Chapter 2 : Chapter 2 Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring After reading the materials in this chapter, you should know: : After reading the materials in this chapter, you should know: What is organizational culture?
Discuss the layers of organizational culture.
Summarize the methods used by organizations to embed their cultures.
What is an rjp?
Discuss the various socialization tactics used to socialize employees. How to “read” Ch. 2 : How to “read” Ch. 2 Set your Powerpoints to “notes” page.
Bear in mind that not all slides have notes with them, particularly those that are pretty self-explanatory.
Use these notes to study, and to take additional notes from your text.
Ready? Let’s go! Organizational Culture : Organizational Culture Organizational culture
set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about and reacts to its various environments Organizational Culture Characteristics : Organizational Culture Characteristics Passed on to new employees through the process of socialization
Influences our behavior at work
Operates at different levels Organizational Culture : Organizational Culture Shaped by four components:
Industry and business environment
Senior leaders’ visions
Sam Walton → Cultures can be “strong” and “weak” : Cultures can be “strong” and “weak” Strong cultures can be both good and bad—help people make sense of what’s going on
Weak cultures do not provide workers with a sense of belonging Embedding Organizational Culture : Embedding Organizational Culture Formal statements
The design of physical space
Slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings
Deliberate role modeling, training programs, teaching and coaching
Explicit rewards, status symbols (e.g., titles),and promotion criteria Embedding Organizational Culture : Embedding Organizational Culture Stories, legends, and myths about key people and events
The organizational activities, processes, or outcomes that leaders pay attention to, measure, and control
Leader reactions to critical incidents and organizational crises
The workflow and organizational structure
Organizational systems and procedures
Organizational goals and the associated criteria used for recruitment, selection, development, promotion, layoffs, and retirement of people Layers of Organizational Culture : Layers of Organizational Culture Basic assumptions—represent the core of organizational culture (unobservable)
Constitute organizational values that have become so taken for granted over time that they become assumptions that guide organizational behavior
FSU’s core values include… Layers of Organizational Culture : Layers of Organizational Culture Observable artifacts—physical things of a culture
Such as acronyms, manner of dress, awards, myths and stories, published lists of values, observable rituals and ceremonies, special parking spaces, and decorations Here’s one artifact you know : Here’s one artifact you know Seminoles! Layers of Organizational Culture : Layers of Organizational Culture Values—enduring belief in a mode of conduct or end state
Enacted values—observable behavior
Problems occur when these two are not in sync
Let’s look at the example on the next slide → Wal-Mart’s 10-foot Rule : Wal-Mart’s 10-foot Rule “One of our secrets to customer service is the 10-foot rule, handed down to us by our founder, Sam Walton. During his many store visits, he encouraged associates to take a pledge with him: "I want you to promise that whenever you come within 10 feet of a customer, you will look him in the eye, greet him, and ask him if you can help him."
“This pledge is what we call our "10-foot attitude," and it was something Sam had practiced since childhood.”
From Walmart.com Example of slogans, etc. : Example of slogans, etc. Give me a W! Give me an A! Give me an L! Give me a squiggly! Give me an M! Give me an A! Give me an R! Give me a T!
What's that spell? Wal-Mart!
Whose Wal-Mart is it? It's my Wal-Mart!
Who's number one? The customer! Always! From Walmart.com Competing Values Framework : Competing Values Framework 2-16 Figure 2.3 Organizational Culture : Organizational Culture Normative beliefs
thoughts and beliefs about expected behavior and modes of conduct Types of Organizational Culture : Types of Organizational Culture Constructive
Aggressive-defensive Types of Organizational Culture : Types of Organizational Culture Constructive
Employees are encouraged to interact with others
Associated with achievement, self-actualizing, humanistic-encouraging, and affiliative Types of Organizational Culture : Types of Organizational Culture Passive-defensive
Employees must interact with others in ways that do not threaten their own job security
Associated with approval, convention, dependent, and avoidance Types of Organizational Culture : Types of Organizational Culture Aggressive-defensive
Employees approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and job security
Associated with oppositional power, is competitive and perfectionistic Outcomes Associated with Organizational Culture : Outcomes Associated with Organizational Culture Significantly correlated with employee behavior and attitudes
Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, intention to quit, and turnover impacted
Did not predict financial performance
Mergers frequently failed due to incompatible cultures Merging Corporate Cultures : Merging Corporate Cultures Define a realistic culture.
