Non invasive ventilation conference

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Non Invasive Ventilation : 

Non Invasive Ventilation Dr.Balamugesh, MD, DM, Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore.

Definition.. : 

Definition.. Noninvasive ventilation is the delivery of ventilatory support without the need for an invasive artificial airway

How does NIV work? : 

How does NIV work? Reduction in inspiratory muscle work and avoidance of respiratory muscle fatigue Tidal volume is increased CPAP counterbalances the inspiratory threshold work related to intrinsic PEEP. NIV improves respiratory system compliance by reversing microatelectasis of the lung.

Advantages of NIV : 

Advantages of NIV Noninvasiveness Application (compared with endotracheal intubation) a.Easy to implement b. Easy to remove Allows intermittent application Improves patient comfort Reduces the need for sedation Oral patency (preserves speech, swallowing, and cough, reduces the need for nasoenteric tubes)

Slide 5: 

Avoid the resistive work imposed by the endotracheal tube Avoids the complications of endotracheal intubation Early (local trauma, aspiration) Late (injury to the the hypopharynx, larynx, and trachea, nosocomial infections)

Disadvantages of NIV : 

Disadvantages of NIV 1.System Slower correction of gas exchange abnormalities Increased initial time commitment Gastric distension (occurs in <2% patients) 2.Mask Air leakage Transient hypoxemia from accidental removal Eye irritation Facial skin necrosis –most common complication.

Slide 7: 

3.Lack of airway access and protection Suctioning of secretions aspiration

Location of NIV : 

Location of NIV NIV can be administered in the emergency department, intermediate care unit, or general respiratory ward

Who can administer NIV? : 

Who can administer NIV? by physicians, nurses, or respiratory care therapists, depends on staff experience and availability of resources for monitoring, and managing complications For the first few hours, one-to-one monitoring by a skilled and experienced nurse, respiratory therapist, or physician is mandatory. Immediate access to staff skilled in invasive airway management.

Interface : 

Interface Nasal masks less dead space less claustrophobia allow for expectoration vomiting and oral intake vocalize facial mask dyspnoeic patients are usually mouth breathers More dead space

Mask: orofacial vs nasal : 

Mask: orofacial vs nasal similar with regard to improving vital signs and gas exchange and avoiding intubation nasal mask was less well tolerated mainly due to greater air leakage through mouth Crit Care Med. 2003 Feb;31

Helmet vs facial mask : 

Helmet vs facial mask Complications (skin necrosis, gastric distension, and eye irritation) were fewer with helmet allowed prolonged continuous application of NIV Length of stay in ICU, intubation rates, mortality similar Intensive Care Med. 2003;29 Crit Care Med. 2002;30 Chest. 2004;126

Position of exhalation port and mask design affect CO2 rebreathing during NIV : 

Position of exhalation port and mask design affect CO2 rebreathing during NIV facial mask with exhalation port within the mask compared with port in the ventilator circuit smallest mask volume less rebreathed CO2 inspiratory load Crit Care Med. 2003 Aug;31

Humidification during NIV : 

Humidification during NIV No humidification: drying of nasal mucosa; increased airway resistance; decreased compliance. HME lessens the efficacy of NIV Only pass-over humidifiers should be used Intensive Care Med. 2002;28

Aerosol bronchodilator delivery during NIV : 

Aerosol bronchodilator delivery during NIV optimum nebulizer position: between the leak port and patient connection Optimum ventilator settings: high inspiratory pressure and low expiratory pressure. Optimum RR 20/mt. Rather than 10/mt. 25% of salbutamol dose may be delivered Crit Care Med. 2002 Nov;30

Slide 18: 

Desirable to deliver the aerosolized bronchodilator without removing the patient from NIV ? aerosol delivery in systems in which the leak port is in the mask or in which a leak port of different design ? Nebulizer was maintained in the vertical position

Uses of NIV : 

Uses of NIV COPD. Acute exacerbation/domiciliary. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Bronchial asthma Post extubation RF Hasten weaning.

COPD EXACERBATION: NIV : 

COPD EXACERBATION: NIV success rates of 80-85% increases pH, reduces PaCO2, reduces the severity of breathlessness in first 4 h of treatment decreases the length of hospital stay Mortality, intubation rate—is reduced GOLD 2003

CRITERIA FOR NIV IN ACUTE EXACERBATION OF COPD : 

CRITERIA FOR NIV IN ACUTE EXACERBATION OF COPD GOLD 2005

Cardiogenic Pulmonary edema…. : 

Cardiogenic Pulmonary edema…. sufficiently high level evidence to favor the use of CPAP, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of BiPAP, probably the exception being patients with hypercapnic CPE.

Methodology : 

Methodology Initial ventilator settings: CPAP (EPAP) 2 cm H2O & PSV (IPAP) 5 cm H20. Mask is held gently on patient’s face. Increase the pressures until adequate Vt (7ml/kg), RR<25/mt, and patient comfortable. Titrate FiO2 to achieve SpO2>90%. Keep peak pressure <25-30 cm Head of the bed elevated

Monitoring : 

Monitoring Response Physiological a) Continuous oximetry b) Exhaled tidal volume c) ABG should be obtained with 1 hour and, as necessary, at 2 to 6 hour intervals. Objective a) Respiratory rate b) blood pressure c) pulse rate Subjective a) dyspnea b) comfort c) mental alertness

Monitoring….. : 

Monitoring….. Mask Fit, Comfort, Air leak, Secretions, Skin necrosis Respiratory muscle unloading Accessory muscle activity, paradoxical abdominal motion Abdomen Gastric distension

Slide 28: 

First 30 min. of NPPV is labor intensive. Bedside presence of a respiratory therapist or nurse familiar with this mode is essential. Providing reassurance and adequate explanation Be ready to intubate and start on invasive ventilation.

Criteria to discontinue NIV : 

Criteria to discontinue NIV Inability to tolerate the mask because of discomfort or pain Inability to improve gas exchange or dyspnea Need for endotracheal intubation to manage secretions or protect airway Hemodynamic instability ECG – ischemia/arrhythmia Failure to improve mental status in those with CO2 narcosis.

Slide 30: 

Eur Respir J 2002; 20:

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