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Premium member Presentation Transcript Towards a National Health Service : Dr Jayaprakash Narayan Presentation to Planning Commission on behalf of National Advisory Council 9th December 2004, New Delhi Towards a National Health Service Slide 2: 2 “If you dump all the drugs and formulations listed in Materia Medica into the ocean, mankind will be that much better off and fish will be that much worse off” Slide 3: 3 Achievements Through The Years - 1951-2000 Slide 4: 4 Difference Between Actual and Sustainable Number of Physicians Slide 5: 5 Macroeconomics and Health Slide 6: 6 GDP Per-capita, Health Expenditure DALE Rankings Slide 7: 7 Allocation vs Prioritization Limits to Modern Medicine : 8 Limits to Modern Medicine Health Financing : 9 Health Financing Public Health vs Total Health Expenditure : 10 Public Health vs Total Health Expenditure Total Health Expenditure 5.2% GDP Comparable countries: Cambodia Burma Afghanistan Georgia Public Health Expenditure among Various Countries : 11 Public Health Expenditure among Various Countries Allocations in Public Health Expenditure : 12 Allocations in Public Health Expenditure Health Financing & Inequity : 13 Health Financing & Inequity Curative services favour the rich For every Re 1 spent on poorest 20% population, Rs 3 spent on the richest quintile Proportion of Public Expenditures on Curative Care, by Income Quintile, All India, 1995-96 : 14 Proportion of Public Expenditures on Curative Care, by Income Quintile, All India, 1995-96 Out-of-Pocket Payments for Health and Household Income, All India, 1995-96 : 15 Out-of-Pocket Payments for Health and Household Income, All India, 1995-96 Hospitalization – Financial Stress : 16 Hospitalization – Financial Stress Only 10% Indians have some form of health insurance, mostly inadequate Hospitalized Indians spend 58% of their total annual expenditure on health care Over 40% of hospitalized Indians borrow heavily or sell assets to cover expenses Over 25% of hospitalized Indians fall below poverty line because of hospital expenses Percent of Hospitalized Indians falling into Poverty : 17 Percent of Hospitalized Indians falling into Poverty Public – Private sector use for patient care – All India (percentage distribution) : 18 Public – Private sector use for patient care – All India (percentage distribution) Differentials in Health Status Among States : 19 Differentials in Health Status Among States Major Indian States, by Stage of Health Transition and Institutional Capacity : 20 Major Indian States, by Stage of Health Transition and Institutional Capacity Strengths & Opportunities : 21 Strengths & Opportunities Large skilled health manpower Significant research capability Growing hospital infrastructure Mature pharmaceutical industry Democratic system and public discourse Increasing demand for health services Willingness to pay for health Breakthrough on population front ( TN, AP etc) Effective military style campaigns (smallpox, pulse polio) Wide network of RMPs Challenges of the Future : 22 Challenges of the Future Immunization coverage ( TB: 68%, Measles: 50%, DPT: 70%, overall : 33%) Four major infectious diseases: Malaria, TB, HIV/AIDS, RHD Preventable blindness Population control – large northern states Public health expenditure share Sanitation ( 70% households without toilets) Challenges of the Future : 23 Challenges of the Future Accountability in public health care High out-of-pocket health expenditure Alternative systems – integration Unqualified PMPs Mounting cost of hospital care Decline in family care – over-specialization Ideal vs Optimal care Health manpower training – inadequacies Regional inequalities Slide 24: Critical Issues How to involve community in rural health care How to provide effective and affordable family care to urban populations How to promote public-private partnerships How to extend tertiary care to poor Slide 25: Lessons of Past Experience More expenditure need not mean better health Risk-pooling necessary for private care : but not feasible without compulsion and large organized labour Consumer choice and producer competition vital to reduce costs and improve efficiency Public health and private health are complementary Future health care should address demographic transition Slide 26: Community ownership, decentralization and accountability – key to better delivery Better health care delivery should be linked to massive employment generation Low-cost – high-impact solutions are possible We have great strengths and abilities which can be leveraged at low cost Lessons of Past Experience Slide 27: Agenda for Action Raising an Army of Community Health Volunteers Strengthening the Primary Health Care Delivery System National Mission for Sanitation Taluk / Block Level Referral Hospitals for Curative Care Risk-Pooling and Hospital Care Financing Eight Task Forces Raising an Army of Community Health Workers : 28 Raising an Army of Community Health Workers Women from the community One VHW per 1000 population (a million gainfully employed) Urban Health Worker (UHW) in areas inhabited by low income and poor populations. 