LECTURE METHOD : LECTURE METHOD Faculty of Education:
Multi Media Learning Centre Multi Media Learning Centre
Presentation CHALLENGES TO THE TEACHER : CHALLENGES TO THE TEACHER Maximum development in minimum time.
Following the best learning sequence.
Determining the degree of perfection to be achieved.
Meaningful experiences must be provided. Slide 3: The right way of doing a job should be instructed.
The relationship between their life and lessons should be established.
Being resourceful in the light of modern developments.
Gaining the respect and confidence of the learners. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD LECTURE : CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD LECTURE Depth of knowledge in the subject.
Ability to explain and expose the concepts in a coherent way.
Use of apt language, mannerism, wit and humor.
Skill of drawing attention of the audience. Slide 5: Ability to motivate the audience and keep it up throughout.
Use of illustrative stories, anecdotes, related incidents that have happened recently, newspaper items of relevance & use of AV aids. DOs & DON'Ts for LECTURING : DOs & DON'Ts for LECTURING Speak loudly and clearly, do not mumble, use change in tone, pause, don’t go too fast.
Plan, prepare, structure every lecture to give a clear, simple and original perspective to the subject. Slide 7: Make it understandable – explain, emphasize, recap and summarise main points and relate to current examples and applications.
Watch out for reaction and feedback, invite questions and ask questions, encourage participation, involve your audience.
Be adequate, do not try to cover everything and give too much factual information, speak round a maximum of four or five points. Slide 8: Read widely around the subject area from different sources, know your subject and understand your materials.
Keep time, don’t rush, don’t arrive late. Don’t worry about finishing in time, but don’t let it happen in every lecture. Slide 9: Look at your audience, meet their eyes, do not talk just to the first row, do not talk when you are facing away from your audience, do not distance yourself.
Assemble, as much as possible, materials to which the learners won’t have easy access.
Don’t read from your notes or dictate or transcribe notes. Slide 10: Project your enthusiasm for a topic, don't look bored, enjoy it. Be interesting and humorous but not too much.
Prepare handouts for the learners. QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE : : QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE : To check the progress of the learners.
To ensure understanding.
To stimulate thoughts.
To plant new ideas.
To encourage response.
To locate areas of doubt. TYPES OF QUESTIONS : : TYPES OF QUESTIONS : General Questions – Overhead Questions.
Leading Questions. HINTS ON THE USE OF QUESTIONS : : HINTS ON THE USE OF QUESTIONS : Questions should be brief and clear.
Direct questions should be distributed at random.
Questions should as far as possible cover one point only.
Should be related to the ability and experience of the person. Slide 14: Give the members time to think before expecting answer.
Don’t use rhetorical or leading questions to get out of a difficult or awkward situation in the group. This is more likely to make the situation worse. DISCUSSION METHOD : : DISCUSSION METHOD : A leader skilled in the art of conducting discussion session is distinguished by the following characteristics :
Ensures that he has enough material to evoke good discussion.
Does not try to dominate or impress. Slide 16: Raises questions but obtains answers through the group.
Guides the discussion, often subtly, along the desired lines.
Has objectives to enable him to exercise guidance.
Makes adequate use of the pause.
Ensures that all members of the group take part in the discussion. Slide 17: Summarises, using blackboard, the main conclusions reached at each appropriate stage of the discussions.
Continuously studies the group and their reaction. SMALL GROUP INSTRUCTION : SMALL GROUP INSTRUCTION Dividing of a large group into smaller groups is one way of promoting individualisation and student participation in the learning exercises. The small group context makes it more difficult for any participant to remain passive, uninvolved in the discussion taking place or uncommitted to the achievement of the objective of the task being undertaken. Slide 19: The advantages of the group work are listed below :
Work in groups satisfies a social necessity.
Work in groups promotes intellectual development.
Group work humanises the teacher learner relationship.
Group work promotes the development of personality.
Group work promotes creativity. Slide 20: The teacher, in small group instruction, has to organise, coordinate and evaluate the work; rather than taking active participation in the work. He has to divide the large group into balanced small groups according to the specific needs and predetermined principles of group structure. While briefing the group work in the beginning he should ensure that he Slide 21: gains the students’ attention and interest .
explains the objectives of the work to be undertaken.
motivates the students to participate fully in the work.
recalls any prerequisite learning which will be necessary as input to the planned work. Slide 22: As a coordinator of the small group instruction, the teacher has to carry out the following tasks :
Keep the groups working productively.
Plan timings of the stages and time keeping.
Distribute and control materials.
Act as judge in disagreements between group members. Slide 23: Act as an information centre for the groups.
Give advice or comments, when requested.
Check during the course activities, that the objectives and rules of work have been understood.
Check that the groups are not getting lost, or following totally inadequate problem solving paths, or diversing from the planned activities. Slide 24: Finally; at the end of the session of group work, the instructor should evaluate to what extent the outcomes of the group works are meeting to the objectives formulated. The evaluation will sometimes lead him to decide whether the group activity should be repeated in a modified way to deepen the students’ understanding of the principles involved. SELECTING METHODS OF INSTRUCTION : SELECTING METHODS OF INSTRUCTION The teacher may consider the following three simple guidelines to select suitable instruction methods :
Choose the instruction method that will most nearly satisfy the specific objectives set forth for the instruction unit. Slide 26: Bring in outside help if necessary, but plan your instruction to appeal to the highest possible potential within your group.
Give the instructors a chance – let them use the methods that are most likely to bring that learning economically and effectively. FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED : FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED For selecting a suitable method of instruction the following major factors are to be considered.
Objectives of Instruction
Time and Material Factors Guidelines to Select Instruction Method : Guidelines to Select Instruction Method The following table can be used as a guide to select a method for various objectives set forth in the syllabus for group instruction. Slide 33: Thank you Rishi Hansrajh