Restrain and Immobilization of wild animals : Restrain and Immobilization of wild animals Dr. Tripathi Sanjay
Veermata Jijabai Udyan- Zoo
Byculla , Mumbai Introduction : Introduction Prehistoric times
Bow and arrow.
Morphine : 1st drug to be used
for anaesthetic effect.
1st synthetic opiod for
animal capture: Fentanyl (1980-81) Indications : Indications Natural Habitat:
Rescue, Wild beast
Transfer within Zoos
Semen Collection, Sterilization
Rehabilitate into wild
Administration of drugs
Wound dressing Management of Fractures
Reproduction Capture Methods : Capture Methods Physical method
Chemical immobilization Capture Methods : Capture Methods Physical method
Approach with confidence
Well informed about the
Anatomy and physiology.
Sufficient Man power
Blindfold whenever possible.
Confinement- squeeze cages. Physical method : Physical method Towel - birds, young ones
Bags - cats
Snares - wild pigs, foxes, wolves
Nets – can be used for wide range of species.
Gloves- small sized animals.
Capture cages Towels / Blindfolds : Towels / Blindfolds Capture cage with bait : Capture cage with bait Squeeze cages : Squeeze cages Chemical restraint : Chemical restraint Oral medications
Administered through feed
Hand held syringes
Projected syringes /darts
Guns (Palmar projectors)
Pistol (Short-range projector)
Rifle (Long range projector)
Blow pipes Dart gun : Dart gun Dart syringe : Dart syringe Ideal Anesthetic drug : Ideal Anesthetic drug Recovery: safe
Therapeutic index: high
Drug Dose: small volume
Effect: non irritating
System : easy to use
Antidote : easily available Failure of immobilization procedure : Failure of immobilization procedure Equipment failure
Improper loading of syringe
Presence of air in the drug chamber
Missing the target.
Not properly lubricated equipment
Needles – not proper
Weather Immobilizing agents : Immobilizing agents Etorphine (M99) : Etorphine (M99) It is a synthetic derivative of one of the opium alkaloids (thebaine).
It is considered to be the most versatile agent for chemical immobilization of wild mammals.
It has up to 10,000 times the analgesic potency of morphine sulphate.
Side effects in artiodactylids:-
Temporary loss of visual accommodation,
Elevated blood pressure
Depression of respiratory and cough centers
Cessation of ruminal movements
Dosage – 1 mg / 100 – 1000kg bwt.
Low doses of etorphine will produce anxiety during injection
Immobilon- Etorphine 2.45mg + 10 mg Acepromazine per ml
Antidote: Diprenorphine (M50-50): Standard dose is double the amount of injected etorphine. Fentanyl : Fentanyl It is 180 times more potent than morphine as an analgesic
Used in combination with Droperidol
Effective within 10-15 minutes
Species when immobilized remain in standing position.
This effect is useful especially when the animal needs to be placed into crates directly for transportation.
Antidote: Naloxone Hcl @ 0.006 mg/kg IV or IM. Carfentanil citrate : Carfentanil citrate It is the most potent synthetic opioid drug with morphine like mode of action.
Produces rapid immobilization.
Antidote: Naltrexone or nalmefene i/v at 50 times of the carfentanil dose.
Renarcotization is encountered in certain species. Ketamine : Ketamine Ketamine and Xylazine ration for Deer and antelopes : 1:1.25 to 1:1.
The normal pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes stay precluding any chances of aspiration of food contents into respiratory tract avoiding choking/aspiration pneumonia.
In captive carnivores, non-human primates and reptiles the drug is either used alone or used in combination with xylazine.
Ketamine crosses placenta in all species and may cause sedation of foetus.
Hence used in combination with xylazine Hcl for managing the dystocia , undertaking Caesarian operation and sterilization in male deer and small antelopes. Ketamine : Ketamine Demerits:
It dose not produce muscle relaxation which is desirable in intractable deer and antelopes. Therefore used with acepromazine / xylazine.
Leads to paddling movements, myoclonia and prolonged recovery
It causes catatonic hyperthermia and is very risky if seizures become manifested.
Causes convulsions, hence given with Diazepam @ 0.25-0.5 mg/kg
Antidote: Yohimbine @ 0.125 mg/kg Tiletamine and Zolazepam : Tiletamine and Zolazepam Tiletamine is related to ketamine.
Tiletamine alone causes analgesia, cataleptoid anesthesia and convulsions in some animals.
The combination with zolazepam reduces these effects.
Antidote: Not available. Xylazine Hcl : Xylazine Hcl It is used as a sedative, analgesic and central muscle relaxant.
It is used extensively used alone or in combination with ketamine or Etorphine to immobilize cervids and bovids.
Induction time in artiodactlids with xylazine and ketamine on intramuscular injection generally ranges from 3 to 15 minutes with peak effect for 15 to 60 minutes.
Alone causes vomiting in felids and canids.
In chitals and black bucks if immobilized after feeding, bloat and regurgitation of stomach contents may take place causing aspiration puemonia.
Antidote: Yohimbine Hcl @ 0.125 mg/ kg i/v antagonises the sedation and immobilization effects of xylazine Hcl and restores the normal condition within 10-15 minutes.
It eliminates the risk of post xylazine complications such as bloat & staggering (in deer). Medetomidine: : Medetomidine: Action similar to xylazine but with 10 times the selectivity and 200 times the affinity of xylazine for the alpha receptor sites.
Used @ 15-30 ug/kg + Ketamine @5-10 mg/kg
Produces good anaesthesia in canine and feline species and in ruminants.
Onset of effects is in 10-15 minutes
Complete recovery occurs in about 60 to 90 minutes.
Antidote: Yohimbine @ 0.125 mg/kg i/v
Atipamazole @ 0.10 mg/kg i/v Acepromazine Maleate : Acepromazine Maleate Depresses CNS.
Used in combination with ketamine or Etorphine.
Can be used I/M, I/V and S/c. Diazepam : Diazepam Induces calmness.
Develops transient ataxia.
Can be administered orally, I/M and I/V
Dosage : 0.5-1.5 mg/kg
I/M effect seen within 15-30 minutes. Protocols for carrying out restrain and immobilization: : Protocols for carrying out restrain and immobilization: : Area:
Enclosure should be away from the public.
Enclosure should not have any obstacles for the operator aiming to dart the subject.
Do not carrying immobilization of animals near water bodies.
Tranquilized animal should be lifted and crated immediately.
Blindfold necessary. : Operator:
Should calculate the dose in relation to age, body weight, and health of animal.
In sufficient force will cause the dart to fall it reaches the target.
If impact is not sufficient, the needle may not penetrate the skin completely and dart may fail to discharge the contents.
Aiming a particular animal in herd is not easy. Needs to isolate the animal to avoid the risk of hitting other animals.
After darting the animal the operator should move out from its sight but keep a watch over the darted animal without making his presence felt by the darted animals as well as its companions. Protocols for carrying out restrain and immobilization: : Protocols for carrying out restrain and immobilization: Timings:
Immobilization should be carried out in the early afternoon.
Any tranqulization operation in the evening or night is not ethical.
Climatic conditions like wind of high velocity affects the flight of dart. Restraint and handling of Artiodactylids (deer , antelopes and all hoofed animals) : Restraint and handling of Artiodactylids (deer , antelopes and all hoofed animals) No immobilization at dusk
Immediately shift tranquilized animal
If 1st dose dose not achieve desired result do not tranquilize further Restraint and handling of Artiodactylids (deer & antelopes and all hoofed animals) : Restraint and handling of Artiodactylids (deer & antelopes and all hoofed animals) Animal should be in lateral recumbancy on even surface
Avoid tranquilization near water bodies
Avoid tranquilizing deers with velvet
antlers Restraint and handling in carnivores : Restraint and handling in carnivores Animal should be seperated from group and tranquilized in separate area
Do not tranquilize if animal is with offspring or is mating, lactating or sitting on an elevated portion
Do not tranquilize in drastic climatic conditions
Check tranquilization status of animal before appraoching Restraint and handling in carnivores : Restraint and handling in carnivores Moniter all biological parameters
Recovery should be in an dark area
Do not feed animal until complete recovery
Antidote may be given I/M if veins not approachable Restraint and handling in primates : Restraint and handling in primates Do not tranquilize if sitting high on trees (exception in retrieving escaped animal)
Use automated trap cages with bait to capture Restraint and handling of perisodactylids(equids, and rhinos) : Restraint and handling of perisodactylids(equids, and rhinos) Capture of equids is dangerous without sedation
Higher temperature conditions causes hyperthermia
Captured myopathy is common
Rhinos: Position immobilzed rhino in sternal recumbancy Rhinos will remain in standing position for prolonged periods Restraint and handling Proboscidae(Elephants) : Restraint and handling Proboscidae(Elephants) Sedation for smaller procedures
Inadequate dose may lead to excitation
Do not leave animal in sternal recumbancy for more than 20 minutes Elephant : Elephant Recommended right lateral recumbancy
Cannot breath easily through mouth, hence keep trunk open
Do not disturb while sedation
DOC: Etorphine @1 mg/450 kg bd wt Restraint and handling Reptiles(Turtles and tortoise) : Restraint and handling Reptiles(Turtles and tortoise) Easily handled
Do not flip upside down
Covering eyes will calm the animal
Recommended sedative/anesthetic – Diazepam (0.2 to 1 mg/kg) along with Ketamine
(5 to 50 mg/kg),
Xylazine (0.5 to 1 mg/kg) Crocodilians : Crocodilians Up to 1 meter size – Manually – One hand around dorsal neck other hand securing rear leg.
> 1 meter – 2 persons required. > 2 meters – chemical restrain safest.
Blind fold diminishes resistance.
Wrapping both pair of limbs
Backboard if anesthetized –
to avoid spine contortion Crocodilians : Crocodilians Chemical restrain- Ketamine (@ 20 – 50 mg/kg)
(@0.1 – 1.0 mg/kg)
Telazol (@1-2mg/kg) – prolong recovery
Anaesthesia recovery at temperature of 32-34°C General rules for handling and restraining birds : General rules for handling and restraining birds Method of capture depends on the size and species of bird.
The goal of capture is to gain control of the bird without injury to the bird or to the handler.
Birds can be blinfolded.
Birds can be netted.
Bird feet should be held firmly
Birds with long and large beaks should be restrained by holding their beak, followed by their wings and body. Birds : Birds Small Birds Large Birds Can be restrained by placing the bird's head between the second and third finger and cover the rest of the body with the rest of the hand in a claw like fashion Cover the bird with the towel
use the thumb and middle finger at about ear level and the index finger should go over the head like a helmet. Lift the bird up and wrap towel around its body. The towel should be at the bird's mouth level giving it something to chew on Handling/restraining storks /water birds : Handling/restraining storks /water birds Birds with long bills and long slender legs should be handled carefully.
A blunt object like cork can be placed over the tip of the bill or the bill can be tapped.
A shield can be used when handling aggressive birds. Handling and restraining emus : Handling and restraining emus Small chicks can be supported under
the body and the legs can be folded or left hanging.
Emus are docile birds but they should be approached very carefully.
Best restrained by standing behind them and holding across chest or wings.
Birds can be held down if applied pressure on the back.
Emus when aroused can kick the person approaching them. Textbooks : : Textbooks : Zoo and wild animal medicine – by Fowler & Miller, 5th edition, Saunders Pub, 2003
Restraint and Translocation of wild mammals- by B.M. Arora, CZA, 1999. Slide 47: Thank You
for your kind attention