neoplasia lecture 1

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Pathology of Neoplasia : 

Pathology of Neoplasia Dr. Abuobieda Abusharib Lecturer in Pathology University of Najran, faculty of Medicine

Neoplasia (tumor,)(oncos)Definition: : 

Neoplasia (tumor,)(oncos)Definition: Literally means new growth Scientifically means abnormal growth of tissues exceeding and uncoordinated with the evoking stimuli (loss of responsiveness to normal stimuli of growth).

Biological behavior of neoplasia : 

Biological behavior of neoplasia behave as a parasite, depending on the host nutrient (tumor are flourishing in wasting patient) autonomy, ie neoplasia increase in its size regardless to the local environment Some neoplasia behave as benign while others behave as malignant.

Nomenclature of neoplasia : 

Nomenclature of neoplasia There are general rules fore nomenclature with few exceptions from where does tumor arises, parenchymal or mesenchymal origin clinical behavior benign or malignant

NB : 

NB What are parenchyma cells?: the functioning cell like gland, epithelial mucosa,etc What are mesenchyemal cells?: the supporting stroma, connective tissue, blood vessels

Naming of benign tumors: : 

Naming of benign tumors: by adding the suffix –oma to the name of the tissue from which the tumor arises. For example benign tumors of fibrus tissues is called fibroma, of cartilages named chondroma, of glands named adenomas, of bone named osteoma,etc. papiloma for surface epithelium

Naming of malignant tumors: : 

Naming of malignant tumors: All malignant tumors are called cancer, cancer is the sea animal (crab) with multiple finger like structures for fixations. Cancer arises from epithelial tissues are named carcinoma, for example adenoma carcinoma, while that arises from mesenchymal tissues are named sarcoma, for example fibro sarcoma

NB: : 

NB: neoplasm arises from germ cell sperm or ova with mixed tissue are named teratoma

Exception of the rule of nomenclature : 

Exception of the rule of nomenclature These tumors are malignant , inspite of that, they ended with the suffix –oma like Seminoma: malignant tumor of spermatocyte Lymphoma: malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue Melanoma : malignant tumor of melanocytes

Slide 10: 

Table showing name of tumor, origin and nomenclature of benign and malignant type

Important definition for understandings cancers : 

Important definition for understandings cancers 1- Cytological feature of malignancy a- Pleomorphism: different shape and size b-hyperchromatism: darkened nuclei c-coarse chromatin d-abnormal mitotic figure, bipolar or tripolar mitosis e-increase nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio f- presence of nucleoli

Slide 13: 

2- cellular differentiation: Means degree of resemblance of neoplastic cell to the original tissues, there are three degree of differentiation: a-well differentiate tumors: means complete resemblance to the tissue of origin (has good prognosis). b-Moderate differentiated tumor: some degree of resemblance to the tissue of origin (moderate prognosis). c-Poorly differentiated tumor: means no resemblance to the tissue of origin ( anaplastic tumors), (bad prognosis)

3- anaplasia : 

3- anaplasia Means failure of differentiation The cell will be large bizarre, pleomorphic and multinuclui

4- metastasis: : 

4- metastasis: Means secondary spread of cancer in a remote area, for example breast carcinoma metastasized into lung, liver, bone marrow.

Comparison between benign and malignant tumor : 

Comparison between benign and malignant tumor

Benign Malignant: : 

Benign Malignant: Slow growing, capsulated, Non-invasive do not metastasize, well differentiated, Removable by surgery with recurrence No bleeding Good prognosis Name ended with -oma Fast growing, non capsulated, attached to deep structure Invasive & Infiltrate Metastasize. Poorly, well or moderate differentiated Recurrent after surgery Associated with bleeding Bad prognosis Named carcinoma or sarcoma

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