Data Acquisition and Signal Conditioning

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Data Acquisition and Signal Conditioning : 

Data Acquisition and Signal Conditioning An Overview -Rakesh

Objective : 

Objective W5H of DAS


…..EXAMPLE Process terminologies used. Real-world implementation.

System = Formula 1 Racing Car : 

System = Formula 1 Racing Car One of the most sophisticated cars. Fitted with Most complex Telemetry system considering the form-factor. Fastest car ever built. [Telemetry system: is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator

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Sensors: 150-200 Type A : For Monitoring Parameters. Type B : For Controlling Parameters. Type C : A+B = Calibration. Example: a wheel speed sensor (type C) not only monitors the wheel speed but also the speed of the vehicle, location on the track and an input to traction and launch control systems. [Sensor: A device that sense physical phenomena and produce equivalent Electrical signals / signal of interest.] [Physical phenomena: Temperature, Pressure, Heat, Flow, Mass/Load, Energy(Cosmic rays, Photons etc.)

Slide 6: 

Engine: Revs per minute, fuel and oil pressure, water and oil temperature, turbo charger boost pressure, exhaust gas temperature, battery voltage, inlet air temperature and throttle position. Chassis: Wheel speed, steering angle, lateral and longitudinal G-force (applied from braking and cornering), Brake line pressure, damper movement and gear position. Advanced Chassis control: Ride height, drive shaft or prop shaft torque, suspension loads, tyre pressure and compound temperature, and brake disk temperature. Optional: aerodynamic parameters, including air speed and local air pressures.

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Accelerometer Touch sensor Active pixel sensor Air flow meter Alarm sensor Bedwetting alarm Bhangmeter Biochip Biosensor Breathalyzer Capacitance probe Carbon paste electrode Carbon monoxide detector Catadioptric sensor Catalytic bead sensor Cationic sensor Charge-coupled device Chemical field-effect transistor Carbon dioxide sensor Colorimeter Crank sensor Curb feeler Current sensor Defect detector Displacement receiver Electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor sensor Electromechanical film Electronic nose Electro-optical sensor Ethanol sensor Fish counter Flow sensor Force-sensing resistor Gas detector Geophone Hall effect sensor Hall probe Heat flux sensor Hydrogen microsensor Hydrophones Hygrometer Image sensor Inclinometer Inductive sensor Inertial Reference Unit Infrared point sensor Infrared thermometer Intelligent sensor Lab-on-a-chip Lace Sensor a guitar pickup Laser distance measurement sensor Level sensor Light-addressable potentiometric sensor Linear encoder Linear variable differential transformer Liquid capacitive inclinometers Machine vision Magnetic anomaly detector Magnetic level gauge Magnetometer MAP sensor Mass flow sensor Metal detector MHD sensor Microbolometer Microphone Microwave chemistry sensor Microwave radiometer Molecular sensor Motion detector Net radiometer infrared sensor Nitrogen oxide sensor Optode Oxygen sensor Parktronic Parking sensors Passive infrared sensor Pellistor Photodiode Photoelectric sensor Photoionization detector Photomultiplier Photoresistor Photoswitch Phototransistor Phototube Piezoelectric sensor Potentiometer Potentiometric sensor Position sensor Pressure sensor Proximity sensor Pyranometer Pyrgeometer Quantum sensor Rain sensor Rain gauge Reed switch Resistance thermometer Rotary encoder Scintillation counter Seismometers Sensor array Sensor node Shack-Hartmann Smoke detector Sniffer coil (detects electromagnetic fields) Soft sensor Speed sensor Staring array Strain gauge Stud finder Sulphur dioxide sensors Thermal sensor Thermistor Thermocouple Throttle position sensor Tilt switch Torque sensor Touch pad Transducer Touch screen Triangulation sensor Ultrasonic sensor Variable reluctance sensor Variometer Video sensor Velocity sensor Vibrating structure gyroscope Viscosity sensor Wavefront sensor Wheel speed sensor Wired glove Yaw rate sensor magnetic reed sensor

Slide 8: 

RS232, RS485, Optical Fiber cable, Wireless Signal conditioning Electrical signals generated by transducers often need to be converted to a form acceptable to the data acquisition hardware, particularly the A/D converter which converts the signal data to the required digital format. In addition, many transducers require some form of excitation or bridge completion for proper and accurate operation. The principal tasks performed by signal conditioning are: • Filtering • Amplification • Linearization • Isolation • Excitation

Slide 9: 

Data acquisition is the process by which physical phenomena from the real world are transformed into electrical signals that are measured and converted into a digital format for processing, analysis, and storage by a computer.

Slide 11: 

Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench

Slide 12: 

LabVIEW is a graphical program development application developed by National Instruments in 1986 to integrate engineering tasks like; interfacing computers with the instruments, collecting, storing, analyzing, transmitting measured data, developing program in a graphical environment, providing an effective user interface.   LabVIEW delivers real solutions to the practical problems faster than any other graphical environment.

…Conclusion : 

…Conclusion Data acquisition system goal: Get data into digital form where it can be processed easily and losslessly. highly accurate, versatile and reliable solution.

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Thank you

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