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Nguyen Truong Thinh Department of Mechatronics Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Ho Chi Minh city University of Technical Engineering Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Contents : Contents Fundamentals Robot Kinematics : Position Analysis Motion & Velocity Analysis Dynamic Analysis and Forces Path & Trajectory Planning Actuators Sensors Robot Systems Target of the lecture : Target of the lecture Knowledge of Robot System in General Main Reference Material:  Saeed B. Niku, Introduction to Robotics: Analysis, Systems, Applications, Pearson Education Other references  John J. Craig, Introduction to Robotics: mechanics and control, Addison-Wesley Pub. Co Grading Policy : Grading Policy Quiz 10% Midterm Exam 20% Final Exam 30% Term project 40% If you are interested in Robotics Research at all, it is worth Coming to talk to me ! History of Robots : History of Robots PhD. Nguyen Truong Thinh Department of Mechatronics Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Ho Chi Minh city University of Technical Engineering Email: email@example.com Hercules machine kills dragon : Hercules machine kills dragon Slide 7: Ebul-˙Iz Al-Jazari’s original robotic drawing is presented in Figure. It works with water power through right and left nozzles, as in the figure, and accordingly the right and left hands of the human figure on the elephant move up and down. Jacques de Vaucanson’s DIGESTING DUCK : Jacques de Vaucanson’s DIGESTING DUCK Dabbling through water Quacking Drinking Picking its Grain Digesting The young writer (robot thư ký) : The young writer (robot thư ký) Edward S. Ellis’s Story : STEAM MAN : Edward S. Ellis’s Story : STEAM MAN Tabloid Story in American Magazine In 1865 Steam-powered automation Walk on two legs Anticipate more sophisticated robotic concept for 20th Century Thomas Edison’s Talking Doll EVE : Thomas Edison’s Talking Doll EVE In 1890 Equipped with his newly invented Phonograph in its chest Karl Capek’s ROBOTA : Karl Capek’s ROBOTA Czech Writer Play “ Rossum’s Universal Robots (R.U.R.)” In 1920 Robota means “work” Synthetic body with organ, skin, blood vessel and bone. Sensibilities are human They were Slave and soon rose in revolt German Film Metropolis : Robot HEL : German Film Metropolis : Robot HEL Humanoid Robot in Film in 1927 Director Fritz Lang Robot HEL was shaped from working class girl Maria Hexapod Six-Legged Robot : Hexapod Six-Legged Robot Japanese hexapod : Japanese hexapod Another Hexapod : Another Hexapod ABB IRB6600 Robot : ABB IRB6600 Robot Sex dolls ? Robot ? : Sex dolls ? Robot ? Retail prices $6,000-$7,000 A Doll No Mori “escort” in Tokyo cost around $100 per hour “People will be having sex with robots within five years.” Henrik Christensen (2006) SANTA CLAUS ROBOT : SANTA CLAUS ROBOT EMIEW 2 (Hitachi-2008)(Excellent Mobility and Interactive Existence as Workmate) : EMIEW 2 (Hitachi-2008)(Excellent Mobility and Interactive Existence as Workmate) Robot này cao 80 cm và chỉ nặng 13 kg, đây là robot cộng sinh có thể làm nhiệm vụ hổ trợ, phục vụ con người, cũng như có thể sử dụng làm tiếp tân, hướng dẫn viên kết hợp với nhiệm vụ bảo vệ an ninh hoặc có thể mang giấy tờ, nước uống phục vụ cho con người. Robot có thể di chuyển trên 2 chân hoặc có thể chuyển đổi sang di chuyển bằng bánh với các chế độ khác nhau cho phù hợp với yêu cầu và tốc độ di chuyển: có thể di chuyển trên 2 chân hoặc di chuyển đồng thời trên 2 hoặc 4 bánh để đảm bảo độ ổn định cho robot. Với các cảm biến laser gắn ở phía trước và cảm biến hồng ngoại gắn ở dưới chân giúp Robot có khả năng tránh vật cản cũng như định vị trong môi trường phức tạp. MEDICAL MINI ROBOT : MEDICAL MINI ROBOT Size : D 10 mm x L 20 mm Weight : 5 g TOOL : Camera, Sensor, Drug Delivery injector Insertion through incision Data to PC through slim cable RITSUMEIKAN UNIVERSITY SKYWASH : World’s Biggest Robot : SKYWASH : World’s Biggest Robot http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=05jaYiWTEK4 Humanoid Robot : HUBO : Humanoid Robot : HUBO Humanoid Robot : HUBO : Humanoid Robot : HUBO CCD Camera Battery Inertia Sensor Hand Force/Torque Sensor Inclination Sensor 2 Cameras, separate movement 90 min Tilting Sensing 5 Separate Fingers Reaction force from Bottom http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=haEyC_ZWUOo FUEL CELL-POWERED BIPEDAL ROBOT :SPEEDYS-FC : FUEL CELL-POWERED BIPEDAL ROBOT :SPEEDYS-FC Price : US $ 24,000 19 Joints - 6 Leg joints x 2 - 3 Arm joints x 2 - Upper body rotation H : 50 cm Weight : 4.2 Kg Wireless LAN Fuel Cell : Hydrogen as fuel source - 9.6 V/25 W - 3A (peak 5A) - Stack 105 g - Storage : 1.6 L NiMH Battery 20 C 21 C : 20 C 21 C Nuclear Biological Chemical Genetics Nanotech. Robotics Fundamentals : Fundamentals PhD. Nguyen Truong Thinh Department of Mechatronics Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Ho Chi Minh city University of Technical Engineering Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Definition : Industrial Robot [ISO 8373] : Definition : Industrial Robot [ISO 8373] An automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose Manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications Reprogrammable : whose programmed motions or auxiliary functions may be changed without physical alterations Multipurpose : capable of being adapted to a different applications Physical alterations : alteration of the mechanical structure or control system except for changes of programming cassettes, ROMs, etc Axis : direction used to specify the robot motion in a linear or rotary mode Definition : Service Robot : Definition : Service Robot A robot which operates semi- or fully autonomously to perform p services useful to the well-being of humans and equipment, excluding manufacturing operations Motion : Motion Planar (two-dimensional, Plane) motion Spatial(three-dimensional) motion : up to 3 Translations & 3 Rotations Translations: x, y, z Rotations : α,, Rigid body : Elastic Modulus [E] = ∞ Elastic Body : Elastic Modulus [E] < ∞ Kinematic Pair : Kinematic Pair A joint which is formed by the contact between two bodies and allows relative motion between them Classification : Classification Humanoid Robot : HUBO : Humanoid Robot : HUBO Robot Coordinates : Robot Coordinates Cartesian/rectangular/gantry (3P) : 3 cylinders joint Cylindrical (R2P) : 2 Prismatic joint and 1 revolute joint Spherical (2RP) : 1 Prismatic joint and 2 revolute joint Articulated/anthropomorphic (3R) : All revolute(Human arm) Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm (SCARA): 2 paralleled revolute joint and 1 additional prismatic joint Robot Reference Frames : Robot Reference Frames Robot Kinematics : Robot Kinematics Construction Form of Industrial Robots : Construction Form of Industrial Robots Cartesian & Portal Robot Vertically Articulated Robot Horizontally Articulated Robot Cartesian & Portal Robot : Cartesian & Portal Robot Move in Cartesian coordinate Sys w/o coordinate transformation possible No big burden on spatial shift for programmer Stiff structure : Possible big work volume Big collision room Big construction surface Slow work speed Clearance in axis feed Work volume in robot dimension Applications: Palletizing and Construction work Articulated manipulator (RRR) : Articulated manipulator (RRR) Slide 40: Structure of the elbow manipulator. Workspace of the elbow manipulator. Spherical Manipulator (RRP) : Spherical Manipulator (RRP) SCARA Manipulator (RRP) : SCARA Manipulator (RRP) Cylindrical Manipulator (RPP) : Cylindrical Manipulator (RPP) Cartesian manipulator (PPP) : Cartesian manipulator (PPP) SPHERICAL ROBOT : SPHERICAL ROBOT Cylindrical Robot Vertically Articulated Robot : Vertically Articulated Robot Small collision volume Wrap-around gripping possible from obstacle Burden on actuators through weight compensation Applications: Painting, Surface treatment, Spot/Arc welding, Workpiece handling, Machining Horizontally Articulated Robot : Horizontally Articulated Robot Characteristic of Assembly light workpiece weight, very short tact time, high positional accuracy, small