PARENTERALS : A REVIEW : PARENTERALS : A REVIEW K.Senthil Kumar & R.Saravanan
QIS college of pharmacy , Ongole .A.P INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION The administration of drugs through the patient by injection under
through one or more layer of the skin or mucous membrane.
The term parenteral derives from the greek word
1. Para (outside )
2. Enteron (Intestine)
It denotes that route of administration other than oral route. ADVANTAGES : ADVANTAGES It provides rapid onset of action
It provides immediate therapeutic action
It can be administered accurate dose.
It can be given to patients who cannot take oral medication.
It minimize the first pass effect.
It provides more bioavailability disadvantage : disadvantage It should be administred aseptically
It produces pain at the site of injection
The administred of drug through wrong route may prove fatal effect
Self administration is not possible
If pyrogenic preparations lead to very harmful effect. Routes of administration : Routes of administration Intra Muscular (IM)
Intra dermal (ID)
Subcutaneous / Hypodermic (SC)
Intraplueral TYPES OF PARENTERALS : TYPES OF PARENTERALS Powder for injection -Eg. Cefuroxime for injection
Colloidal solution - Eg. Iron dextran
Injectable emulsion-Eg. Propofol USP
Injectable suspension –Eg. Methylprednisolone acetate
Oily injection (solution)-Eg. Dimercaprol injection.
Infusion fluid PREFORMULATION FACTORS: : PREFORMULATION FACTORS: It is study about physical & chemical properties of drug substance
prior formulation is called as preformulation.
Compatabilty studies- FTIR / DSC
Oxidation & reduction
particle size FORMULATION OF PARENTERALS : FORMULATION OF PARENTERALS 1. Solutes
Non- aqueous Eg. arachis oil GENERAL PROCEDURE : GENERAL PROCEDURE Cleaning & washing of container ,closures
Preparation of solutions
Packaging Lyophilization techniques : Lyophilization techniques It is a process of removal of solvent from the product or substances is called as lyophilization.
It consist of three steps
Secondary drying Creteria for parenterals : Creteria for parenterals Sterility
Osmotic pressure Containers & closures : Containers & closures 1.Glass
Ampoules( single dose )
Vials( multiple dose)
3.Rubber closure with aluminium caps
Small volume parenterals: less than 100ml
Large volume parenterals : more than 100ml Evaluation test for parenterals : Evaluation test for parenterals Test for pyrogen
Leaker test Slide 14: thank you