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The Effect of Legislation on Racism : 

BY: NIHAR SHAH, REBECCA WEINSTEIN, DAVID TANG, DENNIS HSU, & WILLIAM QIAO The Effect of Legislation on Racism MUSIC COMPOSED BY: DAVID TANG TITLED: SORROWS, REMNANTS OF THE PAST

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 : 

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 “Chinese laborers to this country endangers the good order of certain localities within the territory thereof” “That no Chinese person shall be permitted to enter the United States” “The ugly legislation was also the first ever passed by Congress targeting a group based on race.”

Anti-Asian Sentiments : 

Anti-Asian Sentiments Progression of anti-Asian laws that restricted their rights from 1882 until WWI Racial violence: Massacre at Rock Springs, Wyoming 1882 Tacoma, Seattle Riots 1885-86 Chinese were seen to “possess totally different standards of morality from whites and used their great mental acuteness and ingenuity to defeat the government.” Erika Lee, author of At America's Gates

Lasting Impact on Exclusion Act : 

Lasting Impact on Exclusion Act Tracking system by which other immigrant groups were identified and regulated Passports and Visas Exclusion laws amended later for possession of certificates of residence and identity Green cards

California Land Laws : 

California Land Laws Origin: fear that Japanese will dominate Prohibited “aliens ineligible for citizenship” from owning land or property 1920 land law specifically prohibited Japanese from leasing land

Effects of the Land Laws : 

Effects of the Land Laws Other states followed suite The Japanese saw themselves as victims of injustice Japanese brought their cases to court All cases concluded with the racist defeat of the Japanese farmers “The extreme dejected spirit of the Japanese…cannot be concealed.”-Rafu Shimpou, Japanese Newspaper based in Los Angeles

Jones Act of 1917 : 

Jones Act of 1917 Intention: Extended U.S. citizenship to the people of Puerto Rico Actual Effect: since both PR and Philippines were territories, this act granted citizenship to those of one territory and not the other Filipinos had no benefits of citizenship, no protection from race-based labor exploitation

Magnuson Act of 1943 : 

Magnuson Act of 1943 Aka “Chinese Exclusion Repeal Act of 1943” Possible for Chinese to become citizens Established a quota of 105 immigrants per year “While the bill ended an injustice that had been committed sixty-one years earlier, the damage to the Chinese community had already been done… the worst effect was to undermine the one thing that was most precious to the Chinese, their families.” Roger Daniels, PhD

Immigration Act of 1965 : 

Immigration Act of 1965 Abolished quotas Annual limitation of 170,000 visas was established, far more than ever before Family reunification First time since Chinese Exclusion that Asians were allowed to immigrate in mass

Positive Impacts : 

Positive Impacts Filipino Medical Doctors Indian professionals Mass immigration transformed American makeup Decline in overt racism “The new immigrant groups brought unfamiliar levels of diversity to the Asian American sensibility”

This Immigration Act led to a New Kind of Racism : 

This Immigration Act led to a New Kind of Racism Shift from explicit discrimination based on race to implicit discrimination based on immigration status Model Minority Income Disparity Media Studies Racism in Film: Kung Fu, The Hangover Racism in Musicals: Miss Siagon

Final Thoughts : 

Final Thoughts Although legislation has changed a great deal, racism still exists today. Patriot Act Florida Land Laws Goes against the principles of freedom and equality upon which America was founded.

Bibliography : 

Bibliography Slide 2: Zia, Helen, Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People. (Farrar Straus Giroux, 2000), 28. Slide 3: Daniels, Roger, Who Belongs in America?: Chinese Exclusion: Causes and Consequences. (TAMU Press, 2006). Lee,Erika, At America's Gates: Chinese Immigration During the Exclusion Era 1882-1943. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2007). Barkan,Elliott R. From All Points: America's Immigrant West, 1870's-1952. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007). Slide 4: Lee,Erika, At America's Gates: Chinese Immigration During the Exclusion Era 1882-1943. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2007). North Carolina, 2007. Din, Grant. "Gong/Din Family Immigration Records and History." http://www.tonaidin.net/Bios/Gong-Din_history/history.htm (accessed 12/2/09). Ahmad,Diana L., The Opium Debate and Chinese Exclusion Laws in the Nineteenth-Century. (Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2007). Slide 5: McClain,Charles, The Alien Land Laws and Other Issues. Japanese Immigrants and American Law. 2 (New York: Garland Publishing, 1994), 104-106, 235. Slide 6: McClain,Charles, The Alien Land Laws and Other Issues. Japanese Immigrants and American Law. 2 (New York: Garland Publishing, 1994), 238-240,. 277-278. "Comes to Counsel Japanese Here." New York Times, 26 June 1913. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D04E5D6103CE633A25755C2A9609C946296D6CF (6 November 2009). "Tells Japan's Side of California Case." New York Times, 30 June 1913. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=990CE5DD153FE633A25753C3A9609C946296D6CF (6 November 2009).

Bibliography (Cont’d) : 

Bibliography (Cont’d) Slide 7: Espiritu,Yen Le, Home Bound: Filipino American Lives Across Cultures, Communities, and Countries. (London: University of California Press, Ltd, 2003). Slide 8: Zia, Helen, Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People. (Farrar Straus Giroux, 2000). Slide 9: Daniels, Roger, "The Immigration Act of 1965." April 03, 2008.http://www.america.gov/st/educ-english/2008/April/20080423214226eaifas0.9637982.html (accessed November 15, 2009). Slide 10: Le, C.N, 2009. "The 1965 Immigration Act" Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America.” http://www.asian-nation.org/1965-immigration-act.shtml ( accessed November 16th, 2009). Slide 11: Espiritu,Yen Le, Home Bound: Filipino American Lives Across Cultures, communities, and Countries. (London: University of California Press, Ltd, 2003). Slide 12: Cave, Damien, "In Florida, an Initiative Intended to End Bias Is Killed." The New York Times (2008): A22.

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