Annals Of Computing

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Contents Towards Global Village - Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam Catching up the knowledge wave Threads Uniting Linguistic Diversity A B C Technology Development Phases Language Technology Mission Promoting Competitive and Collaborative Technology Development Achievements Setting up Technology Development Centers Status of technologies developed at Resource Centres Language Technology Handshakes Whither in seven initiatives Large Mass pacing up slow - challenges World Scenario of Multilingual Computing Beacon to Steps Ahead Summing up

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Technology Shrinks Distances 1st Revolution with invention of writing system (5000 years ago) 2nd Revolution with invention of written book (1300 BC, China) 3rd Revolution with Gutenberg’s invention of printing press (1450 AD) and 4th Revolution is the new information revolution since 1950s. Chip performance will double every 18 months [Moore’s law ] Storage doubles every 9 months. Communication bandwidth will triple every 12 months [Gilder’s law]

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Technology Shrinks Distances Prof Raj Reddy of Carnegie Mellon University predicts after 10 years from now we shall be getting at the same cost the processing power 100 times, the storage 1000 times, and the band-width 10,000 times. Computing and communication ICT will be affordable, easy to use and pervasive. Ray Kurzweil, an informatics guru, predicts Within 10 years, a 1000-dollar computer will be able to perform more than one trillion calculations a second, Within the first quarter of next century, a similarly priced computer will match the human brain, and a few years later, a thousand dollar will buy rich kids the computational capacity of one thousand human brains.

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Future Direction : Information Interspace The Interspace represents the third wave in the ongoing evolution of the Global Information Infrastructure, driven by rapid advances in computing and Information Technology. The technological progress of knowledge exchange has occurred in three waves, each building on the previous one. The wave pattern roughly describes four distinct phases of functionality: fundamental research (trough), development of prototype systems (ascent), emergence of commercial systems (crest), and mass propagation (descent).

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Within the Next decade , computing technology will transform the Internet into Interspace. Concept Navigation will become standard function in the Interspace just as document browsing is in the Internet. Paradigm Shift in Computer Processing Data Information Knowledge Evolution of Global Information Infrastructure (e-mail document browsing concept navigation)

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Networking with Humane Sensitivity? ‘na hi jnaanen sadrasham pavitramih vidyate’ “Nothing is so pious like Knowledge.” - Shrimad bhagwad Gita, 4.38 “ A people become poor and enslaved when they are robbed of the tongue left them by their ancestors; they are lost forever”. - Ignazio Bittira, Sicilia Poet Distances will shrink. Information will flow. Whether people will have innate sense of communication across linguistic and cultural diversities? Challenge ahead is Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam that is "the whole earth is a family" - whether emerging technologies will imbibe family-like bondage of love, kindness, sensitivity and cooperation establishing peace and harmony.

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Knowledge defies economic principle of scarcity. Knowledge is not scarce in traditional sense. The more you use it and pass it on, the more it proliferates. It is "infinitely expansible" or "non-rival in consumption". It can be replicated cheaply and consumed over and over again. Knowledge is more difficult to measure than traditional inputs such as steel or labour. However future prosperity of rich economies will depend both on their ability to innovate and on their ability to adjust to change. The economist Brian Arthur argues “increasing returns will magnify the market leader’s advantage”.

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Is there gain in knowledge or loss of knowledge ? From an estimated 10,000 world languages in 1900, about 6,700 language survived in 2000. Two percent of the world's languages are becoming extinct every year. With the loss of a language, we lose art and ideas, scientific information and technological innovation capacity. UNESCO study (1999) of 65 languages: 49 of the languages (75%) had experienced real decline in number of works translated from these languages into other languages. World’s 140 most published authors; 90 out of 140 were English writers in 1994 compared to 64 out of 140 in 1980. Proportion for English arose from 43% in 1980 to over 57% in 1994. The share held by top four translated languages (English, Spanish, French and German) rose from 65 percent in 1980 to 81 percent in 1994. There is collapse in authorship, translation and quality in other languages. World-level literacy is improving. More people can read than ever before, but fewer people create stories. There is tendency from being creators to consumers at the time when technology could have amplified our creative capacities. Cultural Erosion!

