RENAL TRANSPLANTATION AN OVERVIEW

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RENAL TRANSPLANTATION AN OVERVIEW

Patients Selection For Kidney Transplanatation : 

Patients Selection For Kidney Transplanatation All patients with ESRD are candidates for KT unless Systemic malignancy. Chronic infection. Severe cardiovascular disease. Neuropsychiatric disorder. Extremes of age (relative).

Patient Survival After Kidney Transplantation VS haemodialysis : 

Patient Survival After Kidney Transplantation VS haemodialysis Annual mortality rates for patients under dialysis range from 21%-25%, but <8% with cadaveric and <4% with living-related transplant recepients. Healthier patients generally are selected for transplantation. The benefit of transplantation is most notable in young people and in those with diabetes mellitus. Projected years of life for patients 20-39 years old: Dialysis Transplant Non diabetic 20 31 years Diabetic 8 25years

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An adult donor kidney transplanted to the left iliac fossa of an adult recipient.

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Kidney Donor Living related. Living unrelated (emotionally motivated). Cadaveric (Brain-dead) Beating and non-beating heart.

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CRITERIA FOR LIVING DONOR SELECTION Blood relative. Highly motivated. ABO blood group-compatible. HLA-identical or haploidentical with negative cross-match. Excellent medical condition with normal renal function.

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CRITERIA FOR CADAVER DONOR SELECTION Irreversible brain damage. Normal renal function appropriate for age. No evidence of preexisting renal disease. No evidence of transmissible diseases. ABO blood group-compatible. Negative cross-match. Best HLA match possible, particularly at the HLA DR and B loci. (Human leucocyte antigen).

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Principles Involved In evaluating A Prospective Living Kidney Donor Whether there is a medical condition that will put donor at increased risk for complications for general anaesthesia or surgery. Whether the removal of one kidney will increase the donor’s risk for developing renal insufficiency.

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Evaluation Of Kidney Function In Potential Kidney Donor Serum creatinine. Creatinine clearance. Radionuclide glomerular filtration rate. Urine analysis. Urine Culture. GFR > 70 ml/min.

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Medical Conditions That Exclude Living Kidney Donation Renal parenchymal disease. Conditions that may predispose to renal disease History of stone disease History of frequent UTI Hypertension D.M. Conditions that increase the risks of anaesthesia and surgery. Recent malignancy.

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Does Donation Of A kidney Pose A long-term Risk For The Donor? Following nephrectomy, compensatory hypertrophy and increase in GFR occur in the remaining kidney. Slight risk of proteinuria and hypertension. Meta-analysis of data from donors followed for >20y confirmed safety of kidney donation.

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CONTRAINDICATIONS TO RENAL TRANSPLANTATION ABO incompatibility. Antibodies against HLA antigens of donor. Recent or metastatic malignancy. Active infection. AIDS. Severe extrarenal disease (cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic). Active vasculitis or glomeulonephritis. Uncorrectable lower urinary tract disease. Noncompliance. Psychiatric illness including alcoholism and drug addiction. Morbid obesity. Age > 70 years. Primary oxalosis. Persistent coagulation disorder.

Matching between Recipient And Donor : 

Matching between Recipient And Donor A- Tissue typing Determined by 6 antigens located on cell surface encoded for by the HLA gen located on the short arm of chromosome 6. Class I antigens (HLA-A and HLA-B) are expressed on the surface of most nucleated cells. Class II antigen (HLA-DR) are expressed on surface of APC and activated lymphocytes. These 6 antigens are referred to as major transplant antigens. The match between donor and recipient can range from 0 to six.

Matching between Recipient And Donor : 

Matching between Recipient And Donor B- Cross matching A laboratory test that determines weather a potential transplant recepient has preformed antibodies against the HLA antigens of the potential donor. (Donor Lymphocytest +Recipient Serum) A Final CM is mandatory C- Compatible ABO blood group.

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Structure of the HLA class I and class II antigens.

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Organization of the human HLA genes on chromosome 6.

Effect Of HLA Matching On The Graft Outcome : 

Effect Of HLA Matching On The Graft Outcome Data from large registries indicate that, the better the HLA-match, the better the long-term survival of the allograft. The benefits of matching are particularly noteworthy in recipients of kidneys from donors with zero mismatch. The benefits of lesser degrees of matching have become less obvious with the use of newer and more potent immunosuppressive drugs. Matching for DR antigens are more favorable than others.

