The Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 & CITES and Veterinarians : The Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 & CITES and Veterinarians A Presentation by
WILDLIFE CRIME CONTROL BUREAU, Western Region, Mumbai. The Constitution of India [Article-51-A (g)] - Fundamental Duties : The Constitution of India [Article-51-A (g)] - Fundamental Duties It shall be the duty of every citizen of India,
to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures. Slide 3: WILD LIFE (PROTECTION ) ACT, 1972An act to provide for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto with a view to ensuring the ecological and environmental security of the country. Some important Definitions as per The Wildlife(Protection) Act 1972. : Some important Definitions as per The Wildlife(Protection) Act 1972. "animal" includes amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, fish, other chordates and invertebrates,and also includes, in the cases of birds and reptiles, their eggs;
"animal article" means an article made from any captive animal or wild animal, other than vermin, and includes an article or object in which the whole or any part of such animal [has been used, and ivory imported into India and an article made therefrom]; Slide 5: "trophy" means the whole, or any part of any captive animal or wild animal, other than vermin, which has been kept or preserved by any means, whether artificial or natural, and includes—(a) rugs, skins and specimens of such animal mounted in whole or in part through a process or taxidermy, and(b) antler, bone carapace, shell, horn, rhinoceros horn, hair, feather, nail, tooth, tusk, musk, eggs, nests and honeycomb; Slide 6: "wild animal" means any animal specified in Schedule I to IV and found wild in nature; "habitat", includes land, water or vegetation which is the natural home of any wild animal; “taxidermy”, with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means the curing, preparation or preservation of trophies; “uncured trophy” means the whole or any part of any captive animal, other than vermin, which has not undergone a process of taxidermy, and includes a [freshly killed wild animal, ambergris, musk and other animal products ]; Slide 7: "wild life" includes any animal, aquatic or land vegetation which forms part of any habitat includes any aquatic or land vegetation;
there is popular misconception that “Wildlife” refers only to mammals and birds, on the contrary the definition embraces all life form that are wild. Slide 8: HUNTING OF WILD ANIMALSSection 9: Prohibition of hunting No person shall hunt any wild animal specified in Schedules I, II, III and IV except as provided under section 11 and section 12.] "hunting",(as defined in wlp Act) with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, includes,—(a) killing or poisoning of any wild animal or captive animal and every attempt to do so;(b) capturing,coursing, snaring, trapping, driving or baiting any wild or captive animal and every attempt to do so;(c) injuring or destroying or taking any part of the body of any such animal or,in the case of wild birds or reptiles, damaging the eggs of such birds or reptiles or disturbing the eggs or nests of such birds or reptiles; Slide 9: Section 38 – CENTRAL ZOO AUTHORITY
AND RECOGNITION OF ZOOS
Section 38 - H (1A) No Zoo without prior approval. Section 38J. Prohibition of teasing & etc., in a zoo. Section 38 – I No Zoo can acquire, Sell, Transfer Wild animal, captive animal of Sch. I & II without permission. CENTRAL ZOO AUTHORITY Slide 10: 38C. Functions of the Authority. – The Authority shall perform the following functions,
(a) specify the minimum standards for housing, upkeep and veterinary care of the
animals kept in a zoo;
(b) evaluate and assess the functioning of zoos with respect to the standards or the norms
as may be prescribed;
(c) recognise or derecongnise zoos;
(d) identify endangered species of wild animals for purposes of captive breeding and
assigning responsibility in this regard to a zoo;
(e) co-ordinate the acquisition, exchange and loaning of animals for breeding purposes;
(f) ensure maintenance of stud-books of endangered species of wild animals bred in
(g) identify priorities and themes with regard to display of captive animals in a zoo;
(h) co-ordinate training of zoo personnel in India and outside India;
(i) co-ordinate research in captive breeding and educational programmes for the
purposes of zoos;
(j) provide technical and other assistance to zoos for their proper management and
development on scientific lines;
(k) perform such other functions as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this
Act with regard to zoos. Section 39: WILD ANIMALS, ETC., TO BE GOVERNMENT ROPERTY. : Section 39: WILD ANIMALS, ETC., TO BE GOVERNMENT ROPERTY. No person shall, without the previous permission in writing of the Chief Wild Life Warden or authorized officer—(a) acquire or keep in his possession, custody or control, or(b) transfer to any person, whether by any of gift, sale or otherwise, or(c) destroy or damage, such Government property. Section 44: DEALINGS IN TROPHY AND ANIMAL ARTICLES WITHOUT LICENCE PROHIBITED : Section 44: DEALINGS IN TROPHY AND ANIMAL ARTICLES WITHOUT LICENCE PROHIBITED Section 48A:RESTRICTION ON TRANSPORTATION
No person shall accept any wild animal (other than vermin), or any animal article,or any specified plant or part or derivative thereof, for transportation except afterexercising due care to ascertain that permission from the Chief Wild Life Warden or any other officer authorised by the State Government in this behalf has been obtained for such transportation.] Section 49B: PROHIBITION OF DEALINGS IN TROPHIES, ANIMAL ARTICLES,ETC., DERIVED FROM SCHEDULED ANIMALS : Section 49B: PROHIBITION OF DEALINGS IN TROPHIES, ANIMAL ARTICLES,ETC., DERIVED FROM SCHEDULED ANIMALS Section 50: POWER OF ENTRY, SEARCH, ARREST AND DETENTION
The Director or any other officer authorised by him in this behalf or the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer or any forest officer or any police officer not below the rank of a sub-inspector, Section 51: Penalties punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to [three years] or with fine which may extend to [twenty five thousand rupees] or with both: : Section 51: Penalties punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to [three years] or with fine which may extend to [twenty five thousand rupees] or with both: offence relates to hunting in a sanctuary or a National Park or altering the boundaries of a sanctuary or a National Park, such offence shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years but may extend to seven years and also with fine which shall not be less than ten thousand rupees: Glimpses of biodiversity : Glimpses of biodiversity Slide 21: • India is one of the leading suppliers of the most coveted wildlife products. Tigers, rhinos, birds, plants. • India is strategically placed between the supplying and buying countries. • India is still plagued with illiteracy, poverty and millions still live under the poverty line.
• India lives in the mindset that views animals as resources that should be used, when in need. • India has wildlife laws that are very stringent, but it does not have means to enforce the same.
• Indians do not know that wildlife trespassing, trade and trafficking instances are criminal activities and that it should be reported.
• Strange but true, the protectors of wildlife and the custodians of law are not familiar with the wildlife laws. Some of the facts How large is wildlife crime ?Numbers in global trade Record global prices : How large is wildlife crime ?Numbers in global trade Record global prices Monkeys --- 25-30,000 Trained falcon –up to US $ 10,000 Live birds --- 2.5 millions Rare parrots - up to US $ 40,000 Slide 23: Reptile skins – 10 millions Orchids – 10 millions Rare butterfly – up to US $ 30,000 Rare orchids – up to US $ 2000 Who can stop wildlife crime ? : Who can stop wildlife crime ? Slide 26: Which laws regulate wildlife crime?
India controls wildlife crime through three primary legislations: the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 ; the Customs Act 1962 and the Export-Import Policy. Apart from this , a few other Acts are also used. Some salient features of these Acts are listed below.
Wildlife Protection Act 1972:
Applicable all over India except Jammu & Kashmir, which has its own act.
Prohibits hunting of any wild animal listed in any of its schedules except mice, rats, common crow and fruit bats.
Schedules I, II,III and IV list different protected species, the killing or trade of which are punishable by varying penalties. A Schedule I offence can earn a repeat offender 7 years in prison and a find of Rs. 25,000. Section 51 lays down penalties for violations of the Act.
Schedule V lists vermin which may be killed. Schedule VI lists protected plants.
The Act also sets down the rules of a protected area and penalties for violating them. Slide 27: Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act,1992
The Export-Impost policy is framed under this Act. It lists prohibited and restricted items.
The Act replaces the earlier Imports and Exports Act, 1947.
Wild animals including their parts and products such as ivory are prohibited for import.
Wild animals and their derivatives are prohibited for export. Wood and certain wood products are also prohibited or regulated.
29 plant species are prohibited for export. Others are restricted and need a licence.
Customs Act 1962
All offences against CITES and the Export-Import Policy are punishable under the Customs Act.
The Indian Penal Code, 1860
The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1974
The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act,1960
The Arms Act, 1959 Slide 28: Wildlife trade
and some of the targeted species Slide 29: -CHEEKS UPPER LIP BELLY CHEST CLAWS INNER EARLOBE OUTER EARLOBE TAIL NECK OCULAR SPOT MAIN FEATURES WILD ANIMAL, articles/products Tiger, Original & fake skin & products : WILD ANIMAL, articles/products Tiger, Original & fake skin & products Products and Exploitation of Tiger : Products and Exploitation of Tiger Tiger skins and heads are used as trophies.
Tiger claws are used as talismans.
Tiger bones and skulls are used in traditional oriental medicines.
Tiger fat is used in balms and potions.
Tiger penis is used as an aphrodisiac.
Tiger whiskers are thought to cure toothaches. Leopard, skin & trophy : Leopard, skin & trophy Exploitation of Furs/Skins : Exploitation of Furs/Skins To make products like pelts, coats, jackets, hats, gloves, short and long coats.
Small items like wallets, belts, walking sticks.
Also as trimmings in fashion garments. Elephant ivory & carved article : Elephant ivory & carved article Asian elephant – Elephas maximus Exploitation (Forms of ivory in trade) : Exploitation (Forms of ivory in trade) Raw or unworked Ivory in the form of whole tusks or cut into 2 or large pieces.
Worked ivory in the form of bangles, bracelets, statues, carved tusks, chessboards etc.
Powdered ivory for medicinal purposes. Rhino horn : Rhino horn Deer / Stag horn products : Deer / Stag horn products Exploitation of Antlers & Horns : Exploitation of Antlers & Horns Antlers are used in cutlery handles, pistol butts, and buttons.
Used as whole antlers or scrap.
Used as trophies (shields) for decorating houses.
Also reported to be used in Traditional Oriental medicines. Chiru,Shahtoosh & Pasmina hairs : Chiru,Shahtoosh & Pasmina hairs Exploitation of Chiru : Exploitation of Chiru A Shahtoosh shawl can pass through a ring. Thus the name given to it is “Ring shawl”.
Pashmina is sometimes mixed with the Shahtoosh to produce the shawls.
Shahtoosh is collected from Tibet and woven into shawls is Kashmir.
Only about 150 gm . of wool is procured from a single animal.
It is alleged to form a part of the barter trade (Tiger bones-Shahtoosh) between Tibet, India and Nepal.
The expensive wool is also reported to be exchanged with musk and bear bile used in TCM.
Shahtoosh shawls can cost between Rs.50,000-1,00,000 depending on workmanship.
The price of the shawl in the international market is approx. US$3500 each. Badger & Mongoose, hair brushes : Badger & Mongoose, hair brushes SHAVING BRUSH MAKEUP BRUSH PAINTING BRUSH BRISTLES OF MONGOOSE : BRISTLES OF MONGOOSE Bristles of hogs, pigs, and mongoose are in paintbrushes, shaving brushes etc.
In 1992, the United Kingdom alone imported nearly 10,000 kilos of bristles from India.
Bristles can cost upto Rs.7,500/kilo in the international market.
While Kanpur and Jabalpur are the main trade centres for bristles, Mumbai is the main shipping port. Slide 44: Live birds Slide 45: GREY JUNGLE FOWL AND PEACOCK PHEASENT
FEATHERS ARE USED IN MAKING ARTIFICIAL FISHING FLIES Star tortoises and turtle : Star tortoises and turtle Hawksbill turtle Exploitation of Turtles : Exploitation of Turtles For food- turtle meat, fat and eggs.
Domestic traded in turtles for food in particularly prevalent in the states in West Bengal, Orissa, North East, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
Traditional medicines-shells for eye treatments, blood, meat and gall bladders as curses for stomach and skin disorders, and for treating tuberculosis.
Shells as decorative items with silver linings and paints.
Combs and brushes made out of shells.
Traded as pets to countries like Europe, Middle-east, S.E. Asia.
Pet trade is also prevalent in Delhi and other metropolitan cities. Snake skin & article : Snake skins detained in JNPT, Mumbai Python skin shoe from Italy Snake skin & article Snake skin & articles : Snake skin & articles Crocodile/Alligator skin and articles : Crocodile/Alligator skin and articles Exploitation of Reptile Skins : Exploitation of Reptile Skins Monitor lizard is used for various purposes like skin for drum head, oil for haemorrhoid treatment and skin against bacterial infection.
Reptile skins are used for manufacturing wallets, belts, shoes, whips and other leather accessories.
Spiny-tailed lizard is used by traditional medicine vendors for extracting oil which allegedly has aphrodisiacal properties. Sharks, sea-horse, pipe fish, etc. : Sharks, sea-horse, pipe fish, etc. Whale shark Pipe fish Sea-dragon Sea-horse Tubipora musica (Organ pipe coral) : Tubipora musica (Organ pipe coral) Sclerarctinian (Reef building) coral & oval beads made from it : Sclerarctinian (Reef building) coral & oval beads made from it Sea-shells : Sea-shells Cassis cornuta Nautilus pompilius Cypraecassis rufa Sea-shells : Sea-shells Fasciolaria trapezium Cypraea mappa Lambis chiragra arthritica Turbo marmoratus Placenta placenta (Capiz shell)
bowl Trochus niloticus Exploitation of Marine Species : Exploitation of Marine Species Once it was used to provide material for buttons and was exported from India.
Still being fished in small quantities for decorative purposes. Butterfly Plaque as collectors item with different species : Butterfly Plaque as collectors item with different species Exploitation of Butterflies : Exploitation of Butterflies Butterfly plaques as decorative items are sold in Shillong and Guwahati ranging between Rs.90-500.
As drawing room hangings, ornaments, pen holders, table mats etc.
As entomological research specimens to various countries, which usually end up in museum and in private collections.
Dead specimens are mostly traded in Germany, Japan, Switzerland, England and USA.
Live specimens, eggs and pupae by the butterfly houses are traded in USA, Japan, Europe, Malaysia and Singapore.
Main collection centres-Himalayan and Trans Himalayan region, North East India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Slide 60: STOP BUYING WILDLIFE PRODUCTS & CONSERVE NATURE Slide 61: CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA HISTORY : HISTORY In order to prevent excessive international trade leading to the disappearance of animal and plants species, states drew up a Convention : the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
Signed in Washington (United States) on 3rd March 1973 & entered into force on 01ST July 1975.
India became party to this Convention in the year 1976.
There are now more than 175 contracting states. CITES Management authority – Director(Wildlife Preservation) & Additional Director General (Wildlife), MoEF, CGO Complex, New Delhi. : CITES Management authority – Director(Wildlife Preservation) & Additional Director General (Wildlife), MoEF, CGO Complex, New Delhi. CITES Assistant Management authority – Regional Deputy Directors
1.Northern Region, New Delhi
2.Eastern Region, Kolkata
3.Western Region, Mumbai
4. Southern Region, Chennai CITES Scientific Authority : CITES Scientific Authority Zoological Survey of India
Botanical Survey of India
Wildlife Institute of India
Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute
CITES Enforcement through Customs Department assisted by RDDs
Implementation through Customs Act 1962 and EXIM/Foreign Trade Policy CITES Appendices : CITES Appendices Depending on the degree of threat posed by international trade, the various species of animals and plants have been divided into three categories.
APPENDIX -III APPENDIX - I : APPENDIX - I International trade is prohibited. Exceptions are possible if the import is for non-commercial purposes.
Example - Scientific & Educational.
Total 827 spp. + 52 sub spp. + 19 populations are listed in Appendix – I .
Eg. Panthera leo persica
(Lion) APPENDIX - II : APPENDIX - II International trade is regulated and kept to a level which does not endanger the survival of the species.
Total 32,540 spp. + 49 subspp. + 25 popns are listed in Appendix – II.
Eg. Alligator mississippiensis
(American Alligator) APPENDIX - III : APPENDIX - III International trade is regulated at the request of certain exporting countries.
Total 291 spp. + 12 sub spp. + 2 populations are listed in Appendix – III.
Eg. Haliotis midae
for South Africa ROLE OF THE CUSTOMS : ROLE OF THE CUSTOMS The Customs has a vital role for implementation of the CITES or “Washington Convention”
They check the validity of the documents submitted(1),and ensure that they correspond to the actual goods(2).
They combat fraud and check that prohibition and restriction measures are complied with.
They collect duties and taxes.
In many countries ,they conduct investigations at traders’ premises or carry out checks on the transport of goods within the country.
(1) In some cases, the validity of the documents is checked by the CITES Management Authority at the time of Customs clearance.
(2) In some countries, a specialized service carries out CITES control prior to Customs clearance. Transport of Live Animals : Transport of Live Animals IATA's Live Animals Regulations These Regulations contain specific packaging and welfare requirements which are designed to ensure that the animals arrive at their destination healthy and in good condition. With the increasing number of animals travelling by air, it is essential that the IATA Live Animals Regulations are complied with in all cases. Container Requirements
IATA container requirements for animals are based on species needs and animal size. The IATA Live Animals Regulations describe minimum standards for container construction for all animal types ranging from insects to elephants. It is imperative for the safe and humane shipment of an animal that the proper container is used. Slide 74: Before animals commence their journey, it is important that advance arrangements be made and confirmed. Before the consignment is delivered to the airline, the shipper or his agent must ensure that all import and export licenses, health certificates and permits have been obtained . Preparation for Air Transport Slide 75: TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS
The movement of animals can present many practical and legal challenges.. Farm
animals may travel long distances but even short periods of movement can have significant effects on an animal’s physiology and well-being. Tranquillisation can harm animals while in transport
DO NOT tranquilize. It can be dangerous to their health. Drugs act differently at the pressure of 8000 ft above sea level, which is the approximate pressure in the cabin and cargo area during flight. Slide 76: VETERINARY CERTIFICATION
Veterinary certificates, which usually testify to the health of an animal or animals, are important documents.
The accuracy of the certificate, reflected in its wording, can make a great deal of difference to the fate of an animal, to disease control and to the professional status of the person who signed it. In most countries of the world great weight is laid upon accurate and truthful certification. In some, such as the UK, the penalties (legal and/or professional) for falsely completing a certificate, as far as making incorrect claims, errors or omissions are concerned. THANKS : THANKS Slide 78: Wildlife forensic, expectation
veterinarian Slide 79: • How did this animal die?
• Why did this animal die?
• How long did it take this animal to die?
• When did this animal die?
• Where did this animal die?
• Who was involved, intentionally or
inadvertently, in its death? General questions arises in wildlife crime investigation ? Forensic science : Forensic science Forensic science is the application of various sciences to answer questions relating to examination and comparison of biological evidence, trace evidence, impression evidence (such as fingerprints, footwear impressions, and tire tracks), controlled substances, firearms, and other evidence in criminal investigations i.e. DNA fingerprinting, toxicology, chemistry, biology etc…..
Typically, evidence is processed in a crime/ forensic lab WHY WILDLIFE FORENSIC : WHY WILDLIFE FORENSIC Wildlife Forensic Forest & Wildlife Crime Investigation.
There is no such formal training imparted to forest officials of any cadre.
Need of the day to save our precious wildlife and forests.
Till date rate of conviction is very low.
Criminals are intelligent, clever, well equipped hardcore mafia.
Can we fight without high technology?
Wildlife Forensic can help……… BRANCHES OF FORENSIC SCIENCE : BRANCHES OF FORENSIC SCIENCE TOXICOLOGY
DNA FINGER PRINTING Useful disciplines in Wildlife crime investigation Slide 83: Example of major forensic desiplines FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY Forensic toxicology is the study of the effect of drugs and poisons on the human/ animal body.
Poisioning caracass, poisoning waterholes, spreading poisonous grains, poisoned arrow head, poisonous needles are common practice of wildlife crime. All such cases of poisoning
can be analysed in forensic labs. Slide 84: Example of major forensic desiplines FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY Poison commonly used in killing of wild animals
1. Arsenic (Sankhya).
2. Oleander (Yellow one).
3. Abrus precatorius, (Gomchi or Ratti).
4. Nux Vomica. (Kuchala.)
5. Aconite (Meetha Jahar)
6. Calotropis (Madar)
7. Castor seeds (Arandi).
8. Copper Sulphate (Neela thotha)
9. Snake venom.
10. Mercury compound.
12. Organo-phosphorous/ Aldrin (Insecticide/ pesticides) etc.
13. Fishing poison (waterhole poisoning by any poison)
14. Zinc phosphoid (Rat poison). Slide 85: Example of major forensic desiplines Serology is literally the "scientific study of the blood serum." In practice, however, it usually refers to the diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum, when an infection is suspected.
Some serological tests are not limited to blood serum, but can also be performed on other bodily fluids such as semen, saliva, vomit, urine etc have (roughly) similar properties to serum.There are several serology techniques that can be used depending on the antibodies being studied.
All such anti-bodies present in serum can be analysed in forensic labs for investigation of cause of death. FORENSIC SEROLOGY FORENSIC SEROLOGY : FORENSIC SEROLOGY Detection of antibodies can be used to either diagnose
an active or previous infection, or to determine if the
individual is immune to re-infection by an organism.
Some of the different diseases that can be detected
hepatitis various types
RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus)
tularemia. Slide 87: Example of major forensic desiplines FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY Forensic entomology deals with the examination of insects in, on, and around wild animal remains to assist in determination of time or location of death. It is also possible to determine if the body was moved after death.
Study of insect on caracass give details of time of death (TOD), location of death, by study of stges of larva, pupa and maggots.TOD give many evidences in investigation of the crime. Slide 88: FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY Wildlife Forensic Lay their eggs in open wound & natural orifices.
Eggs turn in to larvae or maggot within 8 to 24 hrs in hot weather.
Maggot crawl in to external and internal part of the body and destroy sub-tissues.
Maggot become pupae in 4 to 5 days.
Pupae become adult in 3 to 5 days.
Whole life cycle takes about 11 to 14 days Maggot Other Insects House flies and Blue flies Slide 89: Wildlife Forensic FORENSIC BALLISTICS Forensic Ballistics is the science dealing with the investigation of use of firearms and ammunition.
When arms and ammunition seized, it is the forensic ballistics which can reveal the arm and ammunition used in the crime by detailed analysis of arm and fired ammunition. Example of major forensic desiplines Slide 90: Wildlife Forensic FORENSIC BALLISTICS/ INJURIES & OBJECT Example of major forensic desiplines Weapon and Injuries
Injuries and type of weapon/ object used / cause /
to impose injuries are as follows; Object Injuries
Blunt object, Lathi, Blunt force, Bruise, contusion, abrasion, vehicle etc. crushed lacerated wound.
Sharp weapon like farsa, axe, knife, Incised wound, stab, perforating, arrow etc. penetrating wounds,
Trapping / snaring Ligature, friction cut deep mark.
Gun shot Fire arm injuries.
Electrocution and burn Charring Slide 91: Wildlife Forensic FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY & OSTEOLOGY Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology,
the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be then presented in the interest of justice. Forensic Osteology is the science of
examination and evaluation
of bone of the animals, Skull of various wild cat Slide 92: Wildlife Forensic FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY & OSTEOLOGY Sex Differentiation from Pelvic bone of deer Slide 93: Wildlife Forensic FORENSIC OSTEOLOGY Study of Bones, skeleton. Skull morphology changes with age in Spotted Hyenas Slide 94: FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY
OSTEOLOGY Wildlife Forensic Tiger claw African Cheetah claw Leopard claw Slide 95: Wildlife Forensic Slide 96: Wildlife Forensic Interpretation of evidence Try to get answer of all 5 W’s W What………
W When ………
W Who ………….
W Why ……………... Slide 97: Wildlife Forensic Interpretation of Evidence Electrocution Marks – Skin charred like corn flacks.
Predominant mark to identify electrocution-
Reddishness (ecchymosis) inside skin while post-mortem confirm it. Slide 98: Wildlife Forensic Interpretation of Evidence Bullet Entry Wound – measure size, diameter
and test for bullet wound before post-mortem to confirm.
Distance, direction of bullet, range of the arm,
bullet should be preserved to identify weapon. Slide 99: Wildlife Forensic Interpretation of Evidence Neck of animal cut down, wound is ante-mortem.
Blood of live animal and dead animal can also reveal that animal was injured/ killed when alive. Cutting wound after death (post-mortem) will never show Reddishness (ecchymosis). Slide 100: Wildlife Forensic Interpretation of Evidence A post-mortem wound:
whitish wound, without reddishness in the tissues
Confirm that it is wound after death. Slide 101: Wildlife Forensic Interpretation of Evidence
Difference between Ante-mortem and Post mortem Injuries Ante-mortem and post-mortem injuries can also be judged
in cases of Burns, electrocutions, drowning and snaring. Slide 102: Interpretation of Evidence It is very important to estimate the probable time of death to link with the crime. However this subject belongs to veterinarian and he will estimate the TOD. But as an investigating officer it is also important to have a rough knowledge of this. This knowledge will help him for a quick and scientific investigation.
For example, if the suspect have entered the vicinity within 24 hrs and animal has died 48 hrs earlier, than there is no link between suspect and death of the animal. TIME OF DEATH (TOD) Slide 103: Interpretation of Evidence TIME OF DEATH (TOD) Change after death can be categorized in;
(A) Early (B) Moderate and (C) Delayed changes Changes in the eye
Changes in the skin
Cooling of the body Autolysis
After 48 Hours
Five to ten days
More than ten days
Flies (Insects) Changes in muscles
Secondary relaxation Slide 104: Interpretation of Evidence TIME OF DEATH (TOD) Early ( up to 1 hrs) Changes in the muscles. Reflexes of eyes.
Luster of cornea lost.
Opacity (clarity) reduced.
Sunken eyes. Losses elasticity.
Color of skin become pale. Changes in the skin Cooling of the body Body temperature goes down. Slide 105: Wildlife Forensic Interpretation of Evidence Typical changes occur in deer eyes at various time after death. Time in hrs and pupil diameter in mm. Slide 106: Interpretation of Evidence TIME OF DEATH (TOD) Moderate (after 1 to 3 hrs) Changes in muscular tissue (Cadaveric changes). Muscles come to relax.
Lower Jaw fall down.
Eye fixed. Rigor Mortis Death stiffening, muscle lost power of contractibility due to irreversible changes.
Developed from anterior to posterior within 12 hrs.
Next 12 hrs remain in the body then disappear in next 12 hrs. Secondary Relaxation After disappearance of rigor mortis muscles become soft & flaccid and there is no response for electric stimuli. Slide 107: Interpretation of Evidence TIME OF DEATH (TOD) Delayed Changes (after 12 to 24 hrs). Autolysis. Putrefaction.
Softening & liquidification due to digestive action of enzymes. Color Changes (18 to 48 hrs) Greening coloration of abdominal skin & distention of abdomen.
Eyeball milky and collapse.
Superficial vein become prominent & give appearance like marble.
Fowl smell. After 48 Hrs After disappearance of rigor mortis muscles become soft & flaccid and there is no response for electric stimuli. Slide 108: Interpretation of Evidence TIME OF DEATH (TOD) Delayed Changes (48 hrs). Hairs become loose and easy to pluck.
Post mortem blisters appear on the skin.
Whole feature become blotted & distorted.
Tongue protruded, eye forced out, frothy reddish fluid oozed out from mouth and nostril. Whole hairs fall down.
Body become sunken, abdomen burst, flies and beetle attack the body. Delayed Changes ( after 48 hrs, within 2 to 5 days). Delayed Changes ( 5 to 10 days & more). Sever putrefaction or collective putrefaction.
Muscles separated from bones.
After 10 days: Feature of injuries etc masked & TOD estimation is difficult Slide 109: CAUSE OF DEATH
Ascertaining why an animal died can be of great importance in a legal help.
Traditionally, medical students were taught that death was brought about by one or more of the
• Asphyxia (respiratory failure).
• Syncope (heart failure).
• Coma (brain failure).
The argument was that life depends on the integrity of the three organ systems in brackets above Slide 110: • Acute infections, e.g. anthrax, clostridial diseases.
• Trauma, e.g. damage infl icted by another animal, leading to, e.g.,
• Other physical injuries, such as a road traffic accident
• Electrocution, including lightning strike
• Poisons, organic and inorganic chemicals and plants
• Other non-infectious conditions, e.g. bloat (ruminal tympany) and
• Anaphylactic shock. The death is classified as an ‘accident’, ‘suicide’, ‘murder’ or ‘natural causes’. Such categories are clearly inappropriate to animal work: instead, anthropogenic’ and ‘natural’can be used as a starting point and further designated as necessary and appropriate. It is important to bear in mind that the cause of death is often multifactorial – (not always easy to explain in court and often open to rigorous questioning in cross-examination.) Disposal of wild animal carcass etc. : Disposal of wild animal carcass etc. All disposals should be in front of witness and under panchnama with permission of the proper authority (Director WCCB,CWW of the state or court)
Preferably by burning or burying.
Methods of disposal depend on the basis of places and the given situations.
Preserving body for research and educational purposes with permission from concern wildlife authority.
Chain of custody to be maintained. Slide 112: A Compilation & Presentation by
S.V.Sheshadri, Wildlife Inspector
WILDLIFE CRIME CONTROL BUREAU,
Western Region, Mumbai. Slide 113: THANK YOU