Environmental Hazards and Human Health

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Environmental Hazards and Human Health : 

Environmental Hazards and Human Health Chapter 14

Core Case Study: HIV/AIDS (1) : 

Core Case Study: HIV/AIDS (1) Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Mode of transmittance Exponential increase of infection worldwide

Core Case Study: HIV/AIDS (2) : 

Core Case Study: HIV/AIDS (2) No vaccine for HIV No cure for AIDS

Kaposi’s Sarcoma : 

Kaposi’s Sarcoma Fig. 14-1, p. 323

Impact of AIDS on the Age Structure of Botswana, Africa : 

Impact of AIDS on the Age Structure of Botswana, Africa Fig. 14-2, p. 323

14-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face? : 

14-1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face? Concept 14-1 People face health hazards from biological, chemical, physical, and cultural factors and from the choices they make in their lifestyles.

Risk and Hazards : 

Risk and Hazards Risk Probability Possibility Risk assessment Risk management

Risk Assessment and Risk Management : 

Risk Assessment and Risk Management Fig. 14-3, p. 324

Major Types of Hazards : 

Major Types of Hazards Biological Chemical Physical Cultural Lifestyle

14-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face? : 

14-2 What Types of Biological Hazards Do We Face? Concept 14-2 In terms of death rates, the most serious infectious diseases are flu, AIDS, diarrhea, and malaria, with most of these deaths occurring in developing countries.

Biological Hazards (1) : 

Biological Hazards (1) Nontransmissible diseases Transmissible (infectious) disease Pathogens Epidemic Pandemic

Biological Hazards (2) : 

Biological Hazards (2) Good news Bad news

Pathways for Infectious Diseasein Humans : 

Pathways for Infectious Diseasein Humans

Slide 14: 

Fig. 14-4, p. 326 Fetus and babies Air Water Food Insects Wild animals Livestock Pets Humans Other humans

Slide 15: 

Fig. 14-4, p. 326 Stepped Art

World’s Seven Deadliest Infectious Diseases : 

World’s Seven Deadliest Infectious Diseases

Slide 17: 

Fig. 14-5, p. 326 Measles (virus) Hepatitis B (virus) Tuberculosis (bacteria) Malaria (protozoa) Diarrheal diseases (bacteria and viruses) HIV/AIDS (virus) Pneumonia and flu (bacteria and viruses) Disease (type of agent) Deaths per year 3.2 million 3.0 million 2.1 million 2.0 million 1.6 million 1 million 800,000

Science Focus: Growing Resistanceto Antibiotics : 

Science Focus: Growing Resistanceto Antibiotics High bacterial reproductive rate Genetic resistance Global travel Use of pesticides Overuse of antibiotics

Global Threats from Disease : 

Global Threats from Disease Tuberculosis Viral diseases Malaria

Distribution of Malaria : 

Distribution of Malaria Fig. 14-6, p. 329

The Life Cycle of Malaria : 

The Life Cycle of Malaria

Slide 22: 

Fig. 14-7, p. 329 Merozoites enter bloodstream and develop into gametocytes causing malaria and making infected person a new reservoir Sporozoites penetrate liver and develop into merozoites Female mosquito injects Plasmodium sporozoites into human host. Plasmodium develop in mosquito Female mosquito bites infected human, ingesting blood that contains Plasmodium gametocytes

Slide 23: 

Sporozoites penetrate liver and develop into merozoites Female mosquito bites infected human, ingesting blood that contains Plasmodium gametocytes Merozoites enter blood-stream and develop into gametocytes causing malaria and making infected person a new reservoir Female mosquito injects Plasmodium sporozoites into human host Plasmodium develops in mosquito Fig. 14-7, p. 329 Stepped Art

Ecological Medicine : 

Ecological Medicine Zoonotic diseases Ecological (conservation) medicine Human actions encourage spread of disease Clear-cutting and fragmentation Harvesting animals Global trade and travel Trade in wild species

Science Focus: A Nightmare Flu Scenario : 

Science Focus: A Nightmare Flu Scenario Common flu Potent varieties of flu virus Spanish flu of 1918 Future pandemics Animals as reservoirs for flu virus H5N1 avian flu virus (bird flu)

Preventing or Reducing the Incidence of Infectious Diseases : 

Preventing or Reducing the Incidence of Infectious Diseases Fig. 14-8, p. 331

14-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face? : 

14-3 What Types of Chemical Hazards Do We Face? Concept 14-3 There is growing concern about chemicals that can cause cancer and disrupt the human immune, nervous, and endocrine systems.

Chemical Hazards (1) : 

Chemical Hazards (1) Toxic chemicals Hazardous chemicals Mutagens Teratogens Carcinogens

Chemical Hazards (2) : 

Chemical Hazards (2) Metastasis Immune system Neurotoxins Hormonally active agents (HAA) DDT, PCBs, atrazine, aluminum, mercury, bisphenol-A

14-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards? : 

14-4 How Can We Evaluate Chemical Hazards? Concept 14-4A Any synthetic or natural chemical can be harmful if ingested in a large enough quantity. Concept 14-4B Many health scientists call for much greater emphasis on pollution prevention to reduce our exposure to potentially harmful chemicals.

