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See all Premium member Presentation Transcript AERODYNAMICS AND MODELS : AERODYNAMICS AND MODELS The Four Forces of Flight : The Four Forces of Flight The four forces act on the airplane in flight and also work against each other. Weight counteracts lift. : Weight counteracts lift. The earth’s gravity pulls down on objects and gives them weight. What’s it take to create lift? : What’s it take to create lift? Air and motion. How do we explain lift? Newton’s Laws of Motion and Bernoulli’s Principle are used to explain lift. Slide 5: Newton’s Second Law: force causes a change in velocity which in turn generates another force. Newton’s Third Law: net flow of air is turned down resulting in an ‘equal and opposite’ upward force. Slide 6: Newton’s Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Slide 7: X-15 SPACE PLANE MODEL Pitch Around the Lateral Axis : Pitch Around the Lateral Axis Elevator Controls Pitch : The ELEVATOR controls PITCH. On the horizontal tail surface, the elevator tilts up or down, decreasing or increasing lift on the tail. This tilts the nose of the airplane up and down. Elevator Controls Pitch Roll Around Longitudinal Axis : Roll Around Longitudinal Axis Ailerons Control Roll : Ailerons Control Roll The AILERONS control ROLL. On the outer rear edge of each wing, the two ailerons move in opposite directions, up and down, decreasing lift on one wing while increasing it on the other. This causes the airplane to roll to the left or right. Yaw Around the vertical Axis : Yaw Around the vertical Axis Rudder Controls Yaw : The RUDDER controls YAW. On the vertical tail fin, the rudder swivels from side to side, pushing the tail in a left or right direction. A pilot usually uses the rudder along with the ailerons to turn the airplane. Rudder Controls Yaw Slide 14: CONARD AND CONVENTIONAL NEWTONIAN GLIDERS Slide 15: 3 AXIS OF CONTROL DEMONSTRATOR Venturi Tube : Venturi Tube Bernouli’s first practical use of his theorem Where are venturi tubes used today? Slide 17: Hold two sheets of paper together, as shown here, and blow between them. No matter how hard you blow, you cannot push them more than a little bit apart! What is a wing? : What is a wing? A wing is really just half a venturi tube. Slide 19: A fluid (and air acts like a fluid) speeds up as it moves through a constricted space Bernoulli’s Principle states that, as air speeds up, its pressure goes down. Slide 21: Bernoulli's Principle: slower moving air below the wing creates greater pressure and pushes up. Slide 22: Bernoulli’s Principle: Air moving over the wing moves faster than the air below. Faster-moving air above exerts less pressure on the wing than the slower-moving air below. The result is an upward push on the wing--lift! Slide 23: Bernoulli’s Principle: pressure variation around the wing results in a net aerodynamic pushing up. Slide 24: http://www.grc/nasa.gov/WWW/Wright/airplane/shape.html Slide 25: A wing creates lift due to a combination of Bernoulli’s Principle & Newton’s Third Law Interactive Wright 1901 Wind Tunnel : Interactive Wright 1901 Wind Tunnel Interactive Wright 1901 Wind Tunnel Slide 27: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/Wright/airplane/incline.html Slide 28: CAMBERED WING GLIDER Slide 32: For an airplane to speed up while flying, thrust must be greater than drag. For an airplane to take off, lift must be greater than weight. Slide 33: A propeller is a spinning wing that generates lift forward. Slide 34: CAMBERED WING POWERED GLIDER Slide 37: Airplane Parts You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.