3 months’ training (Union) + health kit + refresher courses Accountable to village Panchayat Honorarium of Rs.1000 / month User charges as prescribed by Panchayat Incentives for performance Raising an Army of Community Health Volunteers : 29 Raising an Army of Community Health Volunteers Fund Requirements Training : Rs.200 crores per year for training of VHWs/UHWs spread over three years – borne by the Union Honorarium : Rs 1200 crore per annum towards honorarium (shared equally by Union and states) Health kits : Rs 100 crore per annum – health kit, a few generic drugs etc. (shared equally by Union and states) Refresher workshop: Rs. 50 crore per annum – 2 refresher workshops – 3 days each (shared equally by Union and states) Strengthening of Primary Healthcare Delivery System : 30 Strengthening of Primary Healthcare Delivery System Addressing shortage of doctors in 8 states Addressing shortage of other paramedical staff Direct Union Financing of Male MPWs Provisioning of 35 essential drugs in all PHCs Intensification of ongoing communicable disease control programmes Urban health posts New programmes for the control of non-communicable diseases Upgradation of PHCs in order to provide 24 hour delivery services Strengthening the Primary Health Care Delivery System : 31 Strengthening the Primary Health Care Delivery System Male MPWs : Rs. 828 crores/year Supply of listed drugs : Rs. 500 crores/year Intensification of ongoing disease control programmes : Rs. 500 crores/year Urban health posts : Rs. 200 crores/year Control of non-communicable diseases : Rs. 260 crores/year Upgradation of PHCs for 24-hour delivery : Rs 480 crores /year Supply of auto-destruct syringes : Rs 60 crores / year --------------------------- Total : Rs. 2828 crores/year --------------------------- National Mission for Sanitation : 32 National Mission for Sanitation Great Sanitation Movement Health, hygiene, dignity and aesthetics A toilet for every household 100 million toilets in 5 years 50 million units with private funds + 50 million with subsidies National Mission for Sanitation : 33 National Mission for Sanitation Fund Requirements 50 million toilets - Rs. 12000 crore – Union+States(one-time allocation) The Union’s share will be Rs 8000 crore. Spread over 5 years at 10 million toilets a year, this will mean an allocation of Rs 1600 crore per year for the Union and Rs 800 crore per year for all states put together. Annual fund requirement for 5 years : Rs. 2400 crore. In addition, a national public health education programme and propagation of technology may cost Rs 100 crores per year. The Union may take up this campaign. Annual fund requirement for 5 years : Rs. 100 crore Taluk / Block Level Referral Hospitals : 34 Taluk / Block Level Referral Hospitals Referral Hospitals One 30-50 bed referral hospital for every 100,000 population Staff – One Civil Surgeon, 3 or 4 Civil Assistant Surgeons, a dentist, 7 or 8 staff nurses and 2 paramedical personnel To be controlled by the local government (district panchayat or town/city government). Recruitment, appointment, control and financial provision by local government, with full assistance from state and Union governments in the form of grants Taluk / Block Level Referral Hospitals for Curative Care : 35 Taluk / Block Level Referral Hospitals for Curative Care Fund Requirements Capital cost of 7000 CHCs at Rs. 1 crore each = Rs. 7000 crores Annual cost (spread over five years) = Rs. 1400 crores Risk Pooling and Hospital Care Financing : 36 Risk Pooling and Hospital Care Financing Traditional health insurance is not an answer for health care requirements of poor Most of the disease burden is a consequence of failure of primary care Public health system is in disarray National health insurance will further strengthen private providers at the cost of public exchequer Health Insurance – Objectives : 37 Health Insurance – Objectives Strengthen public health care Raise resources innovatively