Oil Spill

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Presentation on Oil Spill Gajender Lal Disaster Management and Security 2010

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Oil SpilL ~ Exxon Valdez Spill ,1989 11 million gallons crude oil vs. The Pacific Ocean

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Oil spill is release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the ocean or coastal waters, due to human activity, mainly. Sinking or leakage of Oil Carrying Vessels or Oil Pipelines. Countries at war. Illegal dumping by Industries. Terrorist activities. Natural Disasters.

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What does an oil spill do? Covers the surface of water by a thick film. ( Darker the Thicker) Effects entire marine life. Fishes die, because they cannot breathe. Nature takes up to 10 years to recover, if oil reaches the sea bed.

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Processes Following a Spill

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Major inputs of petroleum to the marine environment 37% comes from Industrial wastes, reach the sea, via storm water drain, creeks, sewage and rivers. 33% from oil vessels during transportation. 2% during explorations and 12% from accidents involving tankers. 7% comes from natural sources like fissures from sea bed. 9% absorbed from atmosphere. Courtesy: Australian Institute of Petroleum

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World's Major Oil Spills The Gulf War oil spill Location:- Persian Gulf Date:- January 21, 1991 Cause:- Action taken by Iraq military. Tonnes of Crude Oil:- 1,360,000–1,500,000 M/T Haven Tanker Spill Location:- Genoa, Italy. Date:- April 11, 1991 Cause:- sinking due to explosion. Effects:- Polluted Mediterranean sea for next 12 years.

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Oil Spills in India Paradip Spill Date:- 12 September, 2009 Location:- 5 kms off Paradip port. (BoB) Cause:- Sinking ( MV Black Rose) freighter. Effect:- threat to rare Olive Ridley turtles. August 2009, Crude Oil Spill in Gujarat, due to undersea pipeline burst. August 2006, light crude Spill off the Nicobar port, due to collision of 2 tankers.

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The Oil Pollution Act was signed into law in 1990 by U.S. President George Bush. The Act was an almost immediate reaction to the crash of the oil tanker Exxon Valdez near Alaska. The OPA established a federal liability system for all spills. A trust fund to assist in the cost of spill clean ups. It required companies to create spill-scenario plans before being allowed to operate. All new tankers must be built with double hulls as extra protection in the case of a crash. Single-hulled tankers must be phased out by the year 2010.

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Oil Types Type 1: Very Light Oils (Jet Fuels, Gasoline) Highly volatile (should evaporate within 1-2 days). High concentrations of toxic (soluble) compounds. Localized, severe impacts to water column and intertidal resources. No cleanup possible. Type 2: Light Oils (Diesel, No. 2 Fuel Oil, Light Crudes) Moderately volatile; will leave residue (up to one-third of spill amount) after a few days. Moderate concentrations of toxic (soluble) compounds. Long-term contamination potential. Cleanup can be very effective.

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...Contd. Type 3: Medium Oils (Most Crude Oils) About one-third will evaporate within 24 hours. Oil contamination of intertidal areas can be severe and long-term. Oil impacts to waterfowl and fur-bearing mammals can be severe. Cleanup most effective if conducted quickly. Type 4: Heavy Oils (Heavy Crude Oils, No. 6 Fuel Oil, Bunker C) Heavy oils with little or no evaporation or dissolution. Heavy contamination of intertidal areas likely. Severe impacts to waterfowl and fur-bearing mammals (coating & ingestion) Long-term contamination of sediments possible. Weathers very slowly. Shoreline cleanup difficult under all conditions.

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Leave the oil alone so that it breaks down by natural means. Contain and cleanup the spill Use Dispersants. Bioremediation. Kill SpilL

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Spill Containment Methods: Booms - floating barriers to oil. They are commonly placed: across a narrow entrance to the ocean, so that oil can't pass through into sensitive habitat. in places where the boom can deflect oil away from sensitive locations. (nesting habitats) Skimmers -are boats and other devices that can remove oil from the sea surface before it reaches sensitive areas along a coastline. In-situ burning- of an oil slick, or part of a slick, before it reaches the coast. This technique works best when the oil is fresh and the weather relatively calm.

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Dispersants: Chemicals that disperse the oil into the water column, so that much less stays at the surface. Dispersants are most effective when used within an hour or two of the initial spill. It can affect marine organisms like deep water corals and seagrass. It can also cause oil to be temporarily accumulated by sub tidal seafood.

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How Dispersants work

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Bioremediation: Genetically Modified bacteria used to degrade the oil on shoreline. The natural process can be speeded up by the addition of nitrogen and phosphorous which stimulate growth of the micro-organisms concerned. During Iraq- Kuwait War, GM bacteria, degraded oil in 4 days. Effectiveness of this technique is limited to ground conditions.

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Double hulls or double bottoms are being introduced and, since 1993, are a requirement for all new tankers. Ship crew must be well trained and experienced. A technology known as "load-on-top" allows oil and water mixtures from cleaning to separate, resulting in less pollution. Strict fire safety regulations apply on board. Individual tanks within ships are limited in size so that spills should be smaller. In more congested areas, vessel traffic control is used to reduce the risk of a collision. Making Shipping Safer

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Keeping the Navigator Informed Up-to-date information on changing weather conditions. All ships must have radar systems to improve navigation (large ships must have two systems that operate independently). Interpretations of radar and satellite images and ice reconnaissance reports for sensitive coastal areas and inland routes. Computer-based video display that allows navigators to track the ship's course in relation to hazards, and warns the navigator of potential danger, both visually and audibly. Monitoring and control equipment on ships means that discharged oil-water mixtures can be traced back to the ship that was carrying the oil.

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ThanX Any Questions?

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