logging in or signing up parenterals aSGuest41381 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 4701 Category: Science & Tech.. License: All Rights Reserved Like it (2) Dislike it (0) Added: March 24, 2010 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... By: sreeeeeekanth (39 month(s) ago) ur presentation nice sir.......plz send me this to my id firstname.lastname@example.org Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript PARENTERALS : A REVIEW : PARENTERALS : A REVIEW K.Senthil Kumar & R.Saravanan Asst.Prof QIS college of pharmacy , Ongole .A.P INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION The administration of drugs through the patient by injection under through one or more layer of the skin or mucous membrane. The term parenteral derives from the greek word 1. Para (outside ) 2. Enteron (Intestine) It denotes that route of administration other than oral route. ADVANTAGES : ADVANTAGES It provides rapid onset of action It provides immediate therapeutic action It can be administered accurate dose. It can be given to patients who cannot take oral medication. It minimize the first pass effect. It provides more bioavailability disadvantage : disadvantage It should be administred aseptically It produces pain at the site of injection The administred of drug through wrong route may prove fatal effect Self administration is not possible If pyrogenic preparations lead to very harmful effect. Routes of administration : Routes of administration Intra Muscular (IM) Intra dermal (ID) Intravenous (IV) Subcutaneous / Hypodermic (SC) Intra articular Intra synovial Intra spinal Intrathecal Intrarterial Intra cardiac Intra cisternal Intra peritonial Intraplueral TYPES OF PARENTERALS : TYPES OF PARENTERALS Powder for injection -Eg. Cefuroxime for injection Colloidal solution - Eg. Iron dextran Injectable emulsion-Eg. Propofol USP Injectable suspension –Eg. Methylprednisolone acetate Oily injection (solution)-Eg. Dimercaprol injection. Infusion fluid PREFORMULATION FACTORS: : PREFORMULATION FACTORS: It is study about physical & chemical properties of drug substance prior formulation is called as preformulation. They are pH Solubilty pka Dissociation constant Compatabilty studies- FTIR / DSC Oxidation & reduction particle size FORMULATION OF PARENTERALS : FORMULATION OF PARENTERALS 1. Solutes 2.Added substance Antimicrobial agent Buffers Antioxidants Tonicity agent Cryoprotectant Suspending agent Emulsifying agent 3.Vehicle Aqueous -WFI Non- aqueous Eg. arachis oil GENERAL PROCEDURE : GENERAL PROCEDURE Cleaning & washing of container ,closures Preparation of solutions Sterilizaation (Filteration) Filling Packaging Lyophilization techniques : Lyophilization techniques It is a process of removal of solvent from the product or substances is called as lyophilization. It consist of three steps Freezing Primary drying Secondary drying Creteria for parenterals : Creteria for parenterals Sterility Pyrogen Isotonicity Stability Ph Osmotic pressure Containers & closures : Containers & closures 1.Glass 2.Plastic Ampoules( single dose ) Vials( multiple dose) Cartridges Automatic injector 3.Rubber closure with aluminium caps Small volume parenterals: less than 100ml Large volume parenterals : more than 100ml Evaluation test for parenterals : Evaluation test for parenterals Test for pyrogen Sterilty testing Rabbit test Clarity test LAL test Leaker test Slide 14: thank you You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.