work volume SCARA : Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm 2-3 rotational DOFs and 1 vertical linear axis High stiffness in vertical direction On influence of robot weight on axis High speed/move Applications : Assembly, Joint, Soldering Comparisons : Comparisons Classification of Robots JARA (JApanese Robot Association) : Classification of Robots JARA (JApanese Robot Association) Class1: Manual-Handling Device Class2: Fixed Sequence Robot Class3: Variable Sequence Robot Class4: Playback Robot Class5: Numerical Control Robot Class6: Intelligent Robot Classification of Robots RIA (Robotics Institute of America) : Classification of Robots RIA (Robotics Institute of America) Variable Sequence Robot(Class3) Playback Robot(Class4) Numerical Control Robot(Class5) Intelligent Robot(Class6) Classification of RobotsAFR (Association FranÇaise de Robotique) : Classification of RobotsAFR (Association FranÇaise de Robotique) Type A: Manual Handling Devices/ telerobotics Type B: Automatic Handling Devices/ predetermined cycles Type C: Programmable, Servo controlled robot, continuous point-to-point trajectories Type D: Same type with C, but it can acquire information. History of Robotics : History of Robotics 1922: Karel Čapek’s novel, Rossum’s Universal Robots, word “Robota” (worker) 1952: NC machine (MIT) 1955: Denavit-Hartenberg Homogeneous Transformation 1967: Mark II (Unimation Inc.) 1968: Shakey (SRI) - intelligent robot 1973: T3 (Cincinnati Milacron Inc.) 1978: PUMA (Unimation Inc.) 1983: Robotics Courses 21C: Walking Robots, Mobile Robots, Humanoid Robots Advantages of Robots : Advantages of Robots Robots increase productivity, safety, efficiency, quality, and consistency of products. Robots can work in hazardous environments without the need. Robots need no environmental comfort. Robots work continuously without experiencing fatigue of problem. Robots have repeatable precision at all times. Robots can be much more accurate than human. Robots replace human workers creating economic problems. Robots can process multiple stimuli or tasks simultaneously Disadvantages of Robots : Disadvantages of Robots Robots lack capability to respond in emergencies. Robots, although superior in certain senses, have limited capabilities in Degree of freedom, Dexterity, Sensor, Vision system, real time response. Robots are costly, due to Initial cost of equipment, Installation costs, Need for Peripherals, Need for training, Need for programming. Robot Components : Robot Components Manipulator : Main body of robot (Links, Joints, etc) End Effector: The part connected to the last joint(hand) of a manipulator Actuators: Muscles of the manipulators (servomotor, stepper motor, pneumatic and hydraulic cylinder) Sensors: To collect information about the internal state of the robot or to communicate with the outside environment Controller: Similar to cerebellum. It controls and coordinates the motion of the actuators. Processor: The brain of the robot. It calculates the motions and the velocity of the robot’s joints. Software: Operating system, robotic software and the collection of routines. Robot Degree of Freedom : Robot Degree of Freedom 1 D.O.F. 2 D.O.F. 3 D.O.F. Robot Joints : Robot Joints Prismatic Joint: Linear, No rotation involved. Revolute Joint: Rotary, (electrically driven with stepper motor, servo motor) Characteristics of Robot : Characteristics of Robot Programming Modes Physical Setup: PLC Lead Through/ Teach Mode: Teaching Pendant/ Playback, p-to-p Continuous Walk-Through Mode: Simultaneous joint-movement Software Mode: Use of feedback information Robot Characteristics Payload: Fanuc Robotics LR Mate™ (6.6/ 86 lbs), M- 16i ™(35/ 594 lbs) Reach: The maximum distance a robot can reach within its work envelope. Precision (validity): defined as how accurately a specified point can be reached… 0.001 inch or better. Repeatability (variability): how accurately the same position can be reached if the motion is repeated many times. Robot Languages : Robot Languages Microcomputer Machine Language Level: the most basic and very efficient but difficult to understand to follow. Point-to-Point Level: Funky® Cincinnati Milacron’s T3©, It lacks branching, sensory information. Primitive Motion Level: VAL by Unimation™ Interpreter based language. Structured Programming Level: This is a compiler based but more difficult to learn. Task-Oriented Level: Not exist yet and proposed IBM in the 1980s. Robot Applications : Robot Applications Robot Kinematics : Robot Kinematics Position Analysis Robot Link & Joint : Robot Link & Joint 2.1 INTRODUCTION : 2.1 INTRODUCTION Forward Kinematics: to determine where the robot’s hand is? (If all joint variables are known) Inverse Kinematics: to calculate what each joint variable is? (If the hand is located at a particular point) 2.2 ROBOTS AS MECHANISM : 2.2 ROBOTS AS MECHANISM Multiple type robot have multiple DOF. (3 Dimensional, open loop, chain mechanisms) A one-degree-of-freedom closed-loop four-bar mechanism (a) Closed-loop versus (b) open-loop mechanism 2.3 MATRIX REPRESENTATION : 2.3 MATRIX REPRESENTATION 2.3.1 Representation of a Point in Space A point P in space : 3 coordinates relative to a reference frame Fig. 2.3 Representation of a point in space Slide 66: 2.3.2 Representation of a Vector in Space A Vector P in space : 3 coordinates of its tail and of its head Fig. 2.4 Representation of a vector in space w : scale factor Slide 67: 2.3.3 Representation of a Frame at the Origin of a Fixed Reference Frame Each Unit Vector is mutually perpendicular : normal, orientation, approach vector P : Position vector of the Origin of the Frame Fig. 2.6 Representation of a frame in a frame Slide 68: 2.3.5 Representation of a Rigid Body An object can be represented in space by attaching a frame to it and representing the frame in space. Fig. 2.8 Representation of an object in space 2.4 HOMOGENEOUS TRANSFORMATION MATRICES : 2.4 HOMOGENEOUS TRANSFORMATION MATRICES A transformation matrices must be in square form. It is much easier to calculate the inverse of square matrices. To multiply two matrices, their dimensions must match. (Column No of First should be the same as Row No of second) 2.5 REPRESENTATION OF TRANSFORMATIONS : 2.5 REPRESENTATION OF TRANSFORMATIONS A transformation is defined as making a movement in space. A pure translation. A pure rotation about an axis. A combination of translation and/or rotations. Slide 71: 2.5.1 Representation of a Pure Translation Fig. 2.9 Representation of an pure translation in space 2.5.2 Representation of a Pure Rotation about an Axis : 2.5.2 Representation of a Pure Rotation about an Axis Assumption : The frame is at the origin of the reference frame and parallel to it. 2.5.3 Representation of Combined Transformations : 2.5.3 Representation of Combined Transformations A number of successive translations and rotations…. (1) Rotation of α degrees about the x-axis (2) Translation of [l1, l2, l3] (3) Rotation of β degrees about the y-axis Inverse of a Matrix : Inverse of a Matrix Determinant Transpose Minor, Cofactor Unit matrix Gauss-Jordan Elimination 2.6 INVERSE OF TRANSFORMATION MATIRICES : 2.6 INVERSE OF TRANSFORMATION MATIRICES known, unknown Inverse of a matrix calculation steps : : Inverse of a matrix calculation steps : Calculate the determinant of the matrix. • Transpose the matrix. • Replace each element of the transposed matrix by its own minor. • Divide the converted matrix by the determinant. Inverse of a matrix calculation steps : : Inverse of a matrix calculation steps : Calculate the determinant of the matrix. Transpose the matrix. Replace each element of the transposed matrix by its own minor. Divide the converted matrix by the determinant. 2.8 DENAVIT-HARTENBERG REPRESENTATION OF FORWARD KINEMATIC EQUATIONS OF ROBOT : 2.8 DENAVIT-HARTENBERG REPRESENTATION OF FORWARD KINEMATIC EQUATIONS OF ROBOT Denavit-Hartenberg Representation procedures: * Start point: Assign joint number n to the first shown joint. Assign a local reference frame for each and every joint before or after these joints. Y-axis does not used in D-H representation.. 