Determining Chemical Safety (1) : 

Determining Chemical Safety (1) Toxicology Toxicity Dose Relevance of genetic makeup Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)

Determining Chemical Safety (2) : 

Determining Chemical Safety (2) Water and fat soluble toxins Persistence Bioaccumulation Biomagnification Chemical interactions

Type and Severity of Health Damage : 

Type and Severity of Health Damage Response – dose dependent Acute Chronic Mechanisms which reduce harmful effects Age-related effects Effects of trace levels of toxic chemicals

Estimating Human Exposure to Chemicals and Their Effect : 

Estimating Human Exposure to Chemicals and Their Effect

Slide 35: 

Fig. 14-9, p. 335 Predicted level of toxicant in people Metabolism Accumulation Excretion Lung, intestine, and skin absorption rates Genetic predisposition Personal habits Lifestyle Overall health Nutritional health Food pesticide levels Soil/dust levels Water pollutant levels Air pollutant levels

Potentially Harmful Chemicals Foundin Homes : 

Potentially Harmful Chemicals Foundin Homes

Slide 37: 

Fig. 14-10, p. 336 Tennis shoes Can contain phthalates Toys Vinyl toys contain phthalates Computer Flame retardant coatings of plastic casing and wiring Water bottle Can contain bisphenol-A Fruit Imported fruit may contain pesticides banned in the U.S. Sofa Foam padding contains flame retardants and perfluorochemicals TV Wiring and plastic casing contain flame retardants Carpet Padding and carpet fibers contain flame retardants, perfluorochemicals, and pesticides Mattress Flame retardants in stuffing Baby bottle Can contain bisphenol-A Clothing Can contain perfluorochemicals Teddy bear Some stuffed animals made oversees contain flame retardants and/or pesticides Shampoo Perfluorochemicals to add shine Nail polish Perfluorochemicals and phthalates Perfume Phthalates Hairspray Phthalates Food Some food contains bisphenol-A Milk Fat contains dioxins and flame retardants Frying pan Nonstick coating contains perfluorochemicals Tile floor Nonstick coating contains perfluorochemicals, phthalates, and pesticides

Protection against Harmful Chemicals : 

Protection against Harmful Chemicals Pollution protection Precautionary principle Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) The dirty dozen Can we have a risk-free society?

14-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them? : 

14-5 How Do We Perceive Risks and How Can We Avoid the Worst of Them? Concept 14-5 We can reduce the major risks we face by becoming informed, thinking critically about risks, and making careful choices.

Evaluating Risks (1) : 

Evaluating Risks (1) Risk analysis (risk assessment) Comparative risk analysis Risk management Risk communication

Evaluating Risks (2) : 

Evaluating Risks (2) Poverty – the greatest risk Risks from lifestyles

Number of Deaths Per Year in the World : 

Number of Deaths Per Year in the World

Slide 43: 

Fig. 14-11, p. 338 Measles Hepatitis B Work-related injury and disease Automobile accidents Tuberculosis Diarrhea Malaria HIV/AIDS Air pollution Pneumonia and flu Tobacco Poverty/ malnutrition/ disease cycle Cause of death Annual deaths 11 million (150) 5.4 million (74) 3.2 million (44) 3 million (41) 3 million (41) 2 million (27) 1.9 million (26) 1.6 million (22) 1.2 million (16) 1.1 million (15) 1 million (14) 800,000 (11)

Comparison of Risks in the United States : 

Comparison of Risks in the United States Fig. 14-12, p. 339

Comparative Risk Analysis : 

Comparative Risk Analysis Fig. 14-13, p. 340

Annual Deaths in the United States from Tobacco Use and Other Causes in 2004 : 

Annual Deaths in the United States from Tobacco Use and Other Causes in 2004

Slide 47: 

Fig. 14-14, p. 340 Cause of Death Deaths 442,000 101,500 (43,450 auto) 85,000 75,000 (16,000 from AIDS) 55,000 30,600 20,622 17,000 Illegal drug use Homicides Suicides Pollutants/toxins Infectious diseases Alcohol use Accidents Tobacco use

Estimating Risks from Technologies : 

Estimating Risks from Technologies System reliability (%) = Technological reliability + Human reliability Difficulties in estimating reliability Perceived risk vs. actual risk

Improving Risk Evaluation : 

Improving Risk Evaluation Carefully evaluate news reports Compare risks Concentrate on most serious risks

Animation: HIV Replication : 

Animation: HIV Replication PLAY ANIMATION

Animation: Life Cycle of Plasmodium : 

Animation: Life Cycle of Plasmodium PLAY ANIMATION

Animation: Formation of Photochemical Smog : 

Animation: Formation of Photochemical Smog PLAY ANIMATION

Animation: Thermal Invasion and Smog : 

Animation: Thermal Invasion and Smog PLAY ANIMATION

Animation: Positron-Emission Tomography : 

Animation: Positron-Emission Tomography PLAY ANIMATION

Video: To See Again : 

Video: To See Again PLAY VIDEO

Video: New Nerves : 

Video: New Nerves PLAY VIDEO

Video: Fat Man Walking : 

Video: Fat Man Walking PLAY VIDEO

Video: Second-Chance Heart : 

Video: Second-Chance Heart PLAY VIDEO

Video: Regenerative Human Organs : 

Video: Regenerative Human Organs PLAY VIDEO

Video: The Problem with Pork : 

Video: The Problem with Pork PLAY VIDEO

Video: Polio Scare : 

Video: Polio Scare PLAY VIDEO

Video: AIDS Conference in Brazil : 

Video: AIDS Conference in Brazil PLAY VIDEO

Video: Bird Flu : 

Video: Bird Flu PLAY VIDEO

Video: Beach Pollution : 

Video: Beach Pollution PLAY VIDEO

Video: Food Allergy Increase : 

Video: Food Allergy Increase PLAY VIDEO

Video: World AIDS Day : 

Video: World AIDS Day PLAY VIDEO

Video: Clean Air Act : 

Video: Clean Air Act PLAY VIDEO

Video: MTBE Pollution : 

Video: MTBE Pollution PLAY VIDEO

Video: U.S. Earth Summit : 

Video: U.S. Earth Summit PLAY VIDEO

Video: Frogs Galore : 

Video: Frogs Galore PLAY VIDEO

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