statement saying one thing while meaning the opposite. Its purpose is usually to criticize. Situational: A result of one thing happening when the opposite is expected. Dramatic: The result of characters (and audience) knowing things that other characters do not.

Hyperbole : 

Hyperbole A deliberate, extravagant, and often outrageous exaggeration. It may be used either for serious or comic effect. e.g., The shot that was heard ‘round the world. My teacher is so old that she taught cave men how to start a fire. “There did not seem to be brains enough in the entire nursery, so to speak, to bait a fishhook with.” by Mark Twain from A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court

Paradox : 

Paradox A statement which contradicts itself. It may seem almost absurd. Although it may seem to be at odds, it usually turns out to have a truth that is normally hidden. "War is peace.""Freedom is slavery.""Ignorance is strength."(George Orwell, 1984) "Some day you will be old enough to start reading fairy tales again."(C.S. Lewis to his godchild, Lucy Barfield, to whom he dedicated The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe)

Allusion : 

Allusion A reference to a mythological, literary, historical, or Biblical person, place, or thing. e.g., Do not be deceived by the British and their Siren song. (mythological reference – The Odyssey) "I violated the Noah rule: predicting rain doesn't count; building arks does."(Biblical reference)

Parallelism : 

Parallelism The use of identical syntactic constructions in corresponding clauses or phrases. "Buy a bucket of chicken and have a barrel of fun." -KFC Slogan Syntax= verb, article, noun, prepositional phrase “Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal."(T.S. Eliot) Syntax= adj, noun, verb

Anaphora : 

Anaphora The deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several parallel verses, clauses, or paragraphs e.g. This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, This other Eden, demi-paradise,This fortress built by Nature for herself “I'm not afraid to die. . . . I'm not afraid to live. I'm not afraid to fail. I'm not afraid to succeed. I'm not afraid to fall in love. I'm not afraid to be alone. I'm just afraid I might have to stop talking about myself for five minutes." -Kinky Friedman, When the Cat's Away

Epistrophe : 

Epistrophe The deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the END of several parallel verses, clauses, or paragraphs What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny compared to what lies within us." —Emerson We are born to sorrow, pass our time in sorrow, end our days in sorrow.

Polysyndeton : 

Polysyndeton using several conjunctions in close succession, especially where they are usually replaced with commas E.g. Let the whitefolks have their money and power and segregation and sarcasm and big houses and schools and lawns like carpets, and books, and mostly--mostly--let them have their whiteness."(Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, 1969) "There were frowzy fields, and cow-houses, and dunghills, and dustheaps, and ditches, and gardens, and summer-houses, and carpet-beating grounds, at the very door of the Railway. Little tumuli of oyster shells in the oyster season, and of lobster shells in the lobster season, and of broken crockery and faded cabbage leaves in all seasons, encroached upon its high places."(Charles Dickens, Dombey and Son, 1848)

Asyndeton : 

Asyndeton Asyndeton A style that omits conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses (opposite of polysyndeton). "He was a bag of bones, a floppy doll, a broken stick, a maniac."(Jack Kerouac, On the Road) "I have found the warm caves in the woods,filled them with skillets, carvings, shelves,closets, silks, innumerable goods"(Anne Sexton, "Her Kind")

Alliteration : 

Alliteration Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of two or more closely placed words. e.g., You'll never put a better bit of butter on your knife."(advertising slogan for Country Life butter)"The soul selects her own society."(Emily Dickinson)

Participles : 

Participles A form of a verb that can function as an adjective. e.g., We enjoyed the baked beans or Here’s the bear that has been torn by siblings, washed by mother, and hugged by baby. The crying baby had a wet diaper.

Antithesis : 

Antithesis Placing contrasting ideas side-by-side using parallel structure e.g., They think we are weak; we know we are strong. e.g., "We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools."(Martin Luther King, Jr., speech at St. Louis, 1964)

Apply Your Knowledge : 

Apply Your Knowledge Using your notes, identify each of the following in the passage from Dickens’ Great Expectations: Parallelism Anaphora Participles Polysyndeton Personification Alliteration

Parallelism : 

Parallelism A fearful man, all in coarse grey, with a great iron on his leg. A man with no hat, and with broken shoes, and with an old rag tied round his head. A man who had been soaked in water, and smothered in mud, and lamed by stones, and cut by flints, and stung by nettles, and torn by briars; who limped, and shivered, and glared and growled; and whose teeth chattered in his head as he seized me by the chin.

Anaphora : 

Anaphora A fearful man, all in coarse grey, with a great iron on his leg. A man with no hat, and with broken shoes, and with an old rag tied round his head. A man who had been soaked in water, and smothered in mud, and lamed by stones, and cut by flints, and stung by nettles, and torn by briars; who limped, and shivered, and glared and growled; and whose teeth chattered in his head as he seized me by the chin.

Participles : 

Participles A fearful man, all in coarse grey, with a great iron on his leg. A man with no hat, and with broken shoes, and with an old rag tied round his head. A man who had been soaked in water, and smothered in mud, and lamed by stones, and cut by flints, and stung by nettles, and torn by briars; who limped, and shivered, and glared and growled; and whose teeth chattered in his head as he seized me by the chin.

Polysyndeton : 

Polysyndeton A fearful man, all in coarse grey, with a great iron on his leg. A man with no hat, and with broken shoes, and with an old rag tied round his head. A man who had been soaked in water, and smothered in mud, and lamed by stones, and cut by flints, and stung by nettles, and torn by briars; who limped, and shivered, and glared and growled; and whose teeth chattered in his head as he seized me by the chin.

Personification and Alliteration : 

Personification and Alliteration A fearful man, all in coarse grey, with a great iron on his leg. A man with no hat, and with broken shoes, and with an old rag tied round his head. A man who had been soaked in water, and smothered in mud, and lamed by stones, and cut by flints, and stung by nettles, and torn by briars; who limped, and shivered, and glared and growled; and whose teeth chattered in his head as he seized me by the chin.

IT IS YOUR TURN!! : 

IT IS YOUR TURN!! Now…using the same handout (the one you identified all of the various figurative language terms), think of a person you would like to describe. Use the EXACT same syntax (sentence structure) as Dickens. When you are finished, go through and highlight the different elements (each should have a different color): participles, anaphora, polysyndeton, alliteration, personification and parallelism. Make a color key to the side so that the grader can easily figure out what color goes with which element.

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