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Language-wise world population Estimate (H Tanaka 1999)

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Linguistic Scenario in India Eighteen constitutional Indian Languages are mentioned as follows with their scripts within parentheses: Hindi (Devanagari), Konkani (Devanagari), Marathi (Devanagari), Nepali (Devanagari), Sanskrit (Devanagari), Sindhi (Devanagari/Urdu), Kashmiri (Devanagari/Urdu); Assamese (Assamese), Manipuri (Manipuri), Bangla (Bangali), Oriya (Oriya), Gujarati (Gujarati), Punjabi (Gurumukhi), Telugu (Telugu), Kannada (Kannada), Tamil (Tamil), Malayalam (Malayalam) and Urdu (Urdu). There are 10 Indic Scripts in vogue. Indian languages owe their origin to Sanskrit. They have in common rich cultural heritage and treasure of knowledge. Indic scripts have originated from Brahmi script. Less than 5% of people can either read & write English. Over 95% population is normally deprived of the benefits of English-based Information Technology. Characteristics of Indian Languages What You Speak Is What You Write (WYSIWYW) Script grammar - transformation rules Relatively word order free Common phonetic based alphabet Common concept terms (from Sanskrit)

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Technology Development for Indian Languages (TDIL) A B C Technology Development Phases India aware of the technological changes and the local constraints has taken up Development of Language Technology in three phases: 1976-1990 : A-Technology Phase Focus was on Adaptation Technologies; abstraction of requisite technological designs and competence building in R&D institutions. 1991-2000 : B-Technology Phase Focus was on developing Basic Technologies- generic information processing tools, interface technologies and cross-compatibility conversion utilities. TDIL(Technology Development for Indian Languages) programme was initiated. 2001-2010 : C-Technology Phase Focus is on developing Creative Technologies in the context of convergence of computing, communication and content technologies. Collaborative technology development is being encouraged to realise. Government spending during 1991- 2002 was about US$ 4 Million;

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TDIL Vision 2010 Vision statement Digital unite and knowledge for all. Mission statement Communicating without language barrier & moving up the knowledge chain. Major Initiatives(TDIL Vision) Knowledge Resources (Parallel Corpora, Multilingual Dictionaries, lexical resources) Knowledge Tools (Portals, Language Processing Tools, Translation Memory Tools) Translation Support Systems (Machine Translation, Cross Language Information Retrieval) Human Machine Interface System (OCR, Voice Recognition Systems, Text-to-Speech System) Localization (Adapting IT Tools and solutions in Indian Languages) Language Technology Human Resource Development (in NLP & Computational Linguistics) Standardization (ISCII, Unicode, XML, INSFOC, MPEG, Terminology, etc.) Long Term Goals Speech - to - Speech translation. Human Inspiring Systems

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Resource Centres for Indian Language Technology Solutions IIT, Kanpur Hindi, Nepali IIT, Mumbai Marathi, Konkani IIT, Guwahati Assamese, Nepali IISc, Bangalore Kannada, Sanskrit (cognitive models) ISI, Calcutta Bengali UOH, Hyderabad Telugu Anna Univ., Chennai Tamil MS Univ., Baroda Gujarati Utkal Univ., Bhubaneshwar Oriya TIET, Patiala Punjabi ERDC, Trivendrum Malayalam C-DAC, Pune Urdu, Sindhi, Kashmere JNU, New Delhi Foreign languages (Japanese, Chinese) & Sanskrit (language learning systems)

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Core objectives of Resource Centres : RC-ILTS To build a repository of all knowledge tools and products for computer based processing in Indian Languages. To develop niche technologies for providing IT localization solutions. Collaborative developments in association with industry. Technology dissemination through Specialized training programmes IT localization clinics Interactions with state governments for e-Gov, e-HealthCare, ...

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Content Creation and IT Localisation Network (CoIL-Net) Objectives: To bridge the existing digital divide in the economically backward Hindi speaking states of MP, Chattisgarh, UP, Uttaranchal, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Rajasthan having lower than national average levels of technical and IT education facilities, as identified by the National Task Force on IT & SD.

