Growth and Development

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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT : 

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

GROWTH : 

GROWTH Refers generally to the physical growth, i.e. Growth from the fertilized egg at the time of conception to the fully grown body of the adult. It means increase in the size of the various parts of the body

According to Hurlock : 

According to Hurlock GROWTH is change in size, in proportion, disappearance of old features and acquisition of new ones. e.g.: Height, Weight, Disappearance of temporary teeth and Acquisition of Permanent teeth

According to Crow and Crow(1962) : 

According to Crow and Crow(1962) Growth refers to structural and physiological changes

DEVELOPMENT : 

DEVELOPMENT It refers to the progressive changes that take place with time in the behavior of the organism.

According to Hurlock(1959) : 

According to Hurlock(1959) Development means a progressive series of changes that occur in an orderly predictable pattern as a result of maturation and experience.

According to Crow and Crow (1962) : 

According to Crow and Crow (1962) Development is concerned with growth as well as those changes in behavior which results from environmental situations.

According to J.E. Anderson(1950) : 

According to J.E. Anderson(1950) Development does not consist merely of adding inches to one’s height or improving one’s ability. Instead development is a complex process of integrating many structures and functions.

According to Liebert, Poulos and Marmor (1979) : 

According to Liebert, Poulos and Marmor (1979) Development refers to a process of change in growth and capability over time, as function of both maturation and interaction with the environment. Thus, development includes Growth Capability Maturation Interaction with the environment

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT : 

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT GROWTH The term is used in purely physical sense. It generally refers to increase in size, length. Changes in the quantitative aspects come into the domain of Growth. DEVELOPMENT Development implies overall change in shape, form or structure resulting in improved working or functioning. Changes in the quality or character rather than the quantitative aspects comes in this domain.

Slide 11: 

GROWTH It is a part of developmental process. Development in its quantitative aspect is termed as growth. Growth does not continue throughout life. It stops when maturity has been attained. Growth involves body changes. DEVELOPMENT It is a comprehensive and wider term and refers to overall changes in the individual. Development is a wider and comprehensive term and refers to overall changes in the individual. It continues throughout life and is progressive. Development involves changes of an orderly, coherent type tending towards the goal of maturity.

Slide 12: 

GROWTH The changes produced by growth are the subject of measurement. They may be quantified. Growth is cellular . It takes place due to the multiplication of cells. DEVELOPMENT Development implies improvement in functioning and behavior and hence bring qualitative changes which are difficult to be measured directly. They are assessed through keen observation in behavioral situations. Development is organizational. It is organization of all the parts which growth and differentiation have produced.

Slide 13: 

GROWTH Growth may or may not bring development. E.g.: A child may grow fat but by becoming fat no functional improvement may take place. DEVELOPMENT Development is also possible without growth. E.g.: A child may not gain height, weight or size but can have functional improvement in other aspects .

PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT : 

PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Development is a continuous process (from birth to death)

Development follows a direction and uniform pattern (orderly manner) : 

Development follows a direction and uniform pattern (orderly manner) Cephalo-caudal -from head to tail

Slide 16: 

Proximo-distal- from nearer to far apart

Slide 17: 

Locomotion- Sequence of development is followed.

Development proceeds from general to specific responses- Reacts to the stimuli with the whole body and gradually learns to give specific responses. : 

Development proceeds from general to specific responses- Reacts to the stimuli with the whole body and gradually learns to give specific responses. 4 Months old 12 Months Old

PRINCIPLE OF HIERARCHICAL INTEGRATION –states that simple skills typically develop separately and independently but are later integrated into more complex skills. Development lacks uniformity of rate – There are periods of acceleration and periods of decelerated growth. Different body systems mature at different rates. : 

PRINCIPLE OF HIERARCHICAL INTEGRATION –states that simple skills typically develop separately and independently but are later integrated into more complex skills. Development lacks uniformity of rate – There are periods of acceleration and periods of decelerated growth. Different body systems mature at different rates.

PRINCIPLE OF INDEPENDENCE OF SYSTEMS suggests that different body systems grow at different rates.For instance, the nervous system is highly developed during infancy. : 

PRINCIPLE OF INDEPENDENCE OF SYSTEMS suggests that different body systems grow at different rates.For instance, the nervous system is highly developed during infancy.

Slide 21: 

Most traits of development are correlated- e.g.: a child whose intellectual development is above average, is also superior in many other aspects.

Development is a product of contribution of Heredity and Environment- It is not possible to indicate exactly in what proportion heredity and environment contribute to the development of an individual. : 

Development is a product of contribution of Heredity and Environment- It is not possible to indicate exactly in what proportion heredity and environment contribute to the development of an individual.

Development is both qualitative and quantitative- While growth takes place, the functional organization of the individual also improves. : 

Development is both qualitative and quantitative- While growth takes place, the functional organization of the individual also improves.

There are wide individual differences in growth pattern i.e. development is unique- Individuals differ from each other in their pattern and rate of growth. : 

There are wide individual differences in growth pattern i.e. development is unique- Individuals differ from each other in their pattern and rate of growth.

Slide 25: 

Development is cumulative- Each change is the culmination of prior growth and experience. Development is a result of interaction of Maturation and Learning- Maturation refers to changes in a developmental organism due to the unfolding and ripening of abilities, characteristics, traits and potentialities present at birth. Learning denotes the changes in behavior due to training or experience.

Slide 26: 

Development is predictable- The rate of development of each child at an early stage helps in predicting the developments at a later stage. Development is spiral and non-linear- It is in the form of a cork-screw.

Educational Implications : 

Educational Implications Need of paying attention to individual differences of the learners. Avoid comparing the child with others. Undue pressure should not be put on the students. Adapting learning programmes, procedures and practices according to the level of students.

Slide 28: 

Need of motivating the child to learn as development is a continuous process. Need for correlating different subjects and examples to daily life. Need for a pragmatic outlook so as to not place undue demands on the child. Practice maxims of teaching like proceed from known to unknown, concrete to abstract, simple to complex Use psychological methods of teaching.

Slide 29: 

The learning experiences should be arranged suitably according to the maturity of the child. The learning processes, experiences and environment should be arranged according to the level and needs of the students. A good environment should be provided to the students, as it plays an important role in the development of the child.