Capability Maturity Model__final

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Capability Maturity Model Integration(CMMI) : 

Capability Maturity Model Integration(CMMI) Group 1 Yen Chen Elizabeth Myers Stephanie Sornatale

What is CMMI? : 

What is CMMI? Capability Maturity Model Integration process improvement model for the development and maintenance of products and services consists of best practices that addresses productivity, performance, costs, and stakeholder satisfaction What processes should be implemented not How they can be implemented

History : 

History CMMI is the successor of CMM Created by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Goal: Improve usability of maturity models by integrating many models into one framework Combined 3 source models Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM) Systems Engineering Capability Model1 (SECM) Integrated Product Development Capability Maturity Model (IPD-CMM)

CMMI Today : 

CMMI Today Version 1.2 released August 2006 3 CMMI constellations CMMI Development CMMI Services CMMI Acquisition 25 Process Areas CMMI Models include Systems Engineering Software Engineering Integrated Product and Process Development Supplier Sourcing

Appraisal Requirements for CMMI (ARC) : 

Appraisal Requirements for CMMI (ARC) Defines the requirements for appraisal methods used with CMMI models SCAMPI Classes (A, B, C) Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement Official SEI method to provide ratings for CMMI models SCAMPI A is the only method that can result in a rating

CMMI Framework : 

CMMI Framework The structure that organizes the components used in: generating models training materials appraisal methods

CMMI Representations : 

CMMI Representations Allows an org to pursue different improvement paths CMMI Models have 2 different representation types Continuous (6 Capability Levels) Allows organizations to select a process area and improve processes related to it Staged (5 Maturity Levels) Uses predefined sets of process areas to define an improvement path for an organization

CMMI Representations Models : 

CMMI Representations Models Both representations provide the same essential contents but organized differently

Continuous Representation : 

Continuous Representation If you know which processes need improvement and understand the dependencies among the process areas described in CMMI Advantages Improve one process area or several areas Improve processes at different rates

Staged Representation : 

Staged Representation Proven sequence of improvements, each serving as a foundation for the next Single rating that summarizes appraisal results Allows comparisons across organizations Each level provides a set of process areas that characterize different org behaviors goals, commitment, ability, measurement, verification

Process Areas : 

Process Areas Related practices in an area that satisfy a set of goals considered important for making significant improvements All CMMI process areas are common to both continuous and staged representations. Process Management Project Management Engineering Support

Process Areas : 

Process Areas Symptoms of Process Failure Commitments missed No management visibility of progress Quality Assurance problems Poor Morale Process model provides A starting point for improving Benefit of community’s prior experiences Common language Shared vision Framework for prioritizing actions

Process Areas : 

Process Areas Causal Analysis and Resolution – Level 5/Support Determine the Causes of Defects Address Causes of Defects PM’s Knowledge Area - Quality

Process Areas : 

Process Areas Configuration Management – Level 2/Support Establish Baseline Track and Control Changes Establish Integrity PM’s Knowledge Area - Integration

Process Areas : 

Process Areas Integrated Project Management – Level 3/Project Management Use the Project’s Defined Process Coordinate and Collaborate with Relevant Stakeholders Use the Project’s Shared Vision Organized Integrated Team PM’s Knowledge Area – Integration, Communication, Human Resources

Process Areas : 

Process Areas Project Planning – Level 2/Project Management Establish Estimates Develop a Project Plan Obtain Commitment to the Plan PM’s Knowledge Area – Scope, Time

Process Areas : 

Process Areas Risk Management – Level 3/Project Management Prepare for Risk Management Identify and Analyze Risks Mitigate Risks PM’s Knowledge Area – Risk Management

Process Areas : 

Process Areas Supplier Agreement Management – Level 2/Project Management Establish Supplier Agreements Satisfy Supplier Agreements PM’s Knowledge Area – Procurement

Process Areas : 

Process Areas Requirements Management – Level 2/Engineering Manage Requirements PM’s Knowledge Area – Scope

Process Areas : 

Process Areas Requirements Management – Level 3/Process Management Establish Organizational Process Assets PM’s Knowledge Area – Integration

CMMI Process Benefits : 

CMMI Process Benefits Efficient, effective assessment and improvement across multiple process disciplines in an organization Reduced costs (including training) associated with improving and assessing processes A common, integrated vision for process improvement that can be used as a basis for engineering and enterprise-wide process improvement efforts A means of representing new discipline-specific information in a standard, proven process improvement context

CMMI Program Benefits : 

CMMI Program Benefits Improved schedule and budget predictability Improved cycle time Increased productivity Improved quality (as measured by defects) Decreased cost of quality

CMMI Technical Benefits : 

CMMI Technical Benefits Provides more detailed coverage of the product life cycle than other process-improvement products used alone. Provides a set of well-integrated models that will facilitate project management and improve the development process—and the resulting products. Promotes collaboration between systems engineering and software engineering. Better ability to address scalability

Organizational Improvements : 

Organizational Improvements Allows for better business alignment Better ability to leverage of resources and to examine business trends Increased customer satisfaction Increased return on investment Improved employee morale

Some of the Organizations Currently Using CMMI : 

Some of the Organizations Currently Using CMMI Accenture Bank of America Boeing Bosch BMW Dyncorp EDS Ericsson FAA Fannie Mae Fujitsu General Dynamics General Motors Hitachi Honeywell IBM Global Svcs Infosys Intel J. P. Morgan KPMG L3 Communications Lockheed Martin Motorola NASA NDIA NEC Nokia Northrop Grumman NRONTT DATA Polaris Raytheon Reuters SAIC Samsung Social Security Admin. Tata Consultancy Srvs TRW U.S. Air Force U.S. Army U.S. Navy U.S. Treasury Dept Wipro Zurich Financial Srvs

