Airborne Networking…Information Connectivity in Aviation : Airborne Networking…Information Connectivity in Aviation Presented to: RTCA SC206
Ralph Yost, Systems Engineering
(FAA Technical Center)
April 3, 2007 Discussion Items : Discussion Items Background
Multi-Aircraft Flight Demo Series
Summary Background : Background Airborne Networking began as a Tech Center idea in support of the NASA SATS Project proposed in July 1999. (But not limited to SATS aircraft.)
In December 2004, the JPDO published the NGATS Plan, validating this premise, and institutionalizing a plan for network enabled operations for the NAS (i.e. NGATS).
We have been engaged in airborne networking research for several years based upon NASA SATS, NGATS support from ATO-P-1 (Keegan), and Congressional earmarking PROBLEM: Currently Do Not Have System Wide Network Connectivity For Aircraft : PROBLEM: Currently Do Not Have System Wide Network Connectivity For Aircraft Premise is that network capability to aircraft will improve the way operators of aircraft and the NAS handle information.
Various commercial solutions are emerging
Most are satellite-based technology
Most do not provide aircraft-to-aircraft connectivity
An early implementable network connectivity solution is needed that will allow all aircraft types to participate in and join the network:
transport, regional, biz jet, GA, helicopter
Information flow will remain stove-piped unless a ubiquitous network solution for aircraft is determined
Assumptions Made for Ground Networks Do Not Apply to Airborne Network Links Impact of Air-to-Air Link PerformanceAssumptions Made for Internet Links Do Not Apply to AN Links : Impact of Air-to-Air Link PerformanceAssumptions Made for Internet Links Do Not Apply to AN Links Reducing Operational Errors : Reducing Operational Errors Several analyses indicate that approximately 20% of all en route operational errors (OEs) are communications related
23% found in CAASD analysis of 680 OEs in 2002 and 2003
20% found in 1,359 OEs in FY04 and FY05* Categories of communications-related OEs include:
Issued different altitude than intended
Issued control instruction to wrong aircraft
Transposed call sign
Failure to update data block Remaining
OEs High Severity OEs With data communications, most of these OEs could be eliminated * Based on preliminary reports. Detailed analysis underway. FY05 En Route OEs Communication
OEs Communication OEs are usually more severe
30% of the high severity FY04 and FY05 OEs were communication related* “23% of all operational errors at
Miami Center for the five year period
from January 1998 to September
2003 could have been avoided
by [data link]” – Miami ARTCC (From briefing by Gregg Anderson, ATO Planning Data Link Workshop, Feb 2006) Slide 7: The single most deadly accident in aviation history, the runway collision of two B-747s at Tenerife, begin with a "stepped on" voice transmission. (1977) Objective : Objective Develop a ubiquitous network capability for aviation, based upon managed open standards to make it safe, secure, reliable, scalable, and usable by all classes of aircraft.
Demonstrate that network capability for aircraft generates value for the National Airspace System (NAS) (at minimal equipage for all stakeholders) and begins to put into place the building blocks required to achieve NexGen in 2025
Identify equipage incentives that provide the NAS (FAA) and the aircraft operator both benefits and economic value that can be measured and received on an aircraft-by-aircraft basis Slide 9: Facilitate the early adoption of NexGen netcentric aviation capability into the present National Airspace System
Advance the basic netcentric capability for aviation (demonstrate Assured Communication and Shared Situational Awareness; a key enabling technology)
Comply with Congressional mandate to perform three aircraft demonstration Airborne Networking Multi-Aircraft Flight Demo Series: Purpose Airborne Networking Multi-Aircraft Flight Demo Series: Aircraft Flight Demo Applications : Airborne Networking Multi-Aircraft Flight Demo Series: Aircraft Flight Demo Applications 4-D Trajectory Flight Plan: sent from ground to aircraft; aircraft acknowledges and accepts
Aircraft position reporting displayed on EFB
Weather – low/high bandwidth apps
Text messaging: cockpit-to-cockpit and to/from ground
Web services, white board, VoIP
Live video images telemetered to the ground (planned April 11)
Security: VPN, encryption, etc.
Pico cell: use of special encrypted cell phones (US AF AFCA) Wx Application Level Characteristics : Wx Application Level Characteristics Reliability of broadcast is questionable without dependency upon discovery and reachability information
Our program tests and demonstrates the following:
Auto-segmentation and reassembly of large products.
