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Coordination : 


Definition : 

Definition Coordination is the management of interdependence in work situations. It is the orderly synchronization or fitting together of the interdependent efforts of individuals, in order to attain a common goal. To coordinate is to keep expenditure proportionate to financial resources, equipments and tools to production needs and so on.

Need for coordination : 

Need for coordination Division of labour Interdependence of units Individual interests versus organizational interests

Requisites for excellent coordination : 

Requisites for excellent coordination Direct contact: By direct personal contact ideas, ideals, goals, views can be discussed and misunderstandings, if any, can be removed much more efficiently than by any other method

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Early start: coordination can be achieved more readily in the early stages of planning and policy making. Continuity : coordination is a continuous process and it must go on all the time, starting from the planning stage.

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Dynamism: Coordination should be continually modified in the light of changes in the internal and external environments Clear-cut objective: a clear-cut objective and its effective teaching to the departmental heads is bound to produce uniformity of action

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Simplified organization Clear definition of authority and responsibility Effective communication: by this the actions or operations which are contrary to the objectives of the enterprise can be avoided and the efforts of the entire staff can be harmoniously directed towards the realization of the stated objective of the enterprise.

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Effective leadership and supervision: An effective leader creates confidence in his subordinates and also keeps up their morale.

Types of coordination : 

Types of coordination Coordination can be classified as: Internal External Vertical Horizontal Procedural Substantive

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Internal Coordination among the employees of the same department or section, among workers or managers at various levels, among branch offices, plants, departments and sections.

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External Coordination with customers, suppliers, government and outsiders with whom the enterprise has business connections

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Vertical Coordination This exists within a department where the departmental head is called upon to coordinate the activities of all those placed below him

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Horizontal Coordination This exists between different departments such as production, sales, purchasing, finance, personnel etc

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Procedural Coordination It is the generalized description of the behaviours and relationships of the members of the organization. This establishes the lines of authority and outlines the sphere of activity and authority of each member of the organization Substantive Coordination This is concerned with the contents of the organizations activities. In an automobile factory, an organization chart is an aspect of procedural coordination, while blueprints for the engine block of the car being made are an aspect of substantive coordination.

Techniques of coordination : 

Techniques of coordination Rules, procedures and policies Planning Hierarchy Direct contact Task force Committees Induction Indoctrination : indoctrinating organizational members with the goals and mission of the organization Liaison Departments workflow

Difficulty of coordination : 

Difficulty of coordination Differences in orientation towards particular goals Differences in time orientation (e.g.. Production dept. and R&D dept.) Differences in interpersonal orientation – (e.g.. style of communication in Production and R&D depts.)

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Differences in formality of structure: Each unit in the organization may have different methods and standards for evaluating progress towards objectives and for rewarding employees. In a production department, for example, where quantity and quality are rigidly controlled, the evaluation and reward process might be quite formal. In personnel department, on the other hand, standards of performance may be much more loosely defined.

Systems approach and Coordination : 

Systems approach and Coordination This approach looks at an organization as a single integrated machine. It believes that the effectiveness of an organization depends not so much on the quality of individual efforts as on the logic of the organization’s total design and the way in which each individual’s contribution has been geared to the organization’s overall objectives.

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