Performance Results : 

Performance Results

Performance Results – A Study : 

Performance Results – A Study Project performance is most related to the process engineering and organizational support activities of the CMM (Level III) Product and process quality activities (Level IV) also have a positive relationship with project performance. Basic project management process activities (Level II) were not significant at all. Organizations need to realize that benefits may not be reached until they achieve Level III. Process engineering and organizational support activities are positively associated with learning, control, interaction quality, and software flexibility. Adherence to basic project management activities was negatively related to software flexibility. However, software flexibility can be improved with Levels III and IV activities. The quality of the interaction between users and IS staff was positively related to product and process quality related activities (Level IV) but not activities in other levels. James J. Jiang, Gary Klein, Hsin-Ginn Hwang, Jack Huang, Shin-Yuan Hung (2004) An exploration of the relationship between software development process maturity and project performance. Information & Management 41, pg. 279–288

Disadvantages : 

Disadvantages CMMI is not the answer for every organization. Its rigid requirements for documentation and step-by-step progress make it better suited to large organizations than to small. Smaller organizations also often lack the resources and knowledge required to initiate CMMI-based process improvement. "Smaller organizations and projects are encountering some difficulty implementing the CMMI due to the number of expected practices and the level of sophistication inferred. The model's practices need to be interpreted in light of the work to be performed and scaled to provide value, not overhead.“ Burnsville, Minnesota-based CMMI assessor Pat O'Toole. May requires a considerable amount of time and effort to implement and a major shift in organizational culture and attitude. The organization’s culture can also be adversely impacted by adding to its rigid bureaucracy and reducing creativity and freedom on the part of the developers.

Disadvantages : 

Disadvantages CMMI models are not themselves processes or even process descriptions The actual processes an organization chooses depend on many factors, and the process areas of a CMMI model may simply not map one-to-one with those used in your organization. It turns out that the traits CMMI measures are, in practice, difficult to develop, even though they're easy to recognize. Most large, commercial developers that sell packaged Software rarely manage their requirements documents as formally as CMMI requires. Because documentation is a requirement for Level 2, all of those companies would, if rated, rank on the maturity scale as Level 1, initial or ad hoc. includes companies such as Apple Computer Inc. and Microsoft Corp

Outsourcing Controversy : 

Outsourcing Controversy An unanticipated consequence of CMM development was that it gave a significant boost to software development outsourcing, particularly in the pre-Y2k period. Economic development agencies in India and Ireland, for example, have praised CMMI for allowing them to compete for U.S. outsourcing contracts. This has had a very positive effect on the employment of software engineers in Third World economies, but it has also adversely affected the high-tech job market in developed countries.

Outsourcing Controversy : 

Outsourcing Controversy Today, many U.S. government agencies in addition to the DoD insist that companies that bid for their business obtain at least a CMM Level 3. CIOs increasingly use CMM assessments to whittle down the lists of dozens of unfamiliar offshore service providers—especially in India—wanting their business. For CIOs, the magic number is 5, and software development and services companies that don't have it risk losing billions of dollars worth of business from American and European corporations. With CIOs increasingly dependent on outside service providers to help with software projects, some have come to view CMM (and its new, more comprehensive successor, CMM Integration, or CMMI) as the USDA seal of approval for software providers. Some software providers routinely exaggerate their assessments, leading CIOs to believe that the entire company has been assessed at a certain level when only a small slice of the company was examined. And once providers have been assessed at a certain level, there is no requirement that they test themselves ever again—even if they change dramatically or grow much bigger than they were when they were first assessed. They can continue to claim their CMM level forever. As American and European companies stampede offshore to find companies to do their development work, they first need to understand what CMM ratings really mean. Yet few CIOs bother to ask crucial questions, say IT industry analysts and the service providers themselves. “

CMMI & Other Initiatives : 

CMMI & Other Initiatives Organizations working with CMMI often complement or extend it with other best practice initiatives such as Product Line practices Earned Value Management Operational and service organizations COTS-based systems Acquisition Marketing Six Sigma or ISO 9000

CMMI Alternatives : 

CMMI Alternatives Software Quality Function Deployment Model (SQFD) Adaptation of the quality function deployment model suggested as an implementation vehicle for Total Quality Management (TQM) Focuses on defining user requirements and planning SW projects Result is a set of measurable technical product specifications and their priorities Project Management Maturity Model Project Maturity Model based on CMM developed in ‘90s PMI Standards Development Program published the Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3) in Dec. ’03 International Institute for Learning, Inc.’s Model 4 levels: common language, common processes, singular methodology, benchmarking and continuous improvement ESI International Inc.’s Model 5 levels called: ad hoq, consistent, integrated, comprehensive, optimized

Summary/Closing : 

Summary/Closing “The quality of a system is highly influenced by the quality of the process used to acquire, develop, and maintain it” Process improvement should be done to help the business—not for its own sake. “In God we trust, all others bring data.” -W. Edwards Deming

Questions? : 


Sources : 

Sources CMMI Website: CMMI Overview: CMMI Forum: Mary Beth Chrissis, Mike Konrad, Sandy Shrum (Jul 11, 2003). Introduction to CMMI. Russell Kay (January 24, 2005). CMMI. Computerworld. Mike Konrad & James W. Over (February 06, 2005) Agile CMMI: No Oxymoron. CHRISTOPHER KOCH (Mar. 1, 2004). Bursting the CMM Hype CIO Magazine. Comments (March 1, 2004). Bursting the CMM Hype: Welcome to Capability Maturity Model Hell! Cio Magazine. James J. Jiang, Gary Klein, Hsin-Ginn Hwang, Jack Huang, Shin-Yuan Hung (2004) . An exploration of the relationship between software development process maturity and project performance. Information & Management 41, pg. 279–288

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