and make the programme sustainable. Ensure access and quality of service to those with no influence or voice Create incentives and risk-reward system to promote quality health service delivery Encourage competition among health care providers Ensure choice to patients among multiple service providers Encourage public-private partnerships Risk-Pooling and Hospital Care Financing : 38 Risk-Pooling and Hospital Care Financing Financing by the Union, State and citizens (those above poverty), pooling Rs. 90-100 per capita Citizens’ share to be collected by the local governments as cess/tax Pooling of the money at the District level with a new authority – District Health Board (DHB) under the overall umbrella of elected local governments Patients will have a choice to visit any public hospital There will be no separate budget for wages and maintenance, or new equipment The public hospital care costs will be reimbursed by DHB / money follows the patient Reimbursement will be based on standard costs and services Risk-Pooling and Hospital Care Financing : 39 Risk-Pooling and Hospital Care Financing Where necessary DHB will involve private providers on the same basis A phased programme will be evolved for existing public hospitals to give time for transition A part of the fund (15% ) will be separately administered for tertiary care / teaching hospitals at the State level Patients can go to tertiary hospitals only in emergencies or upon referral by secondary care hospitals All vertical programmes will be integrated and controlled at DHB level There will be an independent Ombudsman in each district There will be regular health accounting to trace expenditure flows, analyze costs and benefits, and demand and supply This will be the precursor of a National Health Service which serves all people at low cost Risk-Pooling and Hospital Care Financing : 40 Risk-Pooling and Hospital Care Financing Funding Requirements Risk-pooling: from Union and states : Rs. 6000 crore per annum Less current maintenance cost of public hospitals (estimated) : Rs. 3500 crores / annum ---------------------------------- Additional Requirement * : Rs. 2500 crores / annum Community Based Health Insurance : Rs. 100 crores / annum ----------------------------------- Total : Rs. 2600 crores / annum ------------------------------------ * Rs. 3000 Crore will be raised separately as local taxes. Task Forces : 41 Task Forces Reproductive and child health and birth control in high fertility states Convergence and integration of services Medical education and Medical Grants Commission Training of Voluntary Health Workers Regulation of medical care and medical ethics Regulation of medical profession Accreditation and integration of rural medical practitioners (RMPs) into health system Health financing mechanisms Interventions Proposed : 42 Interventions Proposed Current Structure Interventions Proposed District CHCs (3100) PHCs (23000) Sub Centre (137000) Village / Community District Health Board +District Health Fund + Integrate all vertical programs 7000 New CHCs + Funding only for services delivered Supply of drugs + Improvement of facilities + Strengthening programs Multipurpose Health Workers (Fill all vacancies) + Drug supply 100 million household toilets (50 million with government subsidy) 1 million VHWs / UHWs + Training + Kits 3 4 5 2 1 Total Funding Requirement for Health Care Interventions : 43 Total Funding Requirement for Health Care Interventions The above five recommendations are in line with the commitments made under the NCMP in health sector. As stated earlier, they are in addition to the on-going programmes and the Tenth Plan commitments. The total costs ( excluding capital costs for sanitation and referral hospitals) will be of the order of Rs. 7000 crore per annum – about 0.23% of GDP The total estimated financial outlay of these proposals is as follows: Community Health Workers (Recurrent cost) Rs. 1550 crores/year Strengthening Primary Health care (Recurrent cost) Rs. 2828 crores/year National Sanitation Mission (Capital cost) Rs. 2500 crores/year First Referral Hospitals (Capital cost) Rs. 1400 crores/year Risk-pooling and Hospital care financing (Recurring cost) Rs. 2600 crores/year ---------------------------- Total Rs.10878 crores/year ---------------------------- Slide 44: 44 “Politics encircles us today like the coil of a snake from which one cannot get out, no matter how much one tries ” - Mahatma Gandhi You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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