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Implementing Agencies: CoIL-Net … C-DAC, Pune – Core Technology Development for Hindi; IGNCA, New Delhi – Digital Library for Regional Heritage; IETE, New Delhi - IT based material in Hindi; IIT, Kanpur – Hindi to English Machine Translation; IIITM, Gwalior – IT localization solutions for MP Banasthali Vidyapith – IT localization solutions for Rajasthan; BHU, Varanasi – IT localization solutions for UP; BIT, Ranchi – IT localization solutions for Jharkhand; Roorkee University – IT localization solutions for Uttaranchal; Agencies in Bihar & Chattisgarh are being identified.

Anusrijan (Transcreation) : 

Anusrijan (Transcreation) Anusrijan (Transcreation) : Generating modern knowledge in local language Over 25Mn S&T research papers are added per year. Almost nil in Indian Languages Anusrijan to bring out books/monographs on emerging IT in Hindi and other Indian Languages(model for other S&T areas). To organize “Jnananudyog” training programmes for IT entrepreneurship generation, especially in ITES areas.

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Information Dissemination through: Quarterly TDIL Newsletter :VishwaBharat@tdil.gov.in (Issues 1 to 7: Jan’01 - Oct’02) Information on Language technology TDIL Web Site : http://tdil.mit.gov.in Site contains information for various TDIL activities, achievements and provides access to a variety of content and downloadables in Hindi and for other Indian languages. Free Downloads : Indian Language keyboard driver & fonts, Basic Word Processors, Spell Checkers, corpora, dictionaries, IT glossary,classic works …. Hindi e-mail FAQ: on Indian language technologies Samadhan Seva : to answer user’s queries Jnana Nidhi Seva : to access to content, dictionaries, classic works

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Innovation Networking & Management COILTech Language Technology Business Meet ZOPP Workshop Peer-review Focus on Productizing, test & evaluation Open source technology Language Technology Marketing and IPR

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Consortium on Innovation & Language Technology(COILTech) The MAIT COnsortium on Innovation & Language Technology (COILTech) since its inception in September 2001, has been actively co-ordinating various activities with the Industry and the TDIL (Technology Development in Indian Languages) Program. The consortium today has active participation from both Indian and MNC companies. Broad Objectives: To promote industry participation in collaborative R&D in language technology. To coordinate Open Source Software supporting Indian languages. To evolve consensus on standards, benchmarks, and certification of LT products. To collectively interface with government and academia. To conduct market surveys, organize technology shows, promote technology transfers and expand market collectively.

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Indian Language Software Market Projection Estimate 2002 (0.6%) 2008 (2%) Conservative (20%) Rs. 1.2 Bn Rs. 4 Bn ($ 80 Mn) Moderate (40%) Rs. 2.4 Bn Rs. 8 Bn ($160 Mn) Optimistic (80%) Rs. 4.8 Bn Rs.16 Bn($320 Mn) [basis: IL SW on PCs (20%-40%-80%) PC Penetration (0.6% - 2%) & av. Rs.1000/-per IL Software per PC] IDC predict global demand for GIL will increase to $ 8 Bn. In 2008 in comparison of present demand of $4.5 Bn. in 2002. The market of voice portals will be $6 Bn.

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The testing was based on the parameters indicated in the product specifications. The same are indicated below: Accuracy Speed Noise Reduction Skew Angle Correction & detection File Format Support Configuration Testing Installation The input documents for scanning were selected to validate the product specifications. Six different books (of different sizes, with different fonts and with different paper quality) were selected. Only two tone (black and white) books of offset / Laser print quality and photocopied papers from these books were used as input documents. For testing "Noise Reduction Feature" photocopied document with salt & pepper noise and with blurs and smudges were used. Evaluation of OCR for Punjabi, Bengali and Devanagari has been completed (November 2002). Testing for the rest is going on. OCR Evaluation

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Status of Technologies developed at Resource CentersName of the Technology/Product TH(n) = Technology Handshake to n parties () =  version () =  version

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Language Technology Handshakes At the Language Technology Business Meet 2001 organised by the Ministry of Information Technology on 7-8 November, 2001, 43 Technology Handshakes were signed by 13 companies for transfer/collaborative development of technology for Localised Linux, OCR, MAT, TTS, ASR Spell Checker, Morph Analyser, Encyclopaedia.

