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Network+ Guide to Networks5th Edition : 

Network+ Guide to Networks5th Edition Chapter 15 Network Management

Objectives : 

Objectives Understand network management and the importance of documentation, baseline measurements, policies, and regulations to assess and maintain a network’s health Manage a network’s performance using SNMP-based network management software, system and event logs, and traffic-shaping techniques Identify the reasons for and elements of an asset management system Plan and follow regular hardware and software maintenance routines Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 2

Fundamentals of Network Management : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 3 Fundamentals of Network Management Network management Assess, monitor, maintain all network aspects Scope differs according to network’s size and importance Several network management disciplines All share same goals Enhance efficiency and performance Prevent costly downtime and loss Predict problems before they occur

Documentation : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 4 Documentation Network management documentation types Physical topology Access method Protocols Devices Operating systems Applications Configurations

Documentation (cont’d.) : 

Documentation (cont’d.) Configuration management Collection, storage, assessment of configuration documentation Documenting all network aspects Saves future work Network diagrams Graphical representations of network’s devices, connections Use popular Cisco icons Provide broad snapshots of network’s physical or logical topology Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 5

Documentation (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 6 Documentation (cont’d.)

Documentation (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 7 Documentation (cont’d.) Wiring schematic Graphical representation of network’s wired infrastructure Detailed form Includes every wire necessary to interconnect network devices

Slide 8: 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 8

Baseline Measurements : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 9 Baseline Measurements Baseline Report of network’s current operation state Baseline measurements Network backbone utilization rate Number of users logged on per day or per hour Number of protocols running on network Error statistics Runts, collisions, jabbers, giants Frequency of application use Bandwidth usage

Baseline Measurements (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 10 Baseline Measurements (cont’d.)

Baseline Measurements (cont’d.) : 

Baseline Measurements (cont’d.) Compare future and past performance Most critical network, user functions More data provides more accuracy Forecasting network traffic patterns Difficult to predict users’ habits, new technology effects, changes in resources demand Gathering baseline data Software applications Freeware Expensive, customizable hardware and software Determine use before selecting Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 11

Policies, Procedures, and Regulations : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 12 Policies, Procedures, and Regulations Rules limit chaos, confusion, downtime Sound network management internal policies Media installation and management Network addressing policies Resource sharing and naming conventions Security-related policies Troubleshooting procedures Backup and disaster recovery procedures

Policies, Procedures, and Regulations (cont’d.) : 

Policies, Procedures, and Regulations (cont’d.) State and federal regulations CALEA (Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act) Telecommunications carriers, equipment manufacturers must provide for surveillance capabilities HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) Protect medical records security and privacy Many policies and procedures Not laws Best practices to prevent network problems Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 13

Fault and Performance Management : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 14 Fault and Performance Management Assess network’s status on an ongoing basis Performance management Monitoring How well links, devices keeping up with demands Fault management Detection Signaling of device, link, component faults

Network Management Software : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 15 Network Management Software Enterprise-wide network management software Accomplish fault, performance management All use similar architecture Polling Collecting data from multiple networked devices at regular intervals Agent Software routine collecting information about device’s operation Provides information to network management application

Network Management Software (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 16 Network Management Software (cont’d.) Managed device Manages several objects Processor, memory, hard disk, NIC, intangibles MIB (Management Information Base) Contains managed devices definition, data SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Agents used to communicate managed device information Part of TCP/IP suite: runs over UDP port 161 Several ways to view and analyze data

Network Management Software (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 17 Network Management Software (cont’d.)

Network Management Software (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 18 Network Management Software (cont’d.)

Network Management Software (cont’d.) : 

Network Management Software (cont’d.) Benefits Flexible, sophisticated network management applications Drawback Challenging to configure and fine-tune Be careful to collect only useful data Common network management tool used on WANs MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher) Command-line utility using SNMP to poll devices and collect data in log file; generates HTML-based views Freely available Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 19

Network Management Software (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 20 Network Management Software (cont’d.)

System and Event Logs : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 21 System and Event Logs Log Contains recorded conditions recognized by operating system Event log Windows-based computer log containing monitored device information Event Viewer application GUI to view Windows-based log information System log UNIX or Linux log

System and Event Logs (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 22 System and Event Logs (cont’d.)

System and Event Logs (cont’d.) : 

System and Event Logs (cont’d.) Using logs for fault management Requires thoughtful data filtering, sorting Information collected does not point to problem Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 23

Traffic Shaping : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 24 Traffic Shaping Traffic shaping Manipulating packet, data stream, connection characteristics Manage type, amount of traffic traversing network Goals Assure timely delivery of most important traffic Offer best possible performance for all users

Traffic Shaping (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 25 Traffic Shaping (cont’d.) Techniques Delay less important traffic Increasing priority of more important traffic Traffic policing Limit traffic volume flowing in, out of interface during specified time period Limit momentary throughput rate for an interface Not without controversy Comcast discriminated against certain traffic types

Traffic Shaping (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 26 Traffic Shaping (cont’d.)

