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By: sambhukannan (94 month(s) ago)

Thank you for your presentation. It helped me a lot. It was wonderfull

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BASTAR IS THE LAND OF TRIBALS AND NATURAL RESOURCES THIS DIVINE LAND IS ALSO ENRICHED WITH NATURAL BEAUTY WHICH MAKES IT A PARADISE FOR TOURISTS!!! The deep forest area between bushes and bamboos where one always feel the absence of sunlight, wide and light, thick forests, between high mountains cool flowing streams, sky touching mountains, caves, high waterfalls, and in the valleys the spread of greenery and in between this, the huts made by bamboo sticks, the fearless lifestyle of the tribals and their culture, one’s heart and mind would be filled with new wonders and pleasure!!! WELCOME TO BASTAR!!!

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Bastar district is a district of the State of Chhatisgarh in Central India. The district has an area of 8755.79 km. The population of the district is 1,302,253(2001 census). 70% of the district’s population are tribals(adivasis). The main tribes there are; Maria Gonds, Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras, and Halbas. The river Indravati winds across Bastar. LOCATION

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Bastar and Dantewala districts were formerly part of the princely state of Bastar. After Indian independence in 1947, the princely state of Bastar acceded to the Govt. of India. In 2000, Bastar was one of the 16 Madhya Pradesh districts that formed the new state of Chhatisgarh. The Chitrakoot and Teerathgarh waterfalls are situated close to Jagdalpur. Bastar is famous for its traditional Dasara(dussera) festival. HISTORY

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PEOPLE AND THEIR HABITS Different language of tribals but common customs and beliefs. Belief that land of a village, a grant of mother Earth and the people to look after it. Also respected rivers, forests and mountains. Annual meeting presided by Headmen of villages to discuss concerns, including forests. They lived in forests and the forest produce was their source of livelihood,

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TRIBES OF BASTAR MARIA Primarily found in the Bastar region of Chhatisgarh, the Maria tribes are major sub-castes of the Gonds. They mainly reside in Jagdalpur Tehsil of Chhatisgarh, south of Indravati River. They like to live in isolation into deep interiors of forests and avoid contacts from outside world. HALBAAS The Halbaas are one of the major tribes found in Central India, known for their unique culture and way of living.

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DHURVAAS The Dhurvaas are one of the most important tribal groups in the Bastar district. Also known as Parjaas(the public) they are very caste conscious people and do not mix with tribes of low caste. MURIAS Murias, another major sub-castes of the Gonds, are found in the Narayanpur and Kondagaon Tehsils of the Bastar districts. BHATRA Bhatras are known for their unique costumes and traditions but their origin is still a mystery. They prefer liquor consumption, fruits and animal food.

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BASTAR REBELLION OF 1910 REASONS Threat to their life and livelihood – by Colonial Govt.(British) through enactment of forest laws – Restricting their free movement to majority of forests. Displacement from forest areas. Their exploitation by forcing them to provide free labour for colonial officers. Degradation of the Bastar king, who according to the tribals was an incarnation of God. This led to unrest among the people; even the local elites resented it.

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According to most of the historians the origin of the Bhumkal protest movement was rooted in the previous rebellious movements that took place in this region. It was a movement based in the age-old struggle of the tribal people of Bastar to protect and preserve their tradition, culture and customs. This was linked to their demand of being allowed to retain their traditional way of life and livelihood. Due to the excessive revenue demands of the colonial rule, several tribal villages were given on lease thekedars who adopted extremely oppressive means to collect revenues from the tribals. Famines of 1900, 1907 and 1908. and many more reasons.......

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THE REBELLION The Bhumkal rebellion took place in the year 1910 in and around the present India state of Chhatisgarh. Out of 84 parganas of the district of Bastar, the Bhumkal rebellion was spread in almost 46 of them. The leaders of the Bhumkal movement were part of the ruling elites displaced by the British. Lal Kalendra Singh was the leader of Bhumkal movement coordinating and organizing the rebellion from behind the scenes. Rani Subaran Singh, Kunwar Bahadur Singh etc. , have also played an important role. The rebellion was led by the charismatic Gundadhur who is still a legend in Bastar. Initiative taken by the Dhurwas of the Kanger forest.

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In 1910 mango boughs, a lump of earth, chillies and arrows began circulating between villages. These were actually messages inviting villages to rebel against British. Bazaars were looted, houses of officials and traders, schools and police stations were burnt & robbed and grains redistributed. Repression of the rebellion by British troops. However, tribals fled to forests and it took British 3 months to regain control.

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EFFECTS OF THE REBELLION Despite the charismatic leadership of Gundadhur the rebellion was not systematically and strategically planned, which became a critical factor for its defeat. The rebellion did not grow from one region to another nor did the leadership attempt to consolidate control over their areas of influence. Lack of investment in arms also became a limitation. A major victory for tribals as forest reservation policy was suspended temporarily. It symbolized the struggle of tribals against an alien rule attempting to remould the tribal pattern of life. During the rebellion on 7th February Rani Subaran and Kunwar Bahadur declared that the British rule on Bastar has been abolished and Muria rule will be re-established . This declaration sums up the Bhumkal rebellion and the protests of Bastar.

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A book on BASTAR by Mr. AHMED ALI

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