Acknowledge delivery of uplinked products.
Target (receiver) location used to optimize delivery priority.
Aircraft knowledge permits transmission and “stopping transmission” once appropriate delivery requirements have been met. Assured Broadcast Product Distribution : Assured Broadcast Product Distribution Auto-segmentation and reassembly of large products
Ack (and selective reject) of fragments to optimize delivery
Target location used to optimize delivery (e.g., aircraft on final MUST have latest arriving ATIS)
Aircraft existence knowledge permits knowledge of “who” has received what and “who” needs what-when to dynamically manage broadcast product mix Datafeed : Datafeed Ground station retrieves information from internet through one of a series of methods (either ground station pull or central server push)
Ground station fragments product into smaller chunks and broadcasts chunks in reserved slots
Air stations receive fragments and reassemble original product
Air stations acknowledge both partial and complete products to optimize uplink schedule
Ground station receives acknowledgments and refrains from transmitting fragments that have been acknowledged by all aircraft in the region. Airborne Networked Weather: Data and apps already demonstrated : Airborne Networked Weather: Data and apps already demonstrated Prog Charts: Surface, 12 hr, 24 hr
Airmets: Turbulance, Convective
Satellite: Albany, BWI, Charlotte, Detroit
Radar: Sterling, VA; Mount Holly, NJ
Custom app to bring RVR to the cockpit Weather To the Cockpit: Graphical : Weather To the Cockpit: Graphical US Map with selectable product overlays to show
Terrain, States, ARTCC, VORs, Airports, TWEB
Airmets: Icing, MTO, IFR, Turb
Sigmets: WS, WST
Pireps: Icing, Turb
Misc: METARs, Radar Reflectivity
Satellite Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleAirports : Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleAirports Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleARTCC Airspace : Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleARTCC Airspace Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleVORs : Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleVORs Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleTWEB (Transcribed Wx Enroute Broadcast) : Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleTWEB (Transcribed Wx Enroute Broadcast) Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleAIRMETS: Icing : Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleAIRMETS: Icing Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleAIRMETS: Turbulence : Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleAIRMETS: Turbulence Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleAIRMETS: IFR : Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleAIRMETS: IFR Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleAIRMETS: MTOS (Mt. Obscuration) : Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleAIRMETS: MTOS (Mt. Obscuration) Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleAIRMETS: All overlaid : Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleAIRMETS: All overlaid Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleSIGMETS: Convective T-storms : Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleSIGMETS: Convective T-storms Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleIcing : Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleIcing Wx Graphical Overlay ExamplePIREPS: Icing : Wx Graphical Overlay ExamplePIREPS: Icing Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleSIGMETS: Icing & Turb overlaid : Wx Graphical Overlay ExampleSIGMETS: Icing & Turb overlaid Airborne Networking Multi-Aircraft Network Capability Demonstration: Two Systems, Three Planes : Airborne Networking Multi-Aircraft Network Capability Demonstration: Two Systems, Three Planes N35 N47 Airborne Networking Lab PMEI AeroSat PMEI PMEI AeroSat Position reporting, situational awareness High Bandwidth 90 Mb/s
Ka/KU Band 45 45 TCP/IP, VHF Low Bandwidth 19.2Kb/s TCP/IP, VHF ISM/L-Band
1-2Mb/s N39 Play Flight Date Here : Play Flight Date Here Run EFRMON Playback Here Products : Products AeroSat:
K-band, directional antennas each end.
ISM band omni air-to-air.
TCP/IP, network management software developing.
Approach is potential oceanic solution.
VHF, 25Khz channels.
Has Beyond Line of Sight relay capability (potential oceanic solution).
Potential terminal, enroute, Oceanic, CONUS solution.
These are early approaches to network connectivity that meets basic criteria of network connectivity for air-to-air, air-to-ground, usable by all classes of aircraft, relatively low cost.
They are learning opportunities, not product endorsement. Summary : Summary Wx and AIS are building netcentric information services. Airborne Networking can easily connect to deliver information to the aircraft.
NexGen requires airborne networking.
Reliability of broadcast is questionable without dependency upon discovery and reachability information
Airborne Networks can deploy any data or application that can be deployed on ground networks, as long as standard protocols are used.
Weather applications will run the same as “normal” applications will run on any networked computer system.