Traffic Shaping (cont’d.) : 

Traffic Shaping (cont’d.) Traffic prioritization Treating more important traffic preferentially Based on characteristics Protocol IP address User group DiffServ (Differentiated Services) flag or TOS (type of service) field in IP datagram VLAN tag in Data Link layer frame Service or application Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 27

Caching : 

Caching Caching Local storage of frequently needed files Allows quick access Web caching Most common caching type, highly customizable Web pages stored locally On host or network, then delivered to requesters ISP cache engine Network device devoted to storage, frequently requested files delivery Saves money, lowers WAN traffic Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 28

Asset Management : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 29 Asset Management Identifying and tracking hardware and software First step Inventory each network node Organization needs Determine asset management tool selected Benefits Simplifies maintaining and upgrading network Provides information about hardware and software costs and benefits

Change Management : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 30 Change Management Managing change while maintaining network efficiency, availability Requires good planning Common software and hardware changes Installing patches to replacing network backbone Several ways to approach changes

Software Changes : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 31 Software Changes Keeping a system running optimally Requires software upgrades Software change types Patches Improvements, enhancements to particular software application code Upgrades Major changes to existing code Revisions Minor or major changes to existing code General steps involved

Software Changes (cont’d.) : 

Software Changes (cont’d.) Patches Correction, improvement, and enhancement to particular piece of software application Changes part of application Most code untouched Vendors distribute at no charge Often fix bugs Not a software package replacement Installed on top of existing software Installation is similar to new software Perform off-hours; test Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 32

Software Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 33 Software Changes (cont’d.) Patches (cont’d.) Stay apprised of patches Check vendor’s technical support Web site regularly Subscribe to vendor mailing list Patches may be bundled Significant patches Vendor notifications sent Reported in trade journals

Software Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 34 Software Changes (cont’d.) Client upgrades Software upgrade Major change to software package’s existing code Free May substitute for vendors original code Designed to add functionality and fix bugs Client upgrades scope, purpose Varies widely Before applying upgrade Read documentation

Software Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 35 Software Changes (cont’d.) Client upgrades (cont’d.) May be transparent to users May completely change appearance Test on single workstation before general distribution Prepare a reverse process Installation methods Workstation-by-workstation Software distribution application Plan carefully; inform users

Software Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 36 Software Changes (cont’d.) Shared application upgrades Modifications to all or part of an application Designed to enhance functionality; fix problems Applied to software shared by network clients Affects all users at once Use same installation and planning principles as other software upgrades Upgrades tend to enhance functionality Weigh time, cost, and effort versus upgrade necessity Provide user training for significant upgrades

Software Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 37 Software Changes (cont’d.) NOS (Network Operating System) upgrades Most critical upgrade type Involves significant and potentially drastic changes to the way servers and clients operate Before upgrade Requires plenty of forethought and product research; rigorous testing Ask and answer significant questions May produce complex and far-reaching change Have appropriate money, staff, and time available Have backout plan

Software Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 38 Software Changes (cont’d.) NOS Upgrades (cont’d.) Methodical process considerations Research Project plan Proposal Evaluation Testing Training Preimplementation Implementation Postimplementation

Software Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 39 Software Changes (cont’d.) Reversing a software upgrade Be prepared to reverse an update Software change may create problems Backleveling Process of reverting to previous version of software after attempting upgrade No hard-and-fast rules for backleveling Always refer to software vendor’s documentation to reverse an upgrade For NOS: consult other professionals as well

Software Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 40 Software Changes (cont’d.)

Hardware and Physical Plant Changes : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 41 Hardware and Physical Plant Changes Required when network component fails or malfunctions More commonly performed as upgrade Increase capacity, improve performance, add network functionality Face same issues as software changes Proper planning is key Consider guided steps

Hardware and Physical Plant Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 42 Hardware and Physical Plant Changes (cont’d.) Adding or upgrading equipment Difficulty determined by past use; experience with hardware or the vendor Take time to research, evaluate, test unfamiliar equipment Rapid hardware industry changes May affect consistency of installed products If consistency is a concern Purchase as much hardware as possible in single order Purchase from same vendor

Hardware and Physical Plant Changes (cont’d.) : 

Hardware and Physical Plant Changes (cont’d.) Adding or upgrading equipment (cont’d.) Different preparation, implementation requirements For each device type Read reading manufacturer’s instructions Gain experience with networking equipment Follow general guidelines for each device type Devices most disruptive and complex to add or upgrade Most difficult to remove or backlevel Keep safety in mind when upgrading and installing network hardware Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 43

Hardware and Physical Plant Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 44 Hardware and Physical Plant Changes (cont’d.) Cabling upgrades Can require significant implementation planning and time Dependent upon network size Troubleshooting cabling problems Easier with current and accurate wiring schematics Carefully document existing cable Before making any upgrades As existing cabling is upgraded

Hardware and Physical Plant Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 45 Hardware and Physical Plant Changes (cont’d.) Cabling upgrades (cont’d.) Upgrade cabling in phases Change affects all users Weigh upgrade importance against disruption potential Small organization Upgrade on their own Larger organizations Rely on contractors

Hardware and Physical Plant Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 46 Hardware and Physical Plant Changes (cont’d.) Backbone upgrades Most comprehensive and complex upgrade Backbone represents main data conduit Requirements Extensive planning, personnel efforts, money Upgrading entire backbone changes the whole network

Hardware and Physical Plant Changes (cont’d.) : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 47 Hardware and Physical Plant Changes (cont’d.) Reversing hardware changes Provide way to reverse hardware upgrade Reinstall old hardware If faulty component Reinstall not possible Keep upgraded components safe and nearby May need to reinstall Refer to it for information

Summary : 

Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition 48 Summary Network management Assessing, monitoring, and maintaining network devices and connections Importance of network documentation and policies Network management applications System logs and event logs, traffic shaping, caching, asset management system Upgrade types and considerations Software, hardware

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