Population : Population Name – Abhishek Jindal
Class – IX – B Distribution by Density : Distribution by Density Population density provides a better picture of the uneven distribution. Population density is calculated as the number of persons per unit area. India is one of the most densely populated countries of the world. The population density of India in the year 2001 was 324 persons per sq km. Densities vary from 904 persons per sq km in West Bengal to only 13 persons per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh. A study of the shows the pattern of uneven distribution of population densities at the state level. POPULATION GROWTH AND PROCESSES OFPOPULATION CHANGE : POPULATION GROWTH AND PROCESSES OFPOPULATION CHANGE Population is a dynamic phenomenon. The numbers, distribution and composition of the population are constantly changing. This is the influence of the interaction of the three processes, namely-births, deaths and migrations. Population Growth : Population Growth Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/territory during a specific period of time, say during the last ten years. Such a change can be expressed in two ways: in terms of absolute numbers and in terms of percentage change per year. The rate or the pace of population increase is the other important aspect. It is studied in per cent per annum, e.g. a rate of increase of 2 per cent per annum means that in a given year, there was an increase of two persons for every 100 persons in the base population. This is referred to as the annual growth rate. Processes of Population Change/Growth : Processes of Population Change/Growth There are three main processes of change of population : birth rates, death rates and migration.
Migration Birth Rate : Birth Rate Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. It is a major component of growth because in India, birth rates have always been higher than death rates. Death rate : Death rate Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in death rates. Migration : Migration Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries). Internal migration : Internal migration Internal migration does not change the size of the population, but influences the distribution of population within the nation. Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population. Age Composition : Age Composition The age composition of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country. It is one of the most basic characteristics of a population. To an important degree, a person’s age influences what he needs, buys, does and his capacity to perform. Consequently, the number and percentage of a population found within the children, working age and aged groups are notable determinants of the population’s social and economic structure. Sex Ratio : Sex Ratio Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population. This information is an important social indicator to measure the extent of equality between males and females in a society at a given time. The sex ratio in the country has always remained unfavourable to females. Literacy Rates : Literacy Rates Literacy is a very important quality of a population. Obviously, only an informed and educated citizen can make intelligent choices and undertake research and development projects. Low levels of literacy are a serious obstacle for economic improvement.
According to the Census of 2001, a person aged 7 years. and above who can read and write with understanding in any language, is treated as literate. There has been a steady improvement in the literacy levels in India. The literacy rate in the country as per the Census of 2001 is 64.84 per cent; 75.26 per cent for males and 53.67 per cent for females. Occupational Structure : Occupational Structure The percentage of population that is economically active is an important index of development. The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure. An enormous variety of occupations are found in any country. Occupations are generally classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary. Health : Health Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development. Sustained efforts of government programmes have registered significant improvements in the health conditions of the Indian population. Death rates have declined from 25 per 1000 population in 1951 to 8.1 per 1000 in 2001 and life expectancy at birth has increased from 36.7 years in 1951 to 64.6 years in 2001. Adolescent Population : Adolescent Population The most significant feature of the Indian population is the size of its adolescent population. It constitutes one-fifth of the total population of India. Adolescents are generally grouped in the age-group of 10 to 19 years They are the most important resource for the future. Nutrition requirements of adolescents are higher than those of a normal child or adult. Poor nutrition can lead to deficiency and stunted growth. But in India, the diet available to adolescents is inadequate in all nutrients. A large number of adolescent girls suffer from anaemia. Their problems have so far not received adequate attention in the process of development. The adolescent girls have to be sensitised to the problems they confront. Their awareness can be improved through the spread of literacy and education among them. National Population Policy : National Population Policy Recognising that the planning of families would improve individual health and welfare, the Government of India initiated the comprehensive Family Planning Programme in 1952. The Family Welfare Programme has sought to promote responsible and planned parenthood on a voluntary basis. The National Population Policy 2000 is a culmination of years of planned efforts. The NPP 2000 provides a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age, reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births, achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable diseases, promoting delayed marriage for girls, and making family welfare a people-centered programme. NPP 2000 and Adolescents : NPP 2000 and Adolescents NPP 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections of the population that need greater attention. Besides nutritional requirements, the policy put greater emphasis on other important needs of adolescents including protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). It called for programmes that aim towards encouraging delayed marriage and child-bearing, education of adolescents about the risks of unprotected sex, making contraceptive services accessible and affordable, providing food supplements, nutritional services, strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage. People are the nation’s most valuable resource. A well- educated healthy population provides potential power.