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Major Achievements Encoding Standards Standardization of 8 bit ISCII (Indian Script Standard Code for Information Interchange) was developed in 1988 and later on revised in 1991. ISCII-1988 is subset of the Unicode. Dept. of IT is a voting member of the Unicode consortium. Feedback on revision of UNICODE 3.0 for all Indian languages has been finalised. (Ref: VishwaBharat@tdil, issues 4, 5 & 6, 2002) Vagvarna Unicode for Vedic Sanskrit has also been proposed(240 code points) Propose to organize International UNICODE Conference 2003 in India. Font code standards Transliteration standards; Gurumukhi to Urdu; Hindi to Urdu transliteration scheme Standard of display codes in the form of INSFOC (Indian Standard for Font Code) is ready. Scheme for Indian Script to Roman Transliteration (INSROT) is ready. Lexware formats Standard of multi–lingual lexicon format has also been proposed.

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NBT Books Collection status: Languages Books Pages Hindi 678 65000 English 547 60000 Gujarati 203 22000 Panjabi 319 35000 Marathi 269 30000 Bangla 227 25000 Oriya 197 21700 Tamil 271 29800 Kannada 212 23300 Telugu 252 27700 Total Books 3175 339500 NBT : 400,000 pages. Rest from magazines like champak, grihshobha,chandamama, sahitya akademi. Language Resource in Public Domain 3 Mn Corpora for all languages are ready and in public domain. Geeta Reader Shabdika, encyclopedia in Hindi and some classic works in Indian languages are available in public domain. Knowledge Resources One Million Pages Parallel Corpora (Gyan Nidhi)

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KU Resources Million Books Universal Digital Library(UDL)Programme under Indo - US cooperation Objective : To digitize 1 million books (less than 1% of all books in all languages ever published) by 2005. To provide a test bed that will support other research domains such as scanning techniques, optical character recognition . To supplement the formal education system by making knowledge available to anyone who can read and have access. Participating Organizations: In India IISc. Banglore, IIIT Hyderabad, IIIT, Allahabad, TTD Tirupathi, Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation -- MIDC, Goa University, University of Pune, SASTRA Tanjavur, AK College of Engineering Krishna Koil, Directorate of Public Libraries (Govt. of Andhra Pradesh) Anna University Expected Number of Scanners: 150 (reached 49)

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Softwares and Tools for Language Technology in public Domain Softwares and Tools developed by the Resource Centres under the TDIL Programme are placed in public domain for widespread proliferation. These include Fonts with Keyboard Driver, Code/Font conversion utilities, Email Client, Multilingual WP, Keyboard Interface,  Spellchecker, Morph Analyzer, Corpora, INDIX (Indian Language Interface Support on LINUX ) etc. These are available on the TDIL web-site: http:// tdil.mit.gov.in. SIMPUTER Simple Inexpensive Multi-lingual ComPUTER has been designed that enables use of Smartcard, Text-to-Speech, Information Markup Language for Internet applications (IMLi) is XML based. IMLi browser supports Indian languages. Its features include Linux OS, 32 bit CPU, 32 MB D-RAM, 320  240 display, Soft-modem, Touch Panel, MP3 Player, Stilus/tap-a-tap input. Its price is estimated about US$ 200. This may become a means for bridging Digital Divide. Knowledge Tools

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Translation Support Systems Mantra : Machine-aided Translation System (English to Hindi) for Government notifications. [at C-DAC] Anusaraka Provides rapid translation as language accessor from other Indian Languages to Hindi. [UoH-IITK & IIIT Hyderabad] Matra : Machine- aided translation system (E to H) with a Prototype Vaakya system for web based translation service for English news stories to Hindi has been developed. [at NCST, Mumbai] Anubharati (H -> E) is a machine - aided translation system, a nascent prototype from Hindi to English. [at IIT, Kanpur]. Angalabharati (E -> H) (at IIT Kanpur & ER&DCI/N), a Machine-aided Translation System (English to Hindi)for public health domain is being developed for offcialese, health and agriculture domains. On- line Machine Aided Translation system integrated with TTS is available on http://anglahindi.iitk.ac.in. It has total 5 X (30,000 root words). It follows hybrid approach of rule-based & example based approaches [IIT-K].