Provide savvy leadership.
Communicate consistently and carefully.
Address the “me” issues.
Just think—how would one combine FSU and UF? Embedding Organizational Culture : Embedding Organizational Culture Organizational members teach each other about the organization’s preferred values, beliefs, expectations, and behaviors And now… : And now… Organizational Socialization!
What is it?
How is it done? Organizational Socialization : Organizational Socialization Organizational Socialization
properly socialized→ The goal of organizational socialization is… : The goal of organizational socialization is… To move employees from outsiders to insiders Phase 1: Anticipatory Socialization : Phase 1: Anticipatory Socialization Occurs before an individual joins an organization
Involves the information people learn about different careers, occupations, professions, and organizations Phase 2: Encounter : Phase 2: Encounter Employees learn what the organization is really like
Onboarding – programs aimed at helping employees move to new jobs Phase 3: Change and Acauisition : Phase 3: Change and Acauisition Realistic job previews (rjp’s) : Realistic job previews (rjp’s) What are these?
Who should do this?
What does it mean for the potential employee? Mentoring : Mentoring Mentoring Functions of mentoring : Functions of mentoring Career functions
Psychosocial Personal and Organizational Implications : 2-34 Personal and Organizational Implications Job and career satisfaction are likely to be influenced by the consistency between an individual’s career goals and the type of developmental network at his disposal Personal and Organizational Implications : 2-35 Personal and Organizational Implications A developer’s willingness to provide career and psycho-social assistance is a function of the protégé’s ability, potential, and the quality of the interpersonal relationship Building an Effective Mentoring Network : 2-36 Building an Effective Mentoring Network Become the perfect protégé
Engage in 360-degree networking
Commit to assessing, building, and adjusting the mentor network
Develop diverse, synergistic connections
Realize that change is inevitable and that all good things come to an end Mentoring Pitfalls : Mentoring Pitfalls 50% of 500 biggest businesses in US offer mentoring
Relationships can sour if:
Pair is incompatible
There is a lack of respect/credibility
Clear goals are not established
There is no consensus on when to end the relationship 2-37 Source: BusinessWeek, January 29, 2007, Mentoring Can Be Messy, Susan Berfield Implications For Mentoring Minorities : Implications For Mentoring Minorities Mentors must fully appreciate the roles they play:
Understand the importance of these roles at each stage of a protégé’s career
Mentor must also be aware of challenges race can present to protégé’s career 2-38 The Value of Friends at Work : The Value of Friends at Work A new book by Tom Rath contends that friendships at work are critical to a person’s happiness.
Employees who have a best friend at work are seven times more likely to be engaged in their job.
They also are more productive, have fewer accidents, are more engaged with customers and are more likely to innovate and share new ideas. Friends at Work: The Lonely State of Affairs : Friends at Work: The Lonely State of Affairs Many companies frown on workplace friendships and socialize employees to believe that work life should be separate and distinct from non-work life.
Only 18% of the respondents worked for a company that provided opportunities to develop friendships on the job.
Only 30% of employees report having a best friend at work. The Benefits of Friends : The Benefits of Friends Employees satisfaction increases by almost 50% when employees have close friendships at work.
Having friends at work doubles the chance the workers will have a favorable perception of their pay.
People with at least three close friends at work were 96% more likely to be extremely satisfied with their lives. How to foster friendships at work: : How to foster friendships at work: Companies should design workplaces with spaces where people can socialize
use break rooms and open floor plans
Firms should sponsor outings that allow employees to socialize with each other and their families.
BUT… Are there downsides to friendships at work? : Are there downsides to friendships at work? What do YOU think?