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The beneficial effect of HLA B and DR matching in patients with and without the benefit of cyclosporine.

Factors Influencing The Longevity Of Renal Allograft : 

Factors Influencing The Longevity Of Renal Allograft Age HLA matching Delayed graft function Ischemia time. Number of acute rejection episodes. Native kidney disease. Ethnicity. Others

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Relative incidence of causes of allograft dysfunction during the year following transplantation.

What Are The Major Causes Of Long-Term Allograft Failure ? : 

What Are The Major Causes Of Long-Term Allograft Failure ? Chronic rejection. Death with functioning graft.

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What Are The Most Common causes Of Death After Kidney Transplantation? Cardiovascular disease. Infection.

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Immune responses to renal allograft

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Contraindications to Renal Transplantation Absolute : Severe vascular disease. Relative : Recent malignancy. Coronary artery disease. Active bacterial, fungal, or viral disease. HIV positivity. Social conditions. Others.

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Renal Allograft Rejection 1- Hyperacute. 2- Acute. 3- Chronic.

Hyperacute Rejection : 

Hyperacute Rejection Is mediated by preformed antibodies that recognize HLA antigens in donor organ. Usually these are formed as a consequence of blood transfusion, pregnancy, prior organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases. Fibrinoid necrosis lead to immediate graft loss. Delayed form may occur several days following transplantation. Plasmapheresis and pulse steroid may be used.

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Hyperacute rejection.

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Acute Renal Allograft Rejection IS mediated by activated T-lymphocytes. Activations of T-cells occure after recognition of graft antigen either directly or after being processed and presented by APC. This usually occur during the first 6 mon. It manifest as increase in s. creatinine with or without oliguria.

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Histology of acute cellular rejection

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Vasculitis

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How Common Is acute Rejection ? At least one episode of acute rejection occurs in 62% in patients treated by CsA, Aza and steroids. With Newer immunosuppressants drugs rates are less. CSA, Aza, Steroid+Simulect is 36% ST, Rapa+ (MM For FK) + Simulect is~ 18%

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Treatment Of Acute Rejection Pulse steroids ATG, OKT3. MMF, Tacrolimus. IVIG. More than 90% of acute rejection episodes occuring in the first 6 mon can be reversed.

Chronic allograft Rejection : 

Chronic allograft Rejection Manifest clinically by a slow and gradual decline in renal function, usually more than 6 mon after transplant and typically accompanied by moderate to heavy proteinuria. Histologically, characterized by glomerulo-sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and obliteration of arteriolar lumina. Treatment is unsatisfactory.

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Chronic rejection with tubulointerstitial lesions.

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Fibrointimal proliferation in renal arterioles in chronic rejection.

Chronic allograft Rejection VS Transplant glomerulopathy : 

Chronic allograft Rejection VS Transplant glomerulopathy A- Immunologic B- Non-lummunologic • hypertension • Hyperlipidemia • Drug toxicity (CsA, FK) • Ischaemic injury • Viral infection (CMV) • Others - C4d deposits in peritubular capillaries as marker of ongoing immune injury

Management of Transplant glomerulopathy : 

Management of Transplant glomerulopathy Switch from calcineurin inhibitor. ACEIs or ARBs. Statins. Increasing immunosuppression? Others

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Banff criteria for diagnosis of allograft rejection BANFF GRADE HISTOLOGY I Interstitial edema and tubulitis (i.e., lymphocytic invasion of tubular basement membranes. II More severe tubulitis with or without mild vasculitis characterized by intimal lymphocytic infiltrates III Severe vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis.

Principles underlying current immunosuppressive treatment : 

Principles underlying current immunosuppressive treatment 1- The benefits of a successful transplant outweight the risks of chronic immunosuppression. 2- Immunosuppressive therapy is required indefinitely. 3- Multidrug regimens are generally employed. 4- Large doses of immunosuppressant drugs are used in the early transplant period.