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Human Machine Interface Systems Continuous Speech Recognition system for Hindi is being developed at IBM. This has been successfully tested up on training with pre-recorded speech of Hon'ble Prime Minister of India. Test-to-Speech for Hindi "Vaachak", produces acceptable speech [at Lucknow] An alpha version of "Hindi Vani" software which is PC based Unlimited Vocabulary Text-to-Speech Conversion Software for Hindi. The quality of speech is being improved upon in terms of pitch, tone, intonation with on-line screen reading capabilities. Speech Technologies group at IIT Madras is also developing technologies for Indian languages. Line and dot matrix printers were enabled for printing Devanagari . Bilingual computer compatible electronic tele-printers were manufactured Gist terminal was developed that allows use of Indic scripts in UNIX environment. Optical Character Recognition software for Hindi, Marathi, Bangla, Oriya, Punjabi, Telugu, and Tamil have been developed with accuracy above 97%. Development for other languages is in progress.

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Optical Character Recognition technology in Indian Languages(OCR): OCRs for Indian Languages are in the advanced stages of development For Hindi, Marathi, Punjabi, Telugu, Tamil, Oriya and Bangla OCR performance at character level was recorded above 97% OCR were tested over 500 pages, for 3-5 fonts of font-size 12-32. Independent Testing of OCR by STQC

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Language Technology HRD Trainers Training Programmes in NLP Modular IT curricula in language studies and linguistics, IT-enriched curricula for functional Hindi at BA & MA levels have been prepared. IT curricula designed for Secondary and Senior Secondary schools of CBSE introduce Indian languages. NLP Training Programmes are being offered during Summer and Winter (RCs - ILTS, IIIT/Hyderabad) Masters Programme in “Computational Linguistics” is being worked out.

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Localization There are three related terms in vogue - Globalisation, Internationalisation and Localisation. Globalisation: facilitates free trade across borders. New markets (round the clock all over world), new technologies (interact over separation in time and space) and new players (Multi National Corporations) become important. Technologies are no longer homogenous, they are heterogeneous; new meanings can be given in different cultural settings. Internationalisation: is an intermediate attempt towards localization by way of translation and enablement. This may include local to Unicode code-conversion, example-base in the context of globalization, and globalization considerations in user interface design. Localisation may be defined as the technological fusion of language & culture. LISA (Localisation Industry Standards Association) is promoting GIL activities.

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Six aspects to localization are : Infrastructure, Input output, Linguistic, Design & Content, Commercial, Legal. Six linguistic issues are: Sentence structure, word wrapping, compound nouns, agreement, differing perspectives, and message expansion. Localisation activities may include website localisation, software localisation, translation, cross-language applications, translation memory software, dictionary management software, code-conversion, on-the-fly (text and speech) translation, business transactions, voice activated telephoning navigation & remote diagnosis, localisation of voice portals. Customer's buying criteria for localisation tools are : Quality, Non-proprietary products, Faster turn around, Interoperability, Preserving linguistic and Cultural diversity, Cross-lingual functionality integrated into other enterprise applications also.

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Culture needs diversity and thrives on difference. According to Mahatma Gandhi, "Dominance and exclusivity cannot ultimately benefit anybody, not even big players, because no culture can live if it attempts to be exclusive". Hence there is need for localisation, internationalisation and globalisation.

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Currently Localisation is top-down: US-driven, Global icons suppress local contents and create 'accidental' web. But localisation must be bottom - up: local-to-global, must fundamentally change, look for new markets and cost models, must use reusable components, must handle locale-specific issues such as date, time, color-schemes, hand-signals, gestures, sound, historical data, product names, acronyms. Developing nations/ communities should not remain mere recipient of contents localised by others. They must become localisers, must localise their own content and then make it accessible to all.

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Large Mass Pacing up slow - challenges “India ranks top among countries which harness IT most for economic development. Digital divide is also highest in India”, UNESCO report. Economic Indicators Country Population GNP Per Capita PPP Rank R&D ($ Bn) GNP ($) ($) % GNP World 6,054 31171 5150 6980 - - India 1027 471 460 2390 86 0.73 America 282 9646 34260 34260 1 2.63 Japan 127 4337 34210 26460 7 2.80 Germany 82 2058 25050 25010 13 2.41 France 59 1430 25500 25000 20 20 Britain 60 1464 24500 23550 18 1.95 China 1261 1065 840 3940 68 0.66 [Source: Tata Economic Services 2001]

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Low IT affordability persists. Hence, need for Innovative IT Solutions.

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Is the technology to divide or to unite? Latin Alphabet users , 39 % of the global population enjoy 84% of access to the Internet Hanzi-users in (CJK), 22% in global population enjoy 13% of Internet access Arabic script users, 9% of the population have 1.2 % of the Internet Access Brahmi-origin scripts users in South-east Asia and Indic scripts users occupy 22 % of the World population have just 0.3 % of Internet access. More than 80% content on Internet is in English.

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Digital Divide -- Difference in perceptions Perception Developed Countries Developing Countries Why discussed ? Desire to capture larger markets Fear of lagging behind in economic race Policy Information explosion Localization Tech. Dev. IPR-Centric Open source technology Results Increasing use of English and Preservation of local thrust of western culture. language and culture. Consumer nature “substitute the old” “Upgrade the Old” [Consumerism-centric] Low cost PC $400 less than $ 40 Reason: PPP : (15:1) 34260 (USA) 2400 (India) GNP : (75:1) 24260 460 Focus Digital divide Digital Unite Access to Information Share the Knowledge Wider control Small is beautiful.

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Speech to Speech Translation Approach 1: (CASCADING Approach) S2S = S2T + T2T + T2S Constrained on accuracy to about (40% - 60%) = (0.7*0.8*0.9) Approach 2: NLU Based (Concept Based) S2S = S2C + C2C + C2S Accuracy up to 70% - 80% = (0.9*0.95*0.9) [The roadmap includes S2T, T2S, Machine Translation, OCR]

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S2S Translation Trends in Machine Translation 1970s : Narrow Domain, Rule-based approach 1980s : Practical MT systems - Example based approach, Interlingua & Transfer methods 1990s : Multilingual MT, Simultaneous Interpretation, example based revisited, corpus based & statistics based approach 2000s : MT through NL understanding language resources Trend in Speech technology : There is ongoing shift from Speech component research to research on integrated Speech Systems. Together with Speech, are the modalities that constitute full natural human - human communication (e.g.. Gesture, lip movements, facial expression, gaze, bodily posture) leading towards multimodal interactive systems. 1970s : Speech synthesis systems used rule-based formant system. (Formants are transfer function of vocal tract resonant frequency.) 1990s: Concatenated speech synthesis systems use small pieces of pre- recorded speech. There is a trend towards cross-project collaboration, synergy, critical mass, and deployable & scalable technologies.

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Basic Technologies targeted by 2005 Context sensitive summarization (responsive to user’s specific needs) Answering questions by making logical inferences from database content Speech synthesis with several styles and emotions in major ILs Continuous speech understanding in workstations with standard dictionaries (5000 w) in major ILs Controlled languages with syntactic and semantic verification for specific domains General speaker identification, robust speech recognition in hard-to-model noise conditions and real speaker-independent recognition Natural Speech (with facial expressions) Understanding and generation - - Basic Technologies targeted by 2010 : Unlimited-vocabulary spoken multilingual conversation Unlimited-vocabulary spoken translation systems Unlimited on-line understanding & generation of integrated natural speech, lips, facial expression and gesture communication Fully natural interactive communication

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Open Source Software Objectives Evolving & updating standards for multilingual support & building up standards database. Ensuring service support implementation strategy Consortium of OSS researchers in academia & industry. Towards cooperation with major LT initiatives Initiative B@bel of UNESCO Human Language Technology(HLT) program of European Union Translingual Information Detection, Extraction & Summarization (TIDES) Universal Networking Language (UNL) Country programmes of France, Germany, China, Japan, Russia, etc.

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Summing Up 18 Indian language and 10 Indic scripts Over 95 Mn Indian can't benefit of English based IT. In 1990-91, Government launched the program on TDIL (Technology Development of Indian Languages) 13 RCs-ILTS, 7 CoILNet centers. Innovation networking management of multi-lingual projects. Voting member of UNICODE consortium. CoIL-Tech (Consortium on Innovation & Language Technology) New Initiatives Global Village (Vasudhaive’ Kutumbakam) with Cooperation(saha Veeryam…) & Humane Sensitivity (Sarve bhavantu sukhinah).

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