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Premium member Presentation Transcript Theories : Theories Fredrick Herzberg's theory Adam’s equity theory Victor vroom’s expectancy theory : FREDRICK HERZBERG’S THEORY FREDRICK HERZBERG’S THEORY : FREDRICK HERZBERG’S THEORY INTRODUCTION Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000), clinical psychologist and pioneer of 'job enrichment', is regarded as one of the great original thinker in management and motivational theory. Herzberg’s motivation theory is one of the content theories of motivation. Fredrick Herzberg's theory of motivation is based on the information collected by him and his associate by interviewing two hundreds engineers and accountants in nine different companies at Pittsburgh, USA. The information collected relates to the attitude of people towards work. Slide 5: Fredrick Herzberg's and his associates (1959) were the first to identify that there are two sets of factor in the work setting that affect employees ‘job attitude’. This attitude depends upon two set of factors namely hygiene or maintenance factor and motivating factor and is often referred to as a ‘two need system’. These two separate ‘needs’ are the need to avoid unpleasantness and discomfort and, at the other end of the motivational scale, the need for personal development. A shortage of the factors that positively encourage employees (the motivating factors) will cause employees to focus on other, non-job related ‘hygiene’ factors. MOTIVATION FACTOR : MOTIVATION FACTOR There are very few employees who feel that they do not deserve what they get, but there are no of employees who feel that they are not getting what they deserve. This brings out the importance of motivators. Achievement Recognition Growth/advancement Interest in the job Slide 7: The most important part of this theory of motivation is that the main motivating factors are not in the environment but in the intrinsic value and satisfaction gained from the job itself. It follows therefore that to motivate an individual, a job itself must be challenging, have scope for enrichment and be of interest to the jobholder. Motivators (sometimes called ‘satisfiers’) are those factors directly concerned with the satisfaction gained from a job, such as: The sense of achievement and the intrinsic value obtained from the job itself The level of recognition by both colleagues and management The level of responsibility Opportunities for advancement and The status provided. Slide 8: Motivators lead to satisfaction because of the need for growth and a sense of self-achievement. Motivating factors act as a forces of job satisfaction. motivation factors make people happy with their jobs because they serve man’s basic needs for psychological growth. A lack of motivators leads to over-concentration on hygiene factors HYGIENE FACTOR : HYGIENE FACTOR Herzberg’s second components in his approach to motivation theory involves what are known as hygiene factors and includes the work and organizational environment. This Hygiene factor includes organization Its policies and its administration The kind of supervision Working conditions Interpersonal relation Salary Status Job security Slide 10: According to Herzberg, hygiene factors are only preventive in nature. they simply prevent dissatisfaction. That means, taking care of them will prevent dissatisfaction among the employees but will not motivate the employees. hygiene factors bring motivation to theoretical zero level and provide the necessary ‘floor’ or launching pad for motivators to take off. only the motivators motivate human being on the job. According to Herzberg, the hygiene factors do little contribution to provide job satisfaction. he called them ‘dissatisfiers’ as their absence cause dissatisfaction but their presence is not motivating but only prevent dissatisfaction. The hygiene factors meet man’s needs to avoid unpleasantness but do not motivate them to take more interest in the work. This factors are related to the conditions of work than with the work it self. Slide 11: Criticism The findings of this model can not universally applicable as study was on upper level white –caller employees. The second criticism is that when the critical incident method was not used, the researchers got different kinds of responses. There is criticism about the clear distinction between satisfiers and dissatisfiers. There would be certain factors relating to the job which are satiesfiers and dissatisfiers at the same time. Slide 12: Conclusion Despite these drawbacks, herzbergs two-factor theory is a great contribution to the field of organizational motivators that till then had been either neglected or completely overlooked. EQUITY THEORY : EQUITY THEORY ADAMS EQUITY THEORY : ADAMS EQUITY THEORY John Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, put forward his equity theory on job motivation in 1963.Much like many of the more prevalent theories