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Classes of Maintenance Immunosuppressive Drugs Class Examples Immunophilin-binding agents Calcineurin inhibitors Cyclosporine Tacrolimus (FK506) Calcinurin-independent agents Sirolimus (rapamycin) Glucocoriticoids Antimetabolites Purine inhibitors: nonselective Azathioprine Purine inhibitors:lymphocyte selective Mycophenolate mofetil (RS-61443) Mizoribine* Pyrimidine inhibitors Brequinar* Poorly understood mechanisms Deoxyspergualin* Leflunomide* *Experimental or not yet approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

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Sites of action of immunosuppressive drugs.

Risks associated with chronic Immunosuppression : 

Risks associated with chronic Immunosuppression 1- Malignancy 2- Infection 3- Side effects of different drugs (steroids, CsA, tacrolimus, MMF, …..)

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Side Effects of Glucocoriticoids ____________________________________________________ Weight gain with cushingoid ▪ Dermatologic effects features (acne, striae, easy bruisability, Hypertension impaired wound healing) Hyperlipidemia ▪ Impaired growth Osteopenia ▪ Glucose intolerance Cataracts ______________________________________________________________________

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Side Effect Cyclosporine Tacrolimus Sirolimus Nephrotoxicity ++ ++ Neurotoxicity + ++ - (tremor, seizures) Hirsutism ++ - - Gingival hyperplasia + - - Hypertension ++ + Hyperlipidemia ++ +/- +++ Glucose intolerance + +++ Bone marrow suppression - - ++ Side Effects of Immunophiline-binding Agents

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Side Effects of Antimetabolites _____________________________________________________ Side effect Azathioprine Mycophenolate Mofetil ______________________________________________________________________ Bone marrow suppression +++ ++ Gastrointestinal + ++ _____________________________________________________________________

Induction Immunosuppressive therapy : 

Induction Immunosuppressive therapy During the first 1-3 weeks post transplant. Usually refer to use of anti-T-cell antibodies - polyclonal (ATGAM, thymoglobin). - Monoclonal (Simulect, Zinapax, OKT3). Helpful to delay use of calcineurin drugs, may decrease acute rejection and improve graft outcome (debatable). Expensive, risk of infection and malignancy Better used in selected patients.

Side Effects of Induction Antibodies : 

Side Effects of Induction Antibodies Side effect OKT3 Polyclonals Anti-CD25 Agets Fever +++ + _ Headache ++ + _ Myalgias ++ + _ Gastrointestinal ++ _ _ (diarrhea, nausea) Respiratory distress + +/- _

Some commonly used combinations of maintenance Immunosuppressive drugs : 

Some commonly used combinations of maintenance Immunosuppressive drugs 1- Prednisolon + Azathiaprine 2- Prednisolon + cyclosporine (or tacrolimus) 3- Prednisolon + cyclosporine + Azathioprine 4- MMF (cell cept) may replace Azathioprine. 5- Sirolimus (Rapaimmune) may replace Azathioprine or cyclosprine

Common drug interactions : 

Common drug interactions - Drugs acting on cytochrome P450 affect the metabolism of CsA, tacrolimus, and sirolimus. 1- ↑ Metabolism ↓ level • Anticonvulsants • Antituberculous 2- ↓ Metabolism ↑ level • anti-fungus (ketoconazole..) • erythromycin and clarithromycin • calcium channel blockers • metoclopramide - Azathioprine and allopurinol.

Slide 50: 

Sonogram showing a lymphocele adjacent to a kidney.

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Lidohippurate sodium 1131 renal scan, showing urine extravasation

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Sonogram consistent with ureteral obstruction showing hydronephrosis.

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Acute pyelonephritis in a renal which ultimately required nephrectomy, secondary to associated obstruction.

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Diffuse perihilar inflitrate secondary to cytomegalovirus infection in an 18 year old man with a rapidly deteriorating febrile condition 5 weeks posttransplant, after a course of antilymphocyte globulin (for rejection).

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Kaposi’s sarcoma

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Bone scan of the hip in later stage aseptic necrosis, showing increased perfusion of the femoral heads (arrows).

In general, renal transplantation should be recommended as the preferred mode of RRT for most patients with ESRD in whom surgery and subsequent I.S. is safe and feasible. : 

In general, renal transplantation should be recommended as the preferred mode of RRT for most patients with ESRD in whom surgery and subsequent I.S. is safe and feasible. Cr CI 50-100 ml/min. Anaemia. Conception and childbearing. Growth in children. Bone metabolism. Work rehabilitation.

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A healthy child born to a female transplant recipient, 3 years after a successful engraftment.

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