2.8 DENAVIT-HARTENBERG REPRESENTATION OF FORWARD KINEMATIC EQUATIONS OF ROBOT : 2.8 DENAVIT-HARTENBERG REPRESENTATION OF FORWARD KINEMATIC EQUATIONS OF ROBOT Slide 82: D-H Representation : ♣ Simple way of modeling robot links and joints for any robot configuration, regardless of its sequence or complexity. ♣Transformations in any coordinates is possible. ♣ Any possible combinations of joints and links and all-revolute articulated robots are represented. Slide 83: Procedures for assigning a local reference frame to each joint: All joints are represented by a z-axis. (right-hand rule for rotational joint, linear movement for prismatic joint) The common normal is one line mutually perpendicular to any two skew lines. Parallel z-axes joints make a infinite number of common normal. Intersecting z-axes of two successive joints make no common normal between them(Length is 0.). Line perpendicular to the plane including two z-axes ( = direction of cross product of two axes) Slide 84: Symbol Terminologies : θ: A rotation about the z-axis. d : The distance on the z-axis. a : The length of each common normal (Joint offset). α : The angle between two successive z-axes (Joint twist) Only θ and d are joint variables. The necessary motions to transform from one reference frame to the next. : The necessary motions to transform from one reference frame to the next. (I) Rotate about the zn-axis an able of θn+1. (Coplanar) (II) Translate along zn-axis a distance of dn+1 to make xn and xn+1 colinear. (III) Translate along the xn-axis a distance of an+1 to bring the origins of xn+1 (IV) Rotate zn-axis about xn+1 axis an angle of αn+1 to align zn-axis with zn+1-axis. Boston DYNAMICS: BigDog : Boston DYNAMICS: BigDog Gasoline engine & hydraulic actuator 1 m L x 0.7 m H, 75 Kg 4 mph, climb slope up to 35 deg. Carry 340 lb Sensor : Joint position, Force, Laser gyroscope, Stereo vision Sponsor : DARPA Chap 3 Differential Motions and Velocities : Chap 3 Differential Motions and Velocities 3.1 INTRODUCTION : 3.1 INTRODUCTION Definition : Differential Motion : A small movements of mechanism that can be used to derive velocity relationships between different parts of the mechanism. In this chapters……. Differential Motions of frames relative to a fixed frame Jacobians and robot velocity relationships Jacobian matrix is the matrix of all first-order partial derivatives of a vector-valued function Slide 89: Concept of the differential relationships : The velocity of point B : A two-degree-of-freedom Planar mechanism a Velocity diagram Slide 90: Velocity relationship of point B Differential Motion of B Jacobian Differential Motion of Joint Robot joint differential motions can be related to the differential motion of the robot hand 3.3 JACOBIAN : 3.3 JACOBIAN Definition Jacobian is a representation of the geometry of the elements of a mechanism in time. Formation Jacobian is formed from the elements of the position equations that were differentiated with respect to θ1 & θ2. Assumption A set of equations Yi in terms of a set of variables xj : Slide 92: Matrix Representation Differential motion of hand frame Differential motion of robot joint Differentiating the position equations of a robot differential translation differential rotation if divided by dt, then velocity relationship 3.4 DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS OF A FRAME : 3.4 DIFFERENTIAL MOTIONS OF A FRAME The differential motion of a hand frame of the robot are caused by the differential motions in each of the joints of the robot. The differential motion of a frame: Differential translations, Differential rotations, Differential transformations (translations and rotations). Slide 94: 3.4.2 Differential Rotations Definition : A small rotation of a frame at differential values. Representation : Rot(k, dθ) The frame has rotated an angle of dθ about an axis ^k Differential rotation about x, y, z-axis is x, y, z, respectively. (in radian) You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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