of motivation, the Adams Theory features more awareness, cognizance of wider situation and crucial comparison. In our common life, when people feel fairly or advantageously treated they are more likely to be motivated, when they feel unfairly treated they are highly prone to feeling of dissatisfaction and demotivation. The way that people measure this sense of fairness is at the heart of Equity Theory. OVERVIEW OF EQUITY THEORY : OVERVIEW OF EQUITY THEORY It is important to also consider the Adams’ Equity Theory factors when striving to improve an employee's job satisfaction, motivation level, etc., and what can be done to promote higher levels of each. Adam's called personal ‘Efforts and Rewards’ and other similar ‘Give and Take’ issues at work as “INPUTS AND OUTPUTS” respectively. INPUTS : INPUTS Inputs are logically what we give or put into our work such as: Efforts Loyalty Hard work Commitment Skill Tolerance Determination Personal sacrifice, etc. OUTPUTS : OUTPUTS Outputs are everything we take out in return such as: Salary ,benefits, perks, etc. Intangibles that include, Recognition Reputation Responsibility Praise Sense of achievement Growth, etc. Slide 18: Many of these points can’t be quantified and perfectly compared, the theory argues that managers should seek to find a fair balance between the inputs that an employee gives and the outputs received. And according to the theory, employees should be content where they perceive these to be in balance. IS THERE REALLY A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOW HARD AN EMPLOYEE WORKS AND HOW FAIRLY HE IS BEEN TREATED? : IS THERE REALLY A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOW HARD AN EMPLOYEE WORKS AND HOW FAIRLY HE IS BEEN TREATED? Some noted economists believe that there exists such relationship! In any organization, the employees in addition to their time contribute their experience, their qualifications, and their capability in addition to their personal strengths. MONEY of course is the prime motivating outcome for an employee, but it is not the only, and in some cases not even the most important factor. POWER and STATUS are also prime motivators. Slide 20: According to the Equity Theory, the most highly motivated employee is the one who perceives his rewards are equal to his contributions. If he feels that he is working and being rewarded at about the same rate as his peers, then he will judge that he is being treated fairly. This doesn’t mean that every manager should treat every employee identically because every worker does not measure his contributions in the same way. EXAMPLE: Flexible working hours might motivate a working mother even more than a pay raise. Slide 21: Conversely, though an across the board wage increase may delight more employees, the highest producers may become less motivated if they perceive that they are not being rewarded for their ambition. The basic idea behind the Equity Theory is that workers in an attempt to balance what they put into their jobs and what they get from them, will unconsciously assign values to each of his various contributions. Hence Equity Theory of Employee Motivation basically describes the relationship between how fairly an employee perceives he is treated and how hard he is motivated to work. Slide 22: According to the equity theory employees compare their outcome/input ratio with the outcome/input ratio of others to determine whether they are being treated fairly or unfairly by the organization. These comparisons are divided into 3 categories:- 1. Over rewarded inequity/ Positive inequity:- A person feels over rewarded when his outcome/input ratio is greater than other persons outcome/input ratio with whom the person compares himself. P outcome > O outcome P input O input Equity theory states that an overpaid worker feels guilty. Slide 23: 2. Under rewarded inequity/ Negative inequity A person feels under rewarded when his outcome/input ratio is less than other persons outcome/input ratio with the person compares himself. P outcome < O outcome P input O input Equity theory states that underpaid workers feels angry. 3.Equity:- A person feels equitably treated when his outcome/input ratio is equal to others persons output/input ratio with the person compares himself. P outcome = O outcome P input O input Equitably paid workers are said to feel satisfied. Slide 24: 6.Under conditions of inequity people experience tension, which in turn creates the motivation to reduce inequity. Thus people are motivated to escape these negative emotional states anger and guilt. Employees experiencing inequity will try to reduce it through a combination of 2 responses:- Physical or Psychological Internal or External Similarly the employees who feel under rewarded may try to reduce inequity and restore balance through these 4 responses:- : Similarly the employees who feel under rewarded may try to reduce inequity and restore balance through these 4 responses:- Slide 27: The equity model threw light on the areas of motivation by recognizing the influence of social comparisons. Individuals are concerned not only with the efforts but also with the absolute amount of rewards they receive for their efforts with the relationship of this amount to what other receives. Research on the equity model has yielded favorable results as these results have been more supportive to under rewarded inequity than over rewarded inequity. Slide 28: The equity is not free of limitations. Some of the difficulties that managers encounter in using this model are:- Difficulty in predicting inequity:- Predicting inequity is often difficult because employees select a number of reference groups both inside and outside the organization. Also employees compare themselves to standards that are most favorable to them. For e.g. educated employee emphasize on qualifications, while employees with longer service emphasize seniority as the dominant criterion. Equity sensitivity:- Different individuals have different preferences for inequity. Some people prefer to be over rewarded other prefer to be under rewarded. Identifying while category an employee belongs to is not and easy task for managers. CONLUSION : CONLUSION The idea behind Adams’s equity theory is to strike a healthy balance here, with outputs on side of the scale, inputs on the other-both weighing in a way that seem reasonably equal. If the balance lies too far in favour of the employer, some employees may work to bring balance between inputs and outputs on their own, by asking for more compensation or recognition. While others will be demotivated and still others will seek alternative employment. Expectancy theory : Expectancy theory Introduction Expectancy theory was introduced by victor vroom. He made important contribution to the understanding of motivation and the processes used to determine how much efforts employees will expand on their jobs. In short this theory expands on the work of Maslow's and Herzberg. He introduced three important concepts are as follows:- Expectancy Instrumentality Valence Force Expectancy : Expectancy Expectancy denotes the anticipated probability that a given level of work effort leads to a specific level of performance. Vroom opines that before an individual decides to put effort into the performance of the task, he or she looks at the various options available. Expectancy is defined as the probability ranging from 0 to1 that certain efforts will lead to a certain outcome. If the employee feels that he has no chance of meeting target than his expectancy is 0. The mere fact that he decides to put Instrumentality : Instrumentality Instrumentality refers to the outcomes for each level of job performance of the individual. For instance, if indeed through a high level of effort, high performance is achieved, what will be the resultant outcomes or instrumentalities? There are both negative and positive consequences in terms of effort and reward outcomes. The value of instrumentality ranges from 0 to 1. if the employee strongly believes that performance leads to promotion then instrumentality is high. On the other hand If the employee is not clear as to what determines a promotion then instrumentality is low. Valence : Valence Valence is the extent of attraction (as opposed to repulsion) of an outcome to the recipient of the reward. That is it denotes the value or attraction of various possible outcomes from putting in effort. Valence can be positive or negative. The numerical value of valence may range from +1 to -1. No motivation is possible unless the valence is positive. Valence is positive when the person prefers attaining the outcome as compared with not attaining it. Valence is zero when the person is indifferent to the outcome. Valence is negative when the person prefers not attaining the outcome as compared with attaining it. Force : Force Force is the actual effort expanded by the individual on the job (indicating the motivational level) and is, as we have observed, a function of the multiplicative effects of the sum of the effort to performance probabilities, the sum of performance to outcome probabilities, and valence. Force is calculated thus: force = [(E->P) x (P->O) x V] Certainly, individuals in organization do not cognitively go through all the calculations described in the model attaching values for probabilities and valence. However, employees do intuitively and often cognitively go through processes somewhat on the lines described in the model while deciding on how much effort you put in for studying for different examinations or writing various term papers Slide 39: MOTIVATION LEADS TO INSPIRATION INSPIRATION LEADS TO DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT LEADS TO ACTION ACTION LEADS TO SUCCESS Slide 40: Thank You Thank You You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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