Drugs for Muscle Spasm and Spasticity na

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Drugs for Muscle Spasm and Spasticity : 

Drugs for Muscle Spasm and Spasticity Neuro.

Objectives : 

Objectives Discuss some basic differences between localized skeletal muscle spasm and spasticity (etiology, manifestations, primary and adjunctive treatments). Explain the basic differences, in terms of sites/mechanisms of action, between centrally acting muscle relaxants, baclofen, and dantrolene, and state how these different mechanisms and sites of action relate to the drugs’ clinical uses.

Drugs for Muscle Spasm and Spasticity : 

Drugs for Muscle Spasm and Spasticity Muscle spasm: involuntary contraction of muscle or muscle group Causes Epilepsy Hypocalcemia Pain syndromes: adult and chronic Trauma Neuro.

Drug Therapy of Muscle Spasm : 

Drug Therapy of Muscle Spasm Treatment of spasm Analgesic anti-inflammatory (aspirin) Centrally acting muscle relaxants Diazepam Tizanidine Neuro.

Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxants : 

Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxants Mechanism Through inhibition of presynaptic motor neurons Diazepam Through enhancing effects of GABA Tizanidine Through agonist action at presynaptic alpha2 receptors Neuro.

Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxants : 

Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxants Therapeutic use Relieve local muscle spasm Decrease local muscle pain Increase range of motion Adverse effects CNS depression Hepatic toxicity Physical dependence Neuro.

Drugs for Spasticity : 

Drugs for Spasticity Spasticity Movement disorders of CNS origin Most common causes are multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy Characteristics include Heightened muscle tone Spasm Loss of dexterity Neuro.

Drugs for Spasticity : 

Drugs for Spasticity Baclofen [Lioresal] – Acts in the CNS Diazepam [Valium] Acts in the CNS Dantrolene [Dantrium] Acts directly on smooth muscle Neuro.

Baclofen [Lioresal] : 

Baclofen [Lioresal] Acts in the spinal cord Suppresses hyperactive reflexes Mechanism unknown May mimic the action of GABA on spinal neurons Decreases flexor and extensor spasms Suppresses resistance to passive movement No direct effect on skeletal muscle Neuro.

Baclofen : 

Baclofen Adverse effects No antidote for overdose Gradual withdrawal over 1 to 2 weeks CNS depressant GI symptoms (nausea, constipation) Urinary retention Neuro.

Diazepam [Valium] : 

Diazepam [Valium] Acts in the CNS Mimics action of GABA Adverse effect – Sedation Neuro.

Dantrolene [Dantrium] : 

Dantrolene [Dantrium] Acts directly on skeletal muscle Suppresses the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Uses Spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury Malignant hyperthermia Neuro.

Dantrolene (Dantrium) : 

Dantrolene (Dantrium) Adverse effects Hepatic toxicity Muscle weakness Drowsiness Diarrhea